22 Cf. what is said on this subject in the Institutes, Book IV. c. ix.

23 Probably the author of Conference V., where see the note on c. i.

24 See the note on Conf. xxi. i.

25 Ecclus. vii. 11 (LXX.).

26 Eccl. x. 11 (LXX.).

27 Ecclus. xxv. 5; Wisdom iv. 8, 9.

28 Hos. vii. 9.

29 Apollos or Apollonius was a most celebrated hermit of the fourth century, who finally became the head of a monastery of five hundred brethren in the Thebaid. Some account of him is given by Palladius (Hist. Laus. c. lii.) and Rufinus (Hist. Monach. c. vii.). Cf. also Sozomen III. xiv.; and VI. xx., whence we learn that his life was written by Timothy, Bishop of Alexandria. Cassian relates another story of him in XXIV. ix.

30 Prov. xxiv. 11.

31 Cf. S. Matt. xii. 20.

32 Is. l. 4.

33 Job v. 18; 1 Sam. ii. 6, 7.

34 Acts ix. 6.

35 Gal. ii. 2.

36 Deut. xxxii. 7.

37 2 Cor. vi. 7.

38 It has been thought best to leave the first part of the following chapter untranslated.

39 On the Statio see the note on the Institutes V. xx.

1 Paphnutius. The name is not uncommon in the annals of the fourth century: (1) A Deacon who bore it suffered in the persecution of Diocletian; and (2) Bishop of the same name, who had been a confessor, was mainly instrumental in preventing the rule of celibacy being forced on the clergy by the Council of Nicaea; (3) another was a prominent member of the Meletian schism; while (4) a fourth was present, as Bishop of Sais in Lower Egypt at the Council of Alexandria in 363; and (5) the life of a fifth is given by Palladius (Hiss. Laus, lxxi.-lxv.) and Rufinus (Hiss. Monach. c xvi.). The one whom Cassian here mentions, surnamed the Buffalo, is apparently a different person from the last mentioned. Further details of his history are given in the Institutes IV. c. xxx xxxi. and in Conference X. ii., iii. Cassian tells the interesting story of his share in the Anthropomorphite controversy, and the beneficial influence which he then exercised.

2 i e., his solitariness.