19 Pagani (lit. villagers or rustics): the later meaning arose from the fact that idolatry and superstition tend to linger longer in out-of-the-way rural districts, than in the more civilized towns: cf. "heath" and "heathen." See Bright's note 24, and the references quoted by him. Hooker, v. 80. 2 ; Trench, on Study of Words," p.69, &c
6 Et nunquam virginitate caritura, cf. Letter XXVIII. (Tome) chap. 2, beatam Mariam semper virginem : these two passages seem to me much stronger than others quoted by Bright, n. 9, to prove Leo's belief in the perpetual virginity of the blessed Mary.
11 CL Lett. XV. chaps. 12-14. where such opinions are put down to the Spanish Prisilliansts, though doubtless Leo is thinking here rather of the Manichoens, from whom they derived so many of their false views.
12 Suggestum areoe superioris : the older reading was aroe: some of the mss. again read arcoe which is no doubt midway between the two. A learned disertation on this passage by Ciampini quoted by Quesnel (Migne's Patrol. i. pp 529-534), established the true reading: he says also that this was the staircase up which the faithful climbed on bended knee in approaching the Vatican basilica. S. Leo has alluded to this curious practice already in Serm. XXII. chap. 6, supra. It is perhaps hardly necessary to add that this superstition has little, If any, connexion with the Christian habit of turning to the East, which is probably rather to the Altar as the centre of worship; for at all events in Western Christendom churches do not by any means universally orientate' (i.e. lie due east and west).
2 Nativitatis Dominicoe sacramento nobis clarius coruscante : cf. XXVI. chap. 1, note 1. I have no doubt that sacramentum here is almost equivalent to "the festival with its sacred observances" (cf. Bright's n. 8), but I have preferred to translate it as uniformly as possible by the same word "mystery." Cf. Sermon XXXI. chap. 1.
10 These are Arians who, as Bright (n. 29) points out, In wishing to pacify the catholics by exalting the character of Christ without acknowledging His equality with the Father, fell into the error of setting up two Gods (an Uncreate and a Created).
12 Ab elementis superioribus et subtilioribus sumptum, cf. Serm. XXX. chap. 2, de sublimioris generis pro diisse materia. This is the modification of "Docetism" adopted by the Gnostic Valentinus (see Bright's note 31).
14 It is doubtful whether Eutyches did ever actually say this, but it was the logical inference from his position: as Gore (p 57), says "Eutyches never formulated a heresy: he was no philosopher; but he refused to say that the human nature remained in Christ after the Incarnation. He shrank from calling Christ `of one substance0' with us men: in some sort of way he left us to suppose that the human nature was absorbed into and lost in the Divinity.