27 The reference, of course, is to Phil. ii. 6. no passage is a greater favourite with the Fathers than this.

28 Compare S. Aug. ad Catech. § 6, humilitas Christi quid est? manum Deus homini iacenti porrexit: nos cecidimus, ille descendit: nos iacebamus, ille se inclinavit. Prendamus et surgamus ut non in poenam cadamus.

29 De proevaricatoris consortio : proevaricator originally is a legal term, signifying "a shuffler" in a suit, an advocate who play's into the hands of the other side.

30 Pietas, as in the collect for xvi. S. aft. Trin., where the English ,"pity" represents the Latin "pietas" philologically as well as in meaning. Cf. n. 2 in chap. vi.

31 Sacramento, (musthri/w): what the "mystery" was is finely set forth by Canon Bright's hymn, No. 172, H. A. and M. (new edition)

32 The whole of the end of this chapter from "For inasmuch as," and the beginning of the next down to "laws of death,"is repeated word for word in Sermon XXII., chaps. i. and ii.

33 Incomprehensibilis voluit comprehendi. Canon Bright's references are most apposite: "compare Serm. lxviii 1,: and Serm. xxxvii. 1., idem est qui impiorum manibus comprehenditur et qui nullo fine concluditur : This `antithesis' 0' has been grandly expressed in Milman's, `Martyr of Antioch. 0'"`And Thou wast laid within the tomb. . . Whom heaven could not contain, Nor the immeasurable plain Of vast infinity enclose or circle round. 0'"

34 I.e. , there is no fancy, no pretending: each nature is in equal reality present, the human as well as the Divine, thus opposing all Docetic and Monophysite heresies.

35 This passage (which is repeated in Serm. Iiv., chap. 2, down to "injuries"), was objected to by the Illyrian and Palestinin bishops as savouring on the heresy of Nestorius who "divided the substance:" but it is obvious that the same words might have an orthodox meaning in the mouth of one who was orthodox and to the unorthodox would bear an unorthodox construction.

36 S. John i. l.

37 Ibid. 14.

38 Ibid. 3, the Latin is per ipsum (Gk. di autou=)(through Him).

39 Gal. iv.4

40 Vis., that it was laid "in a manger :" the Gk. version has sparya/nwn, "swaddling c1othes," to represent cunarum and thismeaning is adopted by Bright [and Heurt1ey], S. Luke ii. 7.

41 Ibid. 13.

42 Similis est rudimentis hominum.

43 S. Matt. iii. 17.

44 S. John xiv. 28; x. 30: the reconciliation of this class of apparently contradictory statements is often undertaken by Leo [e.g. Sermon xxiii. 2 and lxxvii. 5 ; Ep. xxviii. 4 and lix. 3], and by other fathers (e.g. by Augustine de Fide et Symbola, 18).

45 This is what theologians call, communicatio idiomatum, or in Gk.a0nti/dosij , the interchange of the properties of the two natures in Christ. The passage from the beginning of the chapter to "the Lord of glory" is somewhat freely adapted from S. Aug., c. Serm. Arian., cap. 8.

46 1 Cor. ii. 8.

47 S. Matt. xvi.13-16.

48 A principali petra . The Gk. version giving a0po9 th=j prwtotu/pou pe/traj :others translate it "from the original (or archetypal) rock," but it seems better to link the passage more closely with Eph ii. 20;1 Pet. ii. 6, &c., although the Greek rendering is against this: see Serm. iv. chap. 2, where Leo is expounding the same favourite text. Bright's note 64 is most useful in explaining the Leonine exposition. "Three elements," he says, combine in the idea; (1 ) Christ Himself (2) the faith in Christ; and (3) Peter considered as the chief of the Apostles and under Christ, the head of the Church." Hence petra is applied to each of these at different times.

49 S. John xx. 22.

50 S. Luke xxiv. 27.

51 Ibid 39.

52 i.e. not to fall into the Charybdis of Nestorianism in avoiding the Scylla of Eutychianism.

53 Fidei sacramento .

54 John iv. 2, 3. the Lat. for "destroys" (or "dissolves," Bright) is solvit (see also in Lett. CXLIV. 3), which appears to be an exclusively Western reading: for Socrates, "the only Greek authority for lu/ei" (the Gk. equivalent), according to Dr. Westcott, quotes no Gk. mss. as giving it, thou he unhesitatingly makes use of that reading. The Gk. version here however, gives diairei=n which simply begs the question (in Leo's favour) as to the original meaning of the phrase solvere Jesum, though on the face of it that is not at all necessarily obvious.

55 Et lavacro rigaretur et poculo : that is by the two great "Generally necessary" sacraments of which he takes the water and the blood "from His riven side which flowed" to be a symbol.

56 This refers to 1 Pet. i. 2 (q.v).

57 1 Pet.i. l8.

58 1 S. John i. 7.

59 Some of the mss. here give Christus for Spiritus(the reading adopted also by the Vulgate): in this case you must translate that Christ is the Truth instead of, because of the Spirit ,&c.but see Westcott's note in loc.

60 1 S. John v. 4-8, The absence of the verse on the "Heavenly witnesses" (distinctly a western insertion) is to be noticed. On Leo's interpretation of this mysterious passage Canon Bright's note 168 should be consulted.

61 This was the only compromise of his views which Eutyches could be brought to make at the synod of Constantinople. Though it was rejected, and did not hinder his condemnation, it was never met with a direct, categorical refutation.

62 Gestorum ordo , as before, in chap. 1. A report of the proceedings had accompanied Flavian's letter.

63 Fraternitas vestra : or, as the Gk. version apparently took it, "you and the rest of the brethren."(h9 u9mw=n a0delfo/thj ).

64 It will be remembered that he had been degraded from the priesthood and deprived of his monastery, as well as excommunicated : he might be reinstated in all these privileges, the mercifulness of Leo hints, if he recant his errors.

65 S. John x. 11 and 15.

66 S. Luke ix. 50.

67 Pietatis, a beautiful word expressing now tbe Father's pitying protection, now the children's loyal affection, and here the Elder Brother's love for the younger and weaker. Cf. n. I. on chap. iii.

68 Bishop of Puteoli.

69 Died at Delos on the way. Tbe words "of the title of S. Clement" are of doubtful authenticity, and not found in the Gk version. The parish churches of Rome seem to have been called tituli at their founding about the beginning of the 4th cent. a.d. Cf. our Eng. term "title," and refer to Bingham, Bk. viii. § 1.

70 Afterwards Leo's successor in tbe see of Rome, 461-8.

1 This is the title retained by Quesnel and the Ballerenii, though many mss. exhibit the simpler gloriosissimo et clementissimo Theodosio Augusto Leo episcopus , which is favoured by the Gk. version tw= e0ndocota/tw kai\ filanqrwpota/tw k.t.l. Quesnel takes occasion to warn us to distinguish between this use of the title papa and that adopted later when it was equivalent to oecumenicus et universalis episcopus.

2 Viz., Lett. XXI., chaps. i. nnd iii.

1 This was the Emperor Theodosius the younger's sister a woman of noted zeal in the cause of the Church: for many years she had practically ruled the empire owing to her brother's youthfulness. When the intrigues of Chrysaphius had brought about a quarrel between brother and sister, she retired for a time from public life. But becoming the virgin wife of Marcian, she, throughhim, helped to effect the victory of the Catholic cause at the Council of Chalcedon 451).

2 Quod nostri similis fuit atque conformis.

3 S. Matt. i. 1.

4 Gen. xxxii. 24 and xviii 1. It will be noticed that Leo unhesitatingly pronounces these and similar appearances to be manifestations of the Second Person in the Trinity.

5 Prov. ix. 1. Cf. Letter XXVIII. (The Tome), chap. ii., towards the end.

6 Sub iugo diaboli generaliter teneretur humana captivitas : for the word generaliter , cf. Letter XVI., chap. iv.,no. 3.

7 S. John i. 13.

8 Patriam. I can see very little ground for pressing this quite general expression to mean that he was a native of Rome, or even a native of Italy. The most that can be said is that it does not forbid the supposition.

9 Let the reader beware of accepting the plausible account here suggested of the formation of the Apostles' Creed, and still more so of accepting the popular derivation of the word symbolum(su/mbolon) as the twelve Apostles' twelve "contributions " (one each) to the Church's rule of faith.

10 Communio sui ordinis .

1 It will be remembered that 23 abbots signed the condemnation of Eutyches: cf. Lett. XXI. chap. 2.