372 "The word was used as a quasi philosophical term to express the doctrine quoted by St. Basil, in § 13: it does not occur in the confession of Eunomius, which was prepared after this book, a.d. 382; but it was used by him in his Liber Apologetics (before a.d. 365) against which St. Basil wrote." Rev. C.F.H. Johnston. For "u 9pari/qmhsij" the only authorities given by the lexicons are "ecclesiastical." But the importation from the "wisdom of the world" implies use in heathen philosophy.
374 "This portion of the theory of general language is the subject of what is termed the doctrine of the Predicables; a set of distinctions handed down from Aristotle, and his follower Porphyry, many of which have taken a firm root in scientific, and some of them even in popular, phraseology. The predicables are a five-fold division of General Names, not grounded as usual on a difference in their meaning, that is, in the attribute which they connote, but on a difference in the kind of class which they denote. We may predicate of a thing five different varieties of class-name:
A genus of the thing (ge/noj).
A species (ei\dooj).
A differentia (diafora/).
A proprium (idio/n).
An accidens (sumbebhko/j).
It is to be remarked of these distinctions, that they express, not what the predicate is in its own meaning, but what relation it bears to the subject of which it happens on the particular occasion to be predicated." F. S. Mill, System of Logic, i. 133.
380 The term Monarxi/a first acquired importance in patristic literature in Justin's work De monarchia, against Polytheism. Of the lost letter of Irenaeus to the Roman Presbyter Florinus, who was deposed for heresy, presumably gnostic, the title, according to Eusebius (H.E.. v. 20), was peri\ Monarxiaj, h@ pepi\ to/= mh\ ei\nai to\n qeo\n poihthn kakw=n. Later it came to be used to express not the Divine unity as opposed to Polytheism or Oriental Dualism, but the Divine unity as opposed to Tritheism. Vide the words of Dionysius of Rome, as quoted by Athan. De Decretis, § 26, "Next let me turn to those who cut in pieces, divide, and destroy that most sacred doctrine of the church of God, the divine Monarchy, making it, as it were, three powers and divided subsistences and three godheads." So St. Basil Coont. Eunom. ii. Arxh/ me/n ou\n patro\j ou'oemi/a, a'rxh\ de\ tou= uiou= o 9 path/r. And in Ep. xxxviii. 'Alla/ ti/j e'sti du/namij a'gennh/twj kai/ a'/a/rxwj u 9feotw=sa h=tij e'sti\n ai'ti/a th=j a'pa/ntwn tw=n o!ntwn ai'ti/aj, e'k ga\r tou= patro\j o 9 ui 9o\j di0 ou\ ta\ pa/nta. And in Ep. cxxv. Ena ga\r oi!damen a'ge/nnhton kai\ mi/an tw=n pa/ntwn a'rxh\n, to\n pate/pa tou= kupi/ou h 9mw=n 0Ihsou= Xristou=. On the doctrine and its exponents compare § 72 of the De Sp. S.
On the other hand "Monarchians" was a name connoting heresy when applied too those who pushed the doctrine of the Unity to an extreme, involving denial of a Trinity. Of these, among the more noteworthy were Paul of Samosata, bp. of Antioch, who was deposed in 269, a representative of thinkers who have been called dynamical monarchians, and Praxeas (supposed by some to be a nickname), who taught at Rome in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, and of whom Tertullian, the originator of the term partripassians, as applied to Monarchians, wrote "Paracletum fugavit et patrem crucifixit." This heretical Monarchianism culminated I Sabellius, the "most original, ingenious, and profound of the Monarchians." Schaff. Hist. Chr. Church, i. 293. cf. Gisseler, i. p. 127, Harnack's Monarchianismus in Herzog's Real Encyclopaedie, Vol. x. Thomasius Dog. Gesch. i. p. 179, and Fialon Et. Hist. p. 241.
382 Mr. C.F.H. Johnston quotes as instances of the application of the word "third" to the Holy Ghost; Justin Martyr (Apol. i. 13) "We honour the Spirit of prophecy in the third rank." Tertullian (In Prax. 8) "As the fruit from the tree is third from the root, and the rivulet from the river third from the source, and the flame form the ray third form the sun." Eunomius (Lib. Apol. § 25) "observing the teaching of Saints, we have learned from them that the Holy Spirit is third in dignity and order, and so have believed him to be third in nature also." On the last St. Basil (Adv. Eunom. ii.) rejoins "Perhaps the word of piety allows Him to come in rank second to the Son. . . although He is inferior to the Son in rank and dignity (that we may make the utmost possible concession) it does not reasonably follow thence that he is of a different nature." On the word "perhaps" a dispute arose at the Council of Florence, the Latins denying its genuineness.
386 cf. the embolismus, or intercalated prayer in the Liturgy of St. James, as cited by Mr. C.F.H. Johnston. "For of thee is the kingdom and the power and the glory, of Father, of Son, and of Holy Ghost, now and ever."
389 1 Cor. xi. 12. George of Laodicea applied this passage to the Son, and wrote to the Arians: "Why complain of Pope Alexander (i.r. of Alexandria) for saying that the Son is from the Father. . . . For if the apostle wrote All things are from God . . . He may be said to be from God in that sense in which all things are from God." Athan., De Syn. 17.
394 para/klhtoj occurs five times in the N.T., and is rendered in A.V. in John xiv. 16 and 26, xv. 26 and xvi. 7, Comforter; in 1 John ii. 1 Advocate, as applied to the Son. In the text the Son, the Paraclete, is described as sending the Spirit, the Paraclete; in the second clause of the sentence it can hardly be positively determined whether the words to/= o/qen proh=lqe/ refer to the Father or to the Son. The former view is adopted by Mr. C.F.H. Johnson, the latter by the editor of Keble's Studia Sacra, p. 176. The sequence of the sentence in John xv. 26 might lead one to regard oqen proh=lqen as equivalent to para\ tou= Patro\j e'kporeu/etai. On the other hand. St. Basil's avoidance of direct citation of the verb e'kporeu/etai, his close connexion of tou= a'postei/lantoj with o$qe/ proh=lqen, and the close of the verse in St. John's gospel e'kei=noj marturh/sei peri\ e'mou\, suggest that the megalwsu\nh in St. Basil's mind may be the megalwsu/nh of the Son. At the same time, while the Western Church was in the main unanimous as to the double procession, this passage from St. Basil is not quoted as an exception to the general current of the teaching of the Greek Fathers, who, as Bp. Pearson expresses it, "stuck more closely to the phrase and language of the Scriptures, saying that the spirit proceedeth from the Father." (Pearson On the Creed, Art. viii. where vide quotations) Vide also Thomasius, Christ. Dogm., i. 270, Namentlich auf letzere Bestimmung legten die griechischen Väter groszes Gewicht. Im Gegensatz gegen den macedonishchen Irrtum, der den Geist für ein Geschüpf des Sohnes ansah, führte man die Subsistenz desselben ebenso auf den Vater zuruck wie die des Sohnes. Man lehrte, , also der heilige Geist geht vom Vater aus, der Vater ist die a'rxh/ wie des Sohnes so auch des Geistes; aber mit der dem herkömmlichen Zuge des Dogma entsprechenden Näherbestimmung: nicht a'me/swj, sondern e'mme/swj, interventu filii geht der Geist vom Vater aus, also "durch den Sohn vom Vater." So die bedeutendsten Kirchenlehrer, während andere einfach bei der Formel stehen blieben; er gehe voin Vater aus.
406 cf. note on p. 27 and the distinction between do/gma and kh/ougua in § 66. "The great objection which the Eastern Church makes to the Filioque, is, that it implies the existence of two a'rxai\ in the godhead; and if we believe in duo a#narxoi; we, in effect, believe in two Gods. The unity of the Godhead can only be maintained by acknowledging the Father to be the sole 0Aoxh= or phgh\ qeoth/toj, who from all eternity has communicated His own Godhead to His co-eternal and consubstantial Son and Spirit. this reasoning is generally true. But, as the doctrine of the Procession of the Spirit from the Father and the Son presupposes the eternal generation of the Son from the Father; it does not follow, that that doctrine impugns the Catholic belief in the Mi/a 0Arxh/." Bp. Harold Browne, Exp. xxxix Art., Note on Art v.
411 Lam. iv. 20. Sic in A.V. and R.V., the reference being to Zedekiah. cf. Jer. xxxix. 5. The Vugate reads, "Spiritus oris nostri Christus Dominus," from the Greek of the LXX. quoted by St. Basil, "Pneu=ma prosw/pou h'mw=n xristo\j ku/rioj."
431 Isa. xlviii. 16. Mr. C. F. Johnston remarks: "In Isaiah xlviii. 16. St. Didymus, as translated by St. Jerome, gives Spiritum suum. The Targum has the same. St. Ambrose writes: 'Quis est qui dicit; misit me Dominus Deus et Spiritus Ejus; nisi Qui venit a Patre, ut salvos faceret peccatores? Quem ut audis, et Spiritus mist; ne cum legis quia Filius Spiritum mittit, inferioris esse Spiritum crederes potestatis,' (De Sp. S. iii. 1, § 7.) The passage is quoted by St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Cyril Hieros., and, as far as the editor is aware, without any comment which would help to determine their way of understanding the case of to/ pneuma; but Origen, on the words 'Whosoever shall humble himself as this little child' (Comm. in Evang., Matt. xiii. 18) says, - quoting the original, which may be rendered, "'humbling himself as this little child is imitating the Holy Spirit, who humbled Himself for men's salvation. That the Saviour and the Holy Ghost were sent by the Father for the salvation of men is made plain by Isaiah saying, in the person of the Saviour, 'the Lord sent me, and His Spirit.' It must be observed, however, that the phrase is ambiguous, for either God sent and the Holy Ghost also sent, the Saviour; or, as I understand, the Father sent both, the Saviour and the Holy Ghost.'" The Vulgate and Beza both render "Spiritus." The order of the Hebrew is in favour of the nominative, as in the Vulgate and lxx. cf. Note A on Chap. xliviii. of Isaiah n the Speaker's Commentary.