54 Isa. xix. 1. "Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and cometh unto Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence." The prophecy was supposed by many of the Fathers to have been fulfilled by the flight into Egypt. Cf. Athanas (Ep. LXI. ad Maximum, § 4): "As a child He came down to Egypt, and brought to nought its idols made with hands:" and (de Incarn. § 36): "Which of the righteous men or kings went down into Egypt, so that at his coming the idols of Egypt fell?" On the passage of Isaiah see Delitzsch, and Kay (Seaker's Commentary)
59 For the common reading e'gkri/toij pa/ntwn Cod. Mon. I. has e'kkri/toij p. which is required both by the construction and the sense. The change may have been caused by the occurrence of e'gkri/twn just below.
60 Eusebius (u.s): "His successor, therefore, who had not hitherto borne the name Jesus, but had been called by another name, Auses, which had been given him by his parents, he now called Jesus, bestowing the name upon him as a gift of honour far greater than any kingly diadem." Auses is a common corruption of the name Oshea. See the note on the passage of Eusebius in this series.
70 The Anathema appended to the Creed of Nicaea condemns those who said pri\n gennhqh=nai ou'k h\n On this Eusebius of Caesarea (Epist. § 9) remarks: "Moreover to anathematize `Before His generation He was not,0' did not seem preposterous, in that it is confessed by all, that the Son of God was before the generation according to the flesh."
76 Compare the fragment of the Apology of Quadratus presented to Hadrian 127 A.D., preserved by Eusebius (H. E. IV. iii.): "But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were genuine: - those that were healed, and those that arose from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Saviour was on earth, but also after His death they were alive for a long while, so that some of them survived even to our times." See the notes on the passage of Eusebius, in this series.
79 On the opinion that Christ was from all eternity the true High Priest of the Creation, see Index, Priesthood, and the reference there given to the Introduction. Cf. x. 4: xi. 1. Athan (c. Arian. Or. ii. 12, J. H. N. ).
80 The word `synaxis0'was used by the early Christians to distinguish their assemblies from the Jewish `synagogue,0'a word formed from the same root and more regularly. `Synaxis0' came to be used more especially of a celebration of the Eucharist. See Suicer, Thesaurus, Dubnsxiz=.
, `what is his thought,0'the LXX. read w$xy#$im;
, `His Anointed,0' to\n Xristo\n au'tou=.
99 h 9qeoto/koj - Deipara. Gibbon (Chap. xlvii. 34) says, "It is not easy to fix the invention of this word, which La Croze (Christianisme des Indes, tom. i. p. 16) ascribes to Eusebius of Caesarea and the Arians. The orthodox testimonies are produced by Cyril (of Alexandris) and Petavius (Dogmat. Theolog. tom. v. L. v. cap. 15, p. 254, &c.), but the veracity of the Saint is questionable, and the epithet of qeoto/koj so easily slides from the margin to the text of a Catholic Ms." This passage is justly described as "Gibbon's calumny" by Dr. Newman: see his notes on the title Qeoto/koj (Athan. c. Arian. Or. ii. cap. 12, n.; Or. iii. cap. 14, 29, 33). The word is certainly used by Origen (Deut. xxii. 13, Lommatzxch. Tom. x. p. 378): "She that is already betrhothed is called a wife, as also in the case of Joseph and the Theotokos." Cf. Archelaus (Disput. cum Mane, cap. xxxiv. "qui de Mria Dei Genetrice natus est"); Eusebius (de Vita Constantini , III. cap. 43: "The pious Empress adorned with rare memorials the place of the travail of the Theotokos"). For other examples see Suicer's Thesaurus, qeoto/koj, Pearson, Creed, Art. iii. notes l, m, n, o, and Routh, Reliq. Sacr. ii. p. 332.
100 "Chrysostom describing the flourishing state of the Church in Egypt in those times, says: `Egypt welcomes and saves Him when a fugitive and plotted against, and receives a beginning as it were of its appropriation to Him, in order that when it shall hear Him proclaimed by the Apostles, it may in their day also be honoured as having been first to welcome Him0'" (Cleopas.
104 The Bordeaux Pilgrim, who visited the Holy Places of Jerusalem, A.D. 333, c. speaks of this palm-tree as still existing. The longevity of the palm was proverbial: cf. Aristot. (De Longitudine Vitae, c. iv. 2).
108 See Cat. ii. 15, note 8, and xiii. 25, 34, 38. On the supernatural character of the darkness mentioned in the Gospels see Meyer, Commentary, Matt. xxvii. 45. An eclipse of the sun was of course impossible, as the moon was full. Mr. J. R. Hind (Historical Eclipses, "Times," 19th July, 1872) states that the solar eclipse, mentioned by Phlegon the freedman of Hadrian, which occurred on Nov. 4, A.D. 29, and was partial at Jerusalem, is "the only solar eclipse that could have been visible at Jerusalem during the period usually fixed for the ministry of Christ." He adds, "The Moon was eclipsed on the generally received ate of the Crucifixion, 3 April, A.D. 33. I find she had emerged from the earth's dark shadow a quarter of an hour before she rose at Jerusalem (6:36 p. m.), but the penumbra continued upon her disc for an hour afterwards." Thus the "darkness from the sixth hour unto the ninth" cannot be explained as the natural effect of an eclipse either solar or lunar.
113 The persecution of the Christians in Persia by Sapor II. is described at length by Sozomen (E. H. II. cc. ix.-xv., in this Series). It commenced in A.D. 343, and was going on at the date of these Lectures and long after. "During fifty years the Cross lay prostrate in blood and ashes" (Dict. Bib. 'Sassanidae'). Compare Neander. Church History, Tom. III. p 148, Bohn.
114 The Goths here mentioned are the Gothi minores dwelling on the north of the Danube, where Ulfialas, "the Apostle of the Goths" (311-381), converted many of his countrymen to Christianity. After suffering severe persecution, he was allowed by the Constantius to take refuge with his Arian converts in Moesia and Thrace. This migration took place in 348 A.D., the same year in which Cyril's Lectures were delivered.
4 qeto/n. Athanasius (de Sententiâ Dionysii, § 23), represents Arius as saying that the Word "is not by nature (kata\ qu/sin) and in truth Son of God, but is called Son, He too, by adoption (kata/ qe/sin), as a creature." Again (c. Arian. Orat. iii. 19), he says, "This is the true God and the Life eternal, and we are made sons through Him by adoption and grace (qe/sei kai\ xa/riti)." Cf. vii. 10, and § 4, below.
7 "It was one of the especial rights of a father to choose the names for his children, and to alter them if he pleased" (Dict. Greek and Roman Antiq. "Nomen. 1 Greek.") The right to the name given by the father is the subject of one of the Private Orations of Demosthenes (Poro\j Boiwto\n peri\ tou= o'no/matoj).
9 Compate iv. 7: "God of God begotten:" xiii. 3 and 13: "God the Son of God." Here however, the Mss. vary, and the reading of Cod. Coisl. Uiw= Qeou= monogenei= is approved by the Benedictine Editor, though not adopted. The confusion of Uiw= and Qew= is like that in John i. 18.
12 Athanasius (de Synodis, § 15) quotes a passage from the Thalia of Arius, in which he says: "We praise Him as without beginning, because of Him who has a beginning: and adore Him as eternal, because of Him who in time has come to be. He who is without beginning made the Son a beginning of things created."
It is important, therefore, to notice the sense in which Cyril here calls the Son a!narxoj. The word has two meanings, which should be clearly distinguished, (I) unorginate, (ii) without beginning in time. The former referring to origin, or cause, can properly be applied to the One true God, or to God the Father only, as it is used by Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. cap. v. § 63: to\n pa/ntwn poihth\n. . . a'gnoou=ntej, to\n a!narxou qeo/n. [Strom. IV. cap. xxv. § 164: o 9 Qeo\j de\ a!narxoj a'rxh\ tw=n o!lwn pantelh\j a'rxh=j poihtiko/j]. [Stromat. V. cap. xiv. § 142: e'c a'rxh=j a'na/rxou]. Methodius (ob. 312 A.D. circ) in a fragment (On things created, § 8, English Trans. Clark's Ante-Nic. Libr.) comments thus on Joh. i. 1-3: "And so after the peculiar unbeginning beginning, who is the Father, He (the Word) is the beginning of other things, `by whom all things are made.0'"
In this sense Cyril has said (iv. 4) that God alone is "unbegotten, unoriginate:" and in xi. 20 he explains this more fully, - "Suffer none to speak of a beginning of the Son in time (xr\ouikh\n a'rxh/n), but as a timeless beginning acknowledge the Father. For the Father is the beginning of the Son, timeless incomprehensible, without beginning." From a confusion of the two meanings the word came to be improperly applied in the sense of "unoriginate" to the Son, and to the Spirit; and this improper usage is condemned in the 49th Apostolic Canon, which Hefele regards as amongst the most ancient Canons, and taken from the Apostolic Constitutions, vi. 11: "If any Bishop or Presbyter shall baptize not according to our Lord's ordinance into the Father, and Son, and Spirit, but into three Unoriginates, or three Sons, or three Paracletes let him be deposed." (ii.) Athanasius frequently calls the Son a!narxoj in the sense of `timeless,0'as being the co-eternal brightness (a'pau/lasma) of the Eternal Light: see de Sent. Dionys. §§ 15, 16, 22; "God is the Eternal Light, which never either began or shall cease: accordingly the Brightness is ever before Him, and co-exists with Him, without beginning and ever-begotten (a!narxon kai\ a'eigene/j)."