47 The Ben. note is Totahaec explicandi ratio no sua sponte deducta, sed vi pertracta multis videbitur. Sed illud ad excusandum difficilius, quod ait Basilius angelorum scientiam crassam esse, si comparetur cum ea quae est facie ad faciem. Videtur subtilis explicatio, quam nic sequitur, necessitatem ei imposuisse ita de angelis sentiendi. Nam cum diem et horam idem esse statueret, ac extremam beatitudinem; illud Scriptura, sed neque angeli sciunt, cogebat illis visionem illam quae fit facie ad faciem, denegare; quia idem de illis non poterat dici ac de Filio eos de se ipsis scire id quod sunt nescire quod non sunt. Quod si hanc hausit opinionem ex origenis fontibus, qui pluribus locis eam insinuat, certe cito deposuit. Ait enim tom P. p. 320. Angeloj in di/inum faxiem xontinenter intentoj oxuloj habere. Idem doxet in Xom. Is. p. 515, n. 185, et De Sp. S. cap. XVI.
50 ko/smwn. The Ben. note quotes Combefis as saying, "Dura mihihic vox: sit pro stoixei/wn, per cognata corpori elementa," and then goes on, sed hac in re minus vidit vir eruditus; non enim idem sonat illa vox ac mundi, quasi plures ejusmodi mundos admittat Basilius; sed idem ac ornatus, sive ut ait Basilius in Epist. vi. ta\ pepi\ gh=n ka/llh, pulchritudines quae sunt circa terram. In Com. in Is. n. 58, p. 422. Ecclesia dicitur pre/pousin e 9auth= kosmi/oij kekosmhue/nh, convenientibus sibi ornamentis instructa eadem voce utitur Gregorius Nazianz. Ep. cvii.
56 Basil also refers to this passage in the treatise, C. Eunomium I. 20: "Since the Son's origin (a'rxh\) is from (a/po/) the Father, in this respect the Father is greater, as cause and origin (w 9j ai!tioj kai a'oxh/). Whence also the Lord said thus my Father is greater than I, clearly inasmuch as He is Father (kaqo\ path/r). Yea; what else does the word Father signify unless the being cause and origin of that which is begotten by Him?" And in iii. 1: "The Son is second in order (ta/cei) to the Father, because He is from Him (a/po/) and in dignity (a'ciw/mati) because the Father is the origin and cause of His being." Quoted by Bp. Westcott in his St. John in the additional notes on xiv. 16, 28, pp. 211 seqq., where also will be found quotations from other Fathers on this passage.
The Hebrew verb occurs some eighty times in the Old Testament, and in only four other passages is translated by possess, viz., Gen. xiv. 19, 22, Ps cxxxix. 13, Jer xxxii. 15, and Zec. xi. 5. In the two former, though the LXX. renders the word in the Psalms e'kth/sw, it would have borne the sense of "create." In the pasage under discussion the Syriac agrees with the LXX., and among critics adopting the same view Bishop Wordsworth cites Ewald, Hitzig, and Genesius. The ordinary meaning of the Hebrew is "get" or "acquire," and hence it is easy to see how the idea of getting or possessing passed in relation to the Creator into that of creation. The Greek translators were not unanimous and Aquila wrote e'kth/sato. The passage inevitably became the Jezreel or Low Countries of the Arian war, and many a battle was fought on it. The depreciators of the Son found in it Scriptural authority for calling Him kti/sma, e.g. Arius in the Thalia, is quoted by Athanasius in Or. c. Ar. I. iii. § 9, and such writings of his followers as the Letter of Eusebius of Nicomedia to Paulinus of Tyre cited in Theod., Ecc. Hist. I. v., and Eunomius as quoted by Greg. Nyss., c. Eunom. II. 10; but as Dr. Liddon observes in his Bampton Lect. (p. 60, ed. 1868), "They did not doubt that this created Wisdom was a real being or person."
e!ktise was accepted by the Catholic writers, but explained to refer to the manhood only, cf. Eustathius of Antioch, quoted in Theod., Dial. I. The view of Athanasius will be found in his dissertation on the subject in the Second Discourse against the Arians, pp. 357-385 of Schaff & Wace's edition. xf. Bull, Def. Fid. Nic. II. vi. 8.
60 1 Cor. xv. 28. i.e. Because the Son then shall be subjected, He is previously a$nupo/taktoj, not as being "disobedient" (1 Tim. i. 9), or "unruly" (Tit. i. 6. 10), but as being made man, and humanity, though subject unto Him, is not yet seen to be "put under Him" (Heb ii. 8).
69 In Letter cciv. The name of Dia/boloj is more immediately connected with Diaba/llein, to caluminate. It is curious that the occasional spelling (e.g. in Burton) Divell, which is nearer to the original, and keeps up the association with Diable, Diavolo, etc., should have given place to the less correct and misleading "Devil."
72 paraywyh= a'po\ tou= mh/ o!ntoj ei'j to\ ei\nai. For paragwgh/ it is not easy to give an equivalent; it is leading or bringing with a notion of change, sometimes a change into error, as when it means a quibble. It is not quite the Ben. Latin "productio." It is not used intransitively; if there is a paragwgh\, there must be o 9 para/gwn, and similarly if there is evolution or development, there must be an evolver or developer.
Skeat rejects the theory of connexion with the Latin Deus, and thinks that the root of tiqhmi may be the origin.
88 Luke xvii. 21, e'nto\j u'mw=n. Many modern commentators interpret "in you midst." "among you" So Alford, who quotes Xen., Anab. I. x 3 for the Greek, Bp. Walsham How. Bornemann. Meyer. The older view coincided with that of Basil; so Theophylact, Chrysostom, and with them Olshausen and Godet.
To the objection that the words were said to the Pharisees, and that the kingdom was not in their hearts, it may be answered that our Lord might use "you" of humanity, even when addressing Pharisees. He never, like a merely human preacher, says "we."
92 Ecclus. xi. 3. The ascription of this book to Solomon is said by Rufinus to be confined to the Latin church, while the Greeks know it as the Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach (vers. Orig., Hom. in Num. xvii.).
2 In Lucian (Hermot. 54) the proverb is traced to a story of Pheidias, who, "after a look at a claw, could tell how big the whole lion, formed in proportion would be." A parallel Greed adage was e'kton= kraspe/dou to\ pa=n u 9fasma. Vide Leutsch., Corp. Paraemiog. Graec. I. 252.
5 ou' tauto\n tw= u 9pokeime/nw=. Aristotle, Metaph. vi. 3, 1, says, ma/lista dokei= ei\nai ou'si/a to\ u 9pokei/menon to\ prw=ton. On the distinction between o 9moou/sioj and tauto\n tw= u 9pokeime/nw, cf. Athan., Exp. Fid. ii., and Greg. Nyss answer to Eunomius, Second Book, p 254 in Schaff and Waces's ed. Vide also Prolegg. to Athan., p. xxxi. in this series. Epiphanius says of Noetus, monotu/pwj tun au'to\n pate/ra kai\ Ui\o\n kai a!gion pneu=ma. . . h 9ghsa/menoj (Haeres. lvii. 2) and of Sabellius, Dogmati/zei ou[toj kai\ oi 9 a'p0 au'tou= Sabellianoi\ to\n au'to\n ei\nai Pate/ra to\n au'to\n Uio\n to\n au'to\n ei\nai a!gion pneu=ma, w 9j ei\nai e\n mia= i/posta/sei trei=j o'nomasi/aj. (Haeres. lxii. i.)
10 i.e. at the Acacian council of Constantinople in 360, at which fifty bishops accepted the creed of Arminum as revised at Nike, proscribing ou\sia and i po/srasij, and pronounced the Son to be "like the Father, as say the Holy Scriptures." cf. Theod. II. xvi. and Soc. II. xli. In 366 Semiarian deputies from the council of Lampsacus represented to Liberius at Rome that kata\ pa/nta o@moioj and o'moou/sioj were equivalent.
11 la/qe biw/oaj is quoted by Theodoret in Ep. lxii. as a saying of"one of the men once called wise." It is attributed to Epicurus. Horace imitates it in Ep. I. xvii. 10: "Nec vixit male qui natus moriensque fefellit." So Ovid. Tristia III. iv. 25: "crede mihi; bene qui latuit, bene vixit," and Eurip., Iph. in Aul. 17:
Zhlw= se\, ge/rou,
Zhlw=d0 a 9ndrw=n o@j a'kindunon
Bi/on e'cepe/raj0 a\gnw\j a 9kleh/j..
Plutarch has an essay on the question, ei/ kalw=j e 9i/rhtai to\ la/qe biw/oaj.
2 pro\j e'lenqe/ran. The Benedictine note, after giving reasons why the name Julitta should not be introduced into the address, continues: "neque etiam in hac et pluribus aliis Basilii epistolis e'lenqe/ra nomen proprium est, sed viduam matronam designat. Sic Gregorius Naz. in Epist. cxlvii., e'lenqe/pan Alypii, id est viduam, apellat Simpliciam quam ipsius quondam conjugem fuisse dixerat in Epist. clxvi." The usage may be traceable to Rom. vii. 3.
3 A second name was given at baptism, or assumed with some religious motive. In the first three centuries considerations of prudence would prevent an advertisement of Christianity through a name of peculiar meaning, and even baptismal names were not biblical or of pious meaning and association. Later the early indifference of Christians as to the character of their names ceased, and after the fourth century heathen names were discouraged. cf. D.C.A. ii. 1368. "Dionysius," though of pagan origin, is biblical; but "martyrs often encountered death bearing the names of these very divinities to whom they refuse to offer sacrifice." So we have Apollinarius, Hermias, Demetrius, Origenes (sprung from Horus), Arius, Athenodorus, Aphrodisius, and many more.