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1 Virg. A. iii. 193.

2 I.e. the governor of the province.

3 Ps. vii. 9.

4 Text corrupt.

5 Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego.

6 Song of the Three Holy Children.

7 Dan. vi.

8 Susannah 45; the youth spoken of is Daniel.

9 Virg. A. xii. 611.

10 Ps. cxviii. 6.

11 Cf. Eccles. xii. 7.

12 Lictor.

13 An allusion to the well-known proverb, summum jus, summa injuria.

14 A presbyter of Antioch and bishop, 388 a.d. He is mentioned again in Letters III., IV., V., XV. See Jerome De Vir. iii. 125.

15 The predecessor of Ambrose and an Arian. He was still living when Jerome wrote, but died 374.

16 Damasus, who having successfully made good his claim to the papacy, in 369 condemned Auxentius in a council held at Rome.

17 Virg. G. iv. 147, 148.

18 Valentinian I.

19 Luke xv. 3-5.

20 Luke xv. 11-32.

21 Virg. A. v. 9.

22 In Jerome's day this term included all-whether hermits or coenobites-who forsook the world and embraced an ascetic life.

23 Cf. Eph. iii. 20.

24 1 Cor. ii. 9.

25 Acts, viii. 26-30.

26 Bel, 33-36.

27 Priests, monks, and others who, because they would not declare themselves Arians, were banished by order of Valens to Heliopolis in Phenicia.

28 There were two hermits of this name in Egypt, and it is not certain which is meant. One of them was a disciple of Antony.

29 The ascetic community at Aquileia, of which Jerome and Rufinus were the leaders, had been broken up, perhaps through the efforts of Lupicinus, the bishop of Stridon.

30 Virg. A. iii. 193, 194: v. 9.

31 See Letter I.

32 Hor. C. i. 3, 8.

33 See Letter I.

34 A freedman of Melanium.

35 A young Roman widow who had given up the world that she might adopt the ascetic life. She accompanied Rufinus to the East and settled with him on the Mount of Olives. She is mentioned again in Letters IV., XXXIX., XLV., and others.

36 1 Thess. iv. 13.

37 Jerome's foster-brother who had accompanied him on his first visit to Rome. He was now living as a hermit on a small island in the neighborhood of Aquileia. See Letter VII.

38 Gen. xxviii. 12.

39 Matt. vi. 34.

40 Luke ix. 62.

41 Ps. cxxvi. 5.

42 Nu. xxi. 9.

43 Of this child nothing is known.

44 I.e. the new Jerusalem. Rev. xxi. 2. Is. iv. 3.

45 1 Thess. iv. 17.

46 Joh. iv. 14: Joh. xix. 34.

47 Eph. vi. 13-17.

48 Rev. i. 9, Rev. i. 10.

49 Gen. iii. 1-6: Matt. iv. 1-4.

50 Matt. iv. 4.

51 Literally "mousetrap." This variant is peculiar to Cyprian and Jerome.

52 1 Tim. vi. 9.

53 1 Cor. i. 31.

54 2 Cor. xii. 10, 2 Cor. xii. 9.

55 Philip. i. 23.

56 Eph. vi. 16.

57 Acts i. 24: Rev. ii. 23.

58 Jon. ii. 1, Jon. ii. 2.

59 Matt. v. 19.

60 Rev. xiv. 4.

61 John xiv. 2.

62 1 Cor. xv. 41.

63 Quoted from Tert. de C. F. ii. 7.

64 1 Tim. v. 24, R. V.

65 Matt. xxv. 34-40.

66 See introduction to Letter XIV.

67 Rufinus had been baptized at Aquileia about three years previously (371 a.d.).

68 Cf. Ps. li. 7.

69 Matt. v. 26.

70 Ps. cxlvi. 7.

71 Isa. lxvi. 2.

72 Joh. xi. 43.

73 Acc. to Vallarsi a hermit, who at this time lived near Caesarea.

74 Cf. Col. ii. 5.

75 A man of some note, as he was one of the commissioners appointed by Constantine in 313 a.d. to settle the points of issue between the Catholics and the Donatists. Jerome criticises his commentary on the Song of Songs in Letter XXXVII.

76 Autun.

77 See the introd. to Letter X.

78 This list has perished.

79 I.e. Hilary of Poitiers.

80 Rufinus.

81 Ps. i. 2.

82 I.e. the Scriptures.

83 See the introd. to Letter XIV.

84 Aristotle is the author of this remark.

85 Hor. S. i. 3, 1-3.

86 Mentioned again in Letter VII.,

87 The person meant is uncertain. Probably it was Lupicinus, bishop of Stridon, for whom see the next letter.

88 Horace, C. iii. 3, 7, 8.

89 1 Cor. iii. 14.

90 Jovinus was archdeacon of Aquileia. All three became bishops-Chromatius of Aquileia, the others of unknown sees.

91 Chromatius and Eusebius were brothers.

92 Philem. 12.

93 See Pliny, H. N. xiii. 21.

94 The Greek word IXQUS represented to the early Christians the sentence 'Ihsouj Xristoj Qeou Uwj Swthr. Hence the fish became a favorite emblem of Christ. Tertullian connects the symbol with the water of baptism, saying: "We little fishes are born by our Fish, Jesus Christ, in water and can thrive only by continuing in the water." The allusion in the text is to the baptism of Bonosus. See Schaff, "Ante-Nicene Christianity," p. 279.

95 Deut. viii. 15.

96 Gen. iii. 14.

97 Viz., Pss. cxx.-cxxxiv.

98 Ps. cxxi. 1.

99 See Letter III.

100 Rev. x. 9, Rev. x. 10.

101 John xi. 43.

102 Jer. xiii. 4, Jer. xiii. 5.

103 Job xl. 16 (said of Behemoth); cf. Letter XXII.

104 Ps. cxxxix. 13.

105 Ps. cxvi. 14, Ps. cxvi. 15, P.B.V.

106 Cf. 2 K. xix. 28.

107 Pss. cxxxvii. 3: Pss. cxlvi. 7, Pss. cxlvi. 8.

108 1 Cor. iii. 6.

109 Virg. A. iv. 298.

110 Jerome again refers to his own frailty in Letters XIV. XVIII. and XLVIII.

111 1 Cor. xiii. 7.

112 Papa. The word "pope" was at this time used as a name of respect ("father in God") for bishops generally. Only by degrees did it come to be restricted to the bishop of Rome. Similarly the word "imperator," originally applied to any Roman general, came to be used of the Emperor alone.

113 Bishop of Aquileia.

114 Phi. iii. 19.

115 Sacerdos. In the letters this word generally denotes a bishop. Lupicinus held the see of Stridon.

116 Cic. de Fin. v. 30.

117 Matt. xxv. 4.

118 Luke ii. 36: Acts xxi. 9: 1 Sam. ii. 18.

119 2 Macc. vii.

120 Turpilius, who appears to have been a dramatist of some note, died in 101 b.c. He is mentioned by Jerome in his edition of the Eusebian Chronicle.

121 Tabellarii, from tabella, a small tablet.

122 Librarii, from liber, bark.

123 Cic. Laelius, 76.

124 See introd. to Letter XIV.

125 2 Cor. iii. 2.

126 See the Life of Paul in this volume.

127 Elogium.

128 Gen. vi. 4.

129 Ps. xc. 10.

130 Hor. A. P. 147. Zeus having visited Leda in the form of a swan, she produced two eggs, from one of which came Castor and Pollux, and from the other Helen, who was the cause of the Trojan war.

131 Rev. i. 14.

132 A play on words: callidus, "wary," is indistinguishable in sound from calidus, "warm."

133 The words quoted do not occur in the extant portion of Cicero's speech.

134 Matt. xiii. 46.

135 Ps. xii. 7, P. B. V.

136 For some account of this writer see Jerome, De V. iii. c. xcvii.

137 A Roman annalist some of whose works are still extant. He was contemporary with but probably older than Jerome.

138 A puritan of the third century who seceded from the Roman church because of the laxity of its discipline.

139 I.e. the life of Paul the Hermit, translated in this vol.

140 Hor. Ep. I. ii. 69; cf. T. Moore:

The scent of the roses will hang round it still."

141 2 Cor. vi. 14.

142 Luke vii. 37 sqq.

143 Matt. xv. 27.

144 Matt. ix. 12, Matt. ix. 13.

145 Ezek. xxxiii. 11.

146 Luke xv. 5.

147 Luke xv. 20.

148 1 Cor. iv. 5.

149 Rom. xiv. 4.

150 1 Cor. x. 12.

151 Gal. vi. 2.

152 Cf. Prov. xiv. 12.

153 2 Cor. iv. 7.

154 Luke vii. 47.

155 Luke xv. 7, Luke xv. 10.

156 Matt. xx. 15.

157 Matt. xviii. 3.

158 Joh. xiii. 5.

159 Luke 22. 47.

160 Joh. iv. 7.

161 Luke vii. 40 sqq.: the heroine of this story is identified by Jerome with Mary Magdalene.

162 Matt. xxviii. 1, Matt. xxviii. 9.

163 Matt. xxiii. 6, Matt. xxiii. 7.

164 Isa. xl. 15.

165 1 Pet. v. 5.

166 Luke xviii. 9 sqq.

167 1 Joh. iii. 15.

168 Ps. iv. 4, LXX.: Eph. iv. 26.

169 Matt. v. 23, Matt. v. 24.

170 Matt. vi. 12.

171 This is no longer extant.

172 John xiv. 27.

173 See Ep. lxxvii. 9.

174 Matt. vi. 33.

175 Rev. i. 7.

176 Rev. i. 16.

177 A reminiscence of Tertullian.

178 Matt. xii. 30.

179 Nepotian, afterwards famous as the recipient of Letter LII., and the subject of Letter LX.

180 Phi. iii. 20, R.V.

181 Virg. A. iv. 367.

182 Pers. iii. 18.

183 Virg. A. xii. 59.

184 Eph. vi. 1.

185 Matt. x. 37.

186 Luke ix. 59, Luke ix. 60.

187 Matt. xvi. 23.

188 Acts xxi. 13.

189 Luke viii. 21: Matt. xii. 50.

190 Matt. viii. 22.

191 1 Pet. v. 8.

192 Ps. x. 8, Ps. x. 9.

193 Phi. iii. 19.

194 1 Cor iii. 17.

195 Virg. A. vii. 337.

196 Eph. v. 5.

197 So Jerome, although the Vulg. has "is."

198 Col. iii. 5, Col. iii. 6.

199 Matt. xxvi. 15.

200 Publicarum libidinum victimae; words borrowed from Tertullian, de C. F. II. 12.

201 Rom. xii. 1.

202 Acts v., Ananias and Sapphira.

203 Luke xiv. 33.

204 Matt. iv. 18-20.

205 Matt. ix. 9.

206 Matt. viii. 20.

207 Rom. viii. 17.

208 Matt. xix. 21.

209 Matt. xix. 12.

210 Wisd. i. 11.

211 Luke xvi. 13.

212 Luke ix. 23.

213 1 Joh. ii. 6.

214 Matt. xiii. 58.

215 Luke iv. 24.

216 Joh. vi. 15.

217 In the sacrament of baptism.

218 1 Cor. ix. 13, 1 Cor. ix. 14.

219 Matt. iii. 10.

220 Luke xxi. 1-4.

221 Cf. Letter CXLVI.

222 1 Cor. v. 5.

223 Deut. xvii. 5, Deut. xvii. 12.

224 1 Tim. iii. 1.

225 1 Tim. iii. 2, 1 Tim. iii. 3.

226 1 Tim. iii. 8-10.

227 Matt. xxii. 11-13.

228 Luke xix. 23.

229 1 Tim. iii. 13.

230 1 Cor. xi. 27.

231 Rev. ii. 6.

232 1 Cor. xi. 28.

233 Susannah 45 sqq.

234 Amos vii. 14.

235 1 Sam. xvi. 11-13.

236 Luke xiv. 10.

237 Isa. lxvi. 2.

238 Luke xii. 48.

239 Wisd. vi. 6.

240 Matt. xii. 36.

241 Matt. v. 21, Matt. v. 22.

242 Matt. xxvii. 51.

243 Rev. ii. 5.

244 Luke xiv. 28.

245 Matt. v. 13.

246 Rev. xxi. 19, Rev. xxi. 20.

247 From Cyprian, Letter I. 14 (to Donatus).

248 Luke vi. 20.

249 From Cyprian, Letter LXXVII. 2 (to Nemesianus).

250 Joh. xiii. 10.

251 Rom. viii. 18.

252 1 Cor. xv. 53.

253 Matt. xxiv. 46.

254 1 Thess. iv. 16.

255 Luke ii. 7.

256 From Tertullian, de Spect. xxx.

257 Matt. xxvii. 28, Matt. xxvii. 29.

258 Joh. viii. 48.

259 Matt. xxvii. 64.

260 Joh. xix. 23.

261 Cant. ii. 15.

262 Cant. iv. 12.

263 Rom. i. 8: I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.

264 I.e. holy baptism; cf. Gal. iii. 27.

265 Matt. xiii. 46.

266 Matt. xxiv. 28.

267 Matt. xiii. 22, Matt. xiii. 23.

268 Mal. iv. 2.

269 Luke x. 18.

270 Isa. xiv. 12.

271 Matt. v. 14.

272 Matt. v. 13.

273 2 Tim. ii. 20.

274 Rev. ii. 27.

275 Matt. xvi. 18.

276 Ex. xii. 22.

277 Gen. vii. 23.

278 I.e. the bread of the Eucharist, at this time sent by one bishop to another in token of communion; or possibly the allusion is different, and what Jerome means to say is: "You are the oracle of God, but owing to my present situation I cannot consult you."

279 Certain bishops banished from their sees by Valens. See Letter III.

280 The three rival claimants of the see of Antioch. See note on Letter XVI.

281 Matt. xii. 30.

282 I.e. the field party. The Meletians were so called because, denied access to the churches of the city, they had to worship in the open air outside the walls.

283 upostasij=substantia. It is the word used in Heb. i. 3, "The express image of his person [R. V. substance]." Except at Alexandria it was usual to speak of one hypostasis as of one ousia in the Divine Nature. But at Alexandria from Origen downwards three hypostases had been ascribed to the Deity. Two explanations are given of the latter formula: (1) That at Alexandria upostasij was taken in the sense of proswpon, so that by "three hypostases" was meant only "three persons." (2) That "three hypostases" was an inexact expression standing for "three hypostatic persons" or "a threefold hypostasis." This latter seems to be the true account of the matter. See an interesting note in Newman, Arians of the Fourth Century, Appendix IV.

284 In the Nicene Creed the Son is declared to be "of one substance [ousia] with the Father."

285 This decree allowed the formula of "three hypostases" to be susceptible of an orthodox interpretation. It did not, however, encourage its use.

286 ousia.

287 Cauterio unionis inurimur. Sabellius recognized three "aspects" in the Godhead but denied "three persons," at least in the Catholic sense.

288 Ex. iii. 14.

289 Ursicinus, at this time anti-pope; Auxentius, Arian bishop of Milan.

290 2 Cor. xi. 14.

291 I.e. the followers of the orthodox Bishop Meletius, who, as they had no church in Antioch, were compelled to meet for worship outside the city.

292 These appear to have been semi-Arians or Macedonians. Silvanus of Tarsus was their recognized leader.

293 Matt. xv. 28.

294 Luke xi. 7, Luke xi. 8.

295 Luke xviii. 10-14.

296 Jon. iii. 5, Jon. iii. 10.

297 Luke xxiii. 43.

298 Luke xv. 20.

299 Luke xv. 5.

300 Acts ix. 8.

301 Acts viii. 3.

302 2 Cor. xii. 10.

303 See Letter XV.

304 Hor. Epist. i. 11, 27.

305 The three rival claimants of the see of Antioch. Paulinus and Meletius were both orthodox, but Meletius derived his orders from the Arians and was consequently not recognized in the West. In the East, however, he was so highly esteemed that some years after this he was chosen to preside over the Council of Constantinople (a.d. 391). Vitalis, the remaining claimant, a follower of Apollinaris, but much respected by the orthodox on account of his high character.

306 Matt. xix. 28.

307 Joh. xxi. 18.

308 Phi. iii. 20, R.V.

309 Ps. xxxix. 1, 2 Vulg.

310 Ps. xxxviii. 13, Ps. xxxviii. 14.

311 Cf. 1 Cor. xiii. 7.

312 Cyprian, Letter LV. Cf. Cic. T. Q. v. accipere quam facere praestat injuriam.

313 Virg. A. i. 539-541.

314 Subsistenets.

315 The contemporary bishops of Rome and Alexandria.

316 Tert. Apol. 40, s. f.

317 1 Cor. iv. 12.

318 Gen. iii. 19.

319 2 Thess. iii. 10.

320 Isa. xlii. 14, LXX.

321 Ps. xxiv. 1.

322 Was Jerome thinking of Constantine's rebuke to the Novatian bishop at Nicaea, "Plant a ladder for thyself, Acesius, and mount alone to heaven"?

323 Gal. vi. 14.

324 Who this was is unknown. The extant document purporting to contain this confession is not genuine.

325 John xii. 41.

326 Jerome greatly prides himself on this explanation, and frequently reverts to it.

327 Luke xxiv. 32.

328 Cf. Augustine's dictum: "The New Testament is latent in the Old; the Old Testament is patent in the New."

329 See Augustine's letters to Jerome, passim.

330 Ps. xlv. 10, Ps. xlv. 11.

331 According to the Vulgate.

332 Gen. xi. 31; Gen. xii. 1.

333 Ps. xxvii. 13.

334 Gen. xix. 17.

335 Luke ix. 62.

336 Matt. xxiv. 17, Matt. xxiv. 18.

337 Joh. viii. 44, R.V.

338 1 Joh. iii. 8.

339 Cant. i. 5.

340 Eph. v. 31, Eph. v. 32.

341 Nu. xii. 1.

342 Cant. i. 4.

343 Cant. viii. 5, LXX.

344 Heb. xiii. 4.

345 Gen. xix. 26.

346 Rom. xi. 20.

347 Isa. xxxiv. 5, R.V.

348 Gen. iii. 14, Gen. iii. 18.

349 Eph. vi. 12, R.V.

350 Joh. xiv. 30. The variant is difficult to explain and may be only a slip.

351 Ps. xci. 5-7, Vulg.

352 2 K. vi. 16.

353 2 K. ii. 11; 2 K. vi. 17.

354 Ps. cxxiv. 7.

355 2 Cor. iv. 7.

356 Gal. v. 17.

357 1 Pet. v. 8.

358 Ps. civ. 20, Ps. civ. 21.

359 Jer. xxix. 22.

360 An allusion to "Maher-shalal-hash-baz," Isa. viii. 1.

361 Hab. i. 16, LXX.

362 Luke xxii. 31.

363 Matt. x. 34.

364 Isa. xiv. 12.

365 Obad. 4.

366 Isa. xiv. 13, Isa. xiv. 14.

367 Gen. xxviii. 12.

368 Ps. lxxxii. 6, Ps. lxxxii. 7.

369 Ps. lxxxii. 1.

370 1 Cor. iii. 3.

371 Acts ix. 15.

372 Gal. i. 15.

373 1 Cor. ix. 27.

374 Rom. vii. 23.

375 Rom. vii. 24.

376 Am. v. 2.

377 Am. viii. 13.

378 Matt. v. 28.

379 Matt. xxv. 3, Matt. xxv. 10.

380 Isa. xlvii. 1-3.

381 Cant. v. 2, LXX.

382 Ps. xlv. 10, P.B.V.

383 Jer. xiii. 26.

384 Ezek. xvi. 25.

385 Isa. i. 21.

386 Isa. xxxiv. 15; Isa. xiii. 22, R.V.

387 Pss. cxviii. 6; Pss. lvi. 4.

388 Ps. xlii. 11.

389 Ps. cxxxvii. 9.

390 1 Cor. x. 4.

391 Cant. i. 3, Cant. i. 4.

392 1 Tim. v. 6.

393 1 Tim. v. 23.

394 Eph. v. 18.

395 Rom. xiv. 21.

396 Gen. ix. 20, Gen. ix. 21.

397 Ex. xxxii. 6.

398 Gen. xix. 30-38.

399 Deut. xxiii. 3: Jerome substitutes "fourteenth" for "tenth."

400 1 K. xix. 4-6.

401 2 K. iv. 38-41.

402 Exod. xv. 23-25.

403 2 K. vi. 18-23.

404 Dan. i. 8.

405 Bel. 33-39.

406 Dan. ix. 23, A.V. marg.

407 Ps. lxxxiv. 6, R.V.

408 Matt. iv. 2, Matt. iv. 3.

409 1 Cor. vi. 13.

410 Phil. iii. 19.

411 Job ii. 3.

412 Job xl. 16, of behemoth.

413 Ps. cxxxii. 11.

414 Gen. xlvi. 26.

415 Gen. xxxii. 24, Gen. xxxii. 25.

416 Exod. xii. 11.

417 Job. xxxviii. 3.

418 Matt. iii. 4.

419 Luke xii. 35.

420 Ezek. xvi. 4-6.

421 2 Sam. xi.

422 Ps. li. 4.

423 Solomon was the reputed author of the Book of Wisdom.

424 1 K. iv. 33.

425 1 K. xi 1-4.

426 2 Sam. xiii.

427 Isa. xiv. 13.

428 Tit. i. 15.

429 1 Tim. iv. 3.

430 The Manichaeans believed evil to be inseparable from matter. Hence they inculcated a rigid asceticism.

431 Jer. iii. 3.

432 Plebeians wore a narrow stripe, patricians abroad one.

433 Beloved ones, viz., women who lived with the unmarried clergy professedly as spiritual sisters, but really (in too many cases) as mistresses. The evil custom was widely prevalent and called forth many protests. The councils of Elvira, Ancyra, and Nicaea passed canons against it.

434 Prov. vi. 27, Prov. vi. 28.

435 Matt. xiii. 8.

436 Cena dubia. The allusion is to Terence, Phormio, 342.

437 Cant. i. 7, R.V.

438 Phil. i. 23.

439 Luke ii. 51.

440 Eph. vi. 16.

441 Hos. vii. 4, Hos. vii. 6, R.V.

442 Luke xxiv. 32.

443 Ps. cxix. 140, P.B.V.

444 Cant. iii. 1.

445 Col. iii. 5.

446 Gal. ii. 20.

447 Ps. xxxix. 6, Vulg. That is, who knows that the world is vanity.

448 Ps. cxix. 83 Vulg.

449 Ps. cix. 24; cii. 5.

450 Ps. vi. 6, P.B.V.

451 Ps. cii. 7.

452 1 Cor. xiv. 15.

453 Ps. ciii. 2-4.

454 Ps. cii. 9.

455 2 K. ii. 13.

456 Gen. iii. 16.

457 Gen. ii. 17.

458 Gen. i. 28.

459 Gen. iii. 18, Gen. iii. 19.

460 See Letter XLVIII. 3.

461 Matt. xix. 11, Matt. xix. 12.

462 Eccles. iii. 5.

463 Matt. iii. 9.

464 Zech. ix. 16, LXX.

465 Joh. xix. 23.

466 Ps. cxvi. 7.

467 Isa. xi. 1, LXX.

468 In the Latin there is a play on words here between virga and virgo.

469 Cant. ii. 1.

470 Dan. ii. 45.

471 Cant. ii. 6.

472 Gen. vii. 2.

473 Ex. iii. 5: Josh. v. 15.

474 Matt. x. 10. According to Letter XXIII. these typify dead works.

475 Joh. xix. 23, Joh. xix. 24.

476 Isa. xxviii. 24.

477 1 Cor. vii. 25.

478 1 Cor. vii. 7, 1 Cor. vii. 8.

479 1 Cor. ix. 5.

480 Isa. xxxi. 9, LXX.

481 Isa. liv. 1, LXX. (?)

482 Ps. cxxviii. 3.

483 Ps. cv. 37.

484 Isa. lvi. 3.

485 Cf. Luke xvi. 19 sqq.

486 Gen. xxv. 1.

487 Gen. xxx. 14-16.

488 Gen. xxx. 1, Gen. xxx. 2.

489 Jer. xvi. 2.

490 Jer. i. 5.

491 1 Cor. vii. 26, R.V.

492 1 Cor. vii. 29.

493 Lam. iv. 4.

494 Isa. vii. 14.

495 Isa. ix. 6.

496 Judith xiii.

497 Esther vii. 10.

498 Mark viii. 34.

499 Matt. viii. 20-22.

500 1 Cor. vii. 32-34.

501 See the treatise Against Helvidius, in this volume.

502 1 Thess. v. 17.

503 1 Cor. vii. 3, R.V.

504 1 Cor. vii. 28.

505 Not extant. Jerome alludes to it again in his treatise against Jovinian.

506 See Migne's "Patrologia," xiii., col. 347-418.

507 Ambrose de Virg. Migne's "Patrologia," xvi., col. 187.

508 Matt. xxiv. 13.

509 Matt. xx. 16; Matt. xxii. 14.

510 2 Sam. vi. 6, 2 Sam. vi. 7.

511 2 Kings xx. 12, 2 Kings xx. 13.

512 Dan. v. 1-3.

513 Ex. xxv. 11.

514 1 K. viii. 9.

515 Ex. xxv. 22.

516 Matt. xxi. 1-3.

517 Ex. vii. 16.

518 Matt. xxi. 12, Matt. xxi. 13, R.V.

519 Matt. xxvii. 51.

520 Matt. xxiii. 38.

521 R.V. marg.

522 Luke x. 41, Luke x. 42.

523 Cant. iii. 4.

524 Cant. vi. 9.

525 Gal. iv. 26.

526 Cf. Gen. xxvi. 8.

527 R.V.

528 Cant. v. 2, Cant. v. 4, Cant. v. 8.

529 Cant. iv. 12.

530 Gen. xxxiv.

531 Cant. iii. 2, Cant. iii. 3.

532 Matt. vii. 14.

533 Cant. iii. 2; Cant. v. 6.

534 Cant. v. 7.

535 Cant. v. 2.

536 Cant. i. 13.

537 Cant. i. 7, R.V.

538 Cant. i. 8, LXX.

539 Prov. iv. 23.

540 Matt. xxv. 33.

541 Isa. xxvi. 20.

542 Matt. vi. 6.

543 Rev. iii. 20.

544 Cant. v. 2, Cant. v. 3.

545 Cant. v. 6.

546 Eccles. x. 4, A.V., "the spirit of the ruler."

547 Dan. vi. 10, LXX.

548 Jer. ix. 21.

549 Joh. v. 44, R.V.

550 Jer. ix. 24.

551 1 Cor. i. 31.

552 Gal. i. 10.

553 Gal. vi. 14, R.V. marg.

554 Pss. xliv. 8; Pss. xxxiv. 2.

555 Matt. vi. 3, Matt. vi. 16-18.

556 Ps. cxxxi. 1.

557 Matt. vi. 16.

558 Ps. liii. 5, according to the Roman Psalter.

559 Cucullis fabrefactis, ut ad infantiam redeant, imitantur noctuas et bubones.

560 1 Cor. xi. 14.

561 2 Tim. iii. 6, 2 Tim. iii. 7.

562 Diomede. See Lucretius, v. 31, and Virgil, A. i. 752.

563 Gen. iii. 1.

564 2 Cor. ii. 11.

565 Cur mens diversa sit. The ordinary text has "menda."

566 1 Cor. vii. 9.

567 1 Cor. xv. 33.

568 1 Tim. v. 11, 1 Tim. v. 12.

569 Persius i. 104.

570 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

571 Viz., the epistles of St. Paul. In like manner the Psalter was often called David.

572 1 Cor. viii. 10.

573 Tit. i. 15.

574 1 Tim. iv. 4.

575 1 Cor. x. 21.

576 Matt. vi. 21.

577 Ps. vi. 5.

578 Luke xvi. 12.

579 Prov. xiii. 8, R.V.

580 Matt. vi. 24.

581 Matt. xiii. 7, Matt. xiii. 22.

582 Matt. vi. 25.

583 Matt. vi. 32.

584 Matt. vi. 25, Matt. vi. 26.

585 2 Cor. xii. 10, 2 Cor. xii. 7.

586 Ps. xcvii. 8.

587 Job i. 21.

588 1 Tim. vi. 7.

589 Matt. vi. 2.

590 Terence, Eun. 236.

591 "The eucharist was at first preceded, but at a later date was more usually followed, by the agape or love-feast. The materials of this were contributed by the members of the congregation, all of whatever station sat down to it as equals, and the meal was concluded with psalmody and prayer." (Robertson, C. H., i. p. 235.) Scandals arose in connection with the practice, and it gradually fell into disuse, though even at a later date allusions to it are not infrequent.

592 1 Tim. vi. 10.

593 Col. iii. 5.

594 Matt. vi. 33.

595 Ps. xxxvii. 25.

596 1 Kings xvii. 4, 1 Kings xvii. 6.

597 1 Kings xvii. 9-16.

598 Acts iii. 6.

599 1 Tim. vi. 8.

600 Gen. xxviii. 20, Gen. xxviii. 21.

601 Gen. xxxii. 5, Gen. xxxii. 10.

602 Luke xii. 15.

603 Matt. xxvi. 15.

604 Acts viii. 20.

605 From koinoj bioj (koinos bios), a common life.

606 Apparently an Egyptian word. It does not occur elsewhere.

607 In commune viventes.

608 From anaxwrein (anachorein), to withdraw.

609 These were monks who lived under no settled rule, but collected in little groups of two and three, generally in some populous place. They seem to have practised all the arts whereby a reputation for sanctity may be won, while they disparaged those who led more regular lives. Cassian (Collat. xviii. 7) draws an unfavorable picture of them. See Bingham, Antiquities, vii. ii. 4, and Dict. Xt. Ant., s. v. Sarabaitae.

610 Pannonia.

611 I.e. three o'clock.

612 Decani, "leaders of ten."

613 Cf. Letter LII.

614 Ps. lv. 6.

615 See Letter LXX. De Vir. LII. xi.

616 Josephus, The Jewish War, ii. 8.

617 I.e. the hermit of that name. See his Life in vol. iii. of this series.

618 Lam. iii. 27, Lam. iii. 28, Lam. iii. 30, Lam. iii. 31.

619 Lam. iii. 24.

620 1 Thess. v. 17.

621 In Jerome's time the seven canonical hours of prayer had not yet been finally fixed. He mentions, however, six which correspond to the later, Mattins, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Nocturns. Cp. Letters CVII. CVIII. and CXXX.

622 Ps. l. 20.

623 Rom. xiv. 4, R.V.

624 Rom. xiv. 6, R.V.

625 Isa. lviii. 5.

626 Isaiah lviii. 3, Isaiah lviii. 4, R.V. marg.

627 1 Tim. i. 19, 1 Tim. i. 20; 2 Tim. i. 15.

628 1 Sam. xvi. 7.

629 1 Cor. vii. 34.

630 Luke i. 28.

631 Isa viii. 1, i.e. "the spoil speedeth, the prey hasteth;" or, in Jerome's rendering, "quickly carry away the spoils."

632 Isa. viii. 3. Jerome should have substituted "prophet" for "prophetess." As it stands the quotation is meaningless.

633 Isa. xxvi. 18, Vulg.

634 Matt. xii. 49.

635 Prov. vii. 3; Jer. xxxi. 33.

636 Col. ii. 14, Col. ii. 15.

637 Cp. the maxim of Cyprian: Extra ecclesiam nulla salus, "Outside the church there is no salvation."

638 Exod. xii. 46.

639 1 Peter iii. 20, 1 Peter iii. 21.

640 James ii. 25.

641 Founder of the widely prevalent sect of Manichaeans, which at one time numbered Augustine among its adherents. One of its leading tenets was that matter as such was essentially evil.

642 Matt. vii. 15.

643 Phil. iii. 8.

644 Rom. vi. 4; Gal. v. 24.

645 Rom. viii. 35, Rom. viii. 38, Rom. viii. 39.

646 An echo of the Nicene Creed.

647 Cp. Virgil, Ecl. iv. 61.

648 Cp. Ps. xcv. 4, Ps. xcv. 5; Isa. xl. 12.

649 Luke ii. 51, Luke ii. 52.

650 Ps. cxvi. 12, Ps. cxvi. 13, Ps. cxvi. 15.

651 Heb. xii. 6.

652 Cp. Matt. xxvi. 40.

653 Gen. xxix. 20.

654 Gen. xxxi. 40.

655 Ps. xxxviii. 2.

656 Ps. cxx. 5, Vulg.

657 Rom. viii. 18.

658 Rom. v. 3-5.

659 2 Cor. xi. 23-27.

660 2 Tim. iv. 7, 2 Tim. iv. 8.

661 Matt. xi. 12.

662 Luke xi. 5-8.

663 Is. xiv. 12, Is. xiv. 13.

664 1 Cor. ii. 9.

665 Ex. xv. 20, Ex. xv. 21.

666 A legendary virgin of Iconium said to have been converted by Paul.

667 Cant. ii. 10, Cant. ii. 11.

668 Cant. vi. 10.

669 Cant. vi. 9.

670 Viz. Paula, for whom see Letter CVIII., and Marcella, for whom see Letter CXXVII.

671 Matt. xxi. 1-9, literally "she-ass."

672 Isa. viii. 18.

673 Matt. xxi. 9.

674 Rev. xiv. 1-4.

675 Cant. viii. 6; the variant is peculiar to Jerome.

676 Cant. viii. 7.

677 In the English Version Ps. lxxiii.

678 Ps. lxxii. 20.

679 Ps. lxxiii. title.

680 Ps. lxxiii. 15.

681 I.e. the Old Latin Version superseded by Jerome's Vulgate.

682 2 Cor. iv. 7.

683 Rom. iii. 2.

684 One of the most distinguished men of his day, Praetextatus, had filled the high position of Prefect of Rome. As such he ironically assured Damasus that, if he could hope to obtain the papacy, he would immediately embrace the Christian religion (Jerome, Against John of Jerusalem,

685 De suis saeculis detrahentem. The text is clearly corrupt, and no satisfactory emendation has yet been suggested.

686 So the author of II. Peter speaks of God "tartartizing the angels that sinned" (ii. 4).

687 I.e. her conduct justified her official title.

688 Cf. Matt. vi. 2.

689 Luke xvi. 19-24.

690 Paulina, chief priestess of Ceres.

691 In the Roman mythology the abode of gods and heroes. Cf. Ovid, M. i. 175, 176.

692 Wisd. v. 4.

693 Ps. xlviii. 8.

694 Matt. x. 10.

695 2 Cor. iv. 18.

696 Vide the preceding Letter.

697 Rom. xi. 6.

698 Jer. i. 5.

699 Luke i. 41.

700 Eph. i. 4.

701 Probably Marcella before she was married.

702 2 Thess. iii. 10.

703 Matt. vi. 17.

704 Matt. xix. 26.

705 Cf. Juvenal, Sat. x. 356.

706 Sacerdotes.

707 XXVI.

708 #Onw lura was a Greek proverb.

709 Reading nec diligentiam instead of et.

710 Acts xxvi. 24.

711 Haereditarias sepulturas.

712 The reference is to Letter XXII.

713 Ps. lxix. 4.

714 Ps. lxix. 11.

715 Hor. A. P. 21, 22.

716 Perhaps an allusion to the Greek proverb, onoj luraj hkouse kai salpiggoj uj. "The ass listened to the lyre, and the pig to the trumpet."

717 Rom. xii. 11, Rom. xii. 12. The reading kuriw "Lord" is probably correct. The R.V. says, "Some ancient authorities read the opportunity," (kairw).

718 I.e. a "presbyter."

719 1 Tim. v. 19, 1 Tim. v. 20.

720 1 Tim. i. 15.

721 Jerome's detractors suggested this word instead of the simpler "ass" in Zech. ix. 9 and Matt. xxi. 2-5. The phrase "Gallican geldings" appears to be a quotation from Plaut. Aul. iii. 5, 21.

722 Isa. xxxii. 20, LXX.

723 Ps. i. 2.

724 Matt. vii. 7.

725 Luke xi. 5-8.

726 Matt. xiv. 25-33.

727 Lev. ii. 11.

728 Ex. xii. 8.

729 I.e. the day of his martyrdom, his heavenly nativity.

730 Ezek. xvi. 11.

731 Jer. xxxvi.; Baruch vi.

732 Matt. iii. 16.

733 Letter XXII.

734 Tim. ii. 10.

735 2 Cor. iii. 2.

736 Jer xxxvi. 23.

737 Hos vii. 11.

738 Celebrated for his campaigns against Mithridates, and also as a prince of epicures.

739 Jer. xxiv. 1-3.

740 Jer. xxiv. 3.

741 Rev. iii. 15, Rev. iii. 16.

742 Gal. i. 10.

743 This version, made in the reign of Hadrian by a Jewish proselyte who is said by some to have been a renegade Christian, was marked by an exaggerated literalism and a close following of the Hebrew original. By the Church it was regarded with suspicion as being designedly anti-Christian. Jerome, however, here acquits Aquila of the charge brought against him.

744 I.e. all the sapiential books, viz. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom.

745 Exod. i. 1, twmy hl)

A.V., "these are the names."

746 The name means runner. Hence the allusion to Gal. ii. 2.

747 XXX., XXXI.

748 Of the 490 books composed by this voluminous writer only two are extant, a treatise on husbandry and an essay on the Latin language.

749 The epithet xalkenteroj, "heart of brass," is applied by Suidas to the grammarian Didymus, who, according to Athenaeus, wrote 3,500 books. Of these not one is extant.

750 Which lasted 57 years.

751 'Adamontioj-Origen is so called by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 14, 10). It appears to have been his proper name.

752 "They may have been detached essays on particular subjects."-Westcott.

753 All the works mentioned have perished except the treatise on First Principles, and this in its completeness is extant only in the Latin version of Rufinus. The version made by Jerome has perished.

754 Origen left Alexandria for good in 231 a.d., and it was in that or the following year that Demetrius convoked the synod which condemned not so much his writings as his conduct. He appears to have been excommunicated as a heretic.

755 For Origen's condemnation in a synod held at Rome this passage is the principal authority. It is more than doubtful whether such a synod ever met; if it did it must have been when Pontianus was pope, in 231 or 232 a.d. Jerome may only mean that the great men of Rome all agreed in this condemnation.

756 Both these philosophers were hedonists, and the latter was a sensualist as well. Jerome is probably satirizing the worldly clergy of Rome, just as in after-years he nicknames his opponent Jovinian "the Christian Epicurus."

757 Gen. xxii.

758 Gen. xxxvii., Gen. xlvi.

759 2 K xx.; Isa. xxxviii.

760 Luke xxii. 54-62; Joh. xxi. 16.

761 Gen. xlix. 27.

762 Ps. lxviii. 27.

763 Acts ix. 3-18.

764 Cf. Mark i. 30, Mark i. 31.

765 John xi. 38, R.V. marg.

766 Joh. xi. 38-44.

767 Joh. xii. 2.

768 Joh. xii. 10.

769 Luke vii. 38.

770 Rom. vi. 11.

771 Rom. vii. 2.

772 Luke vii. 28.

773 Luke vii. 27. The word "angel" means "messenger."

774 Matt. iii. 4.

775 Rom. viii. 8.

776 2 Cor. iii. 18, R.V.

777 Gen. iii. 14.

778 Matt. xvi. 23.

779 1 Pet. v. 8.

780 Matt. iv. 18-22.

781 Matt. ix. 9.

782 Luke ix. 61, Luke ix. 62.

783 Matt. viii. 21.

784 Luke xiv. 26.

785 Cf. Letter LIV.

786 Pinguis aqualiculus-Pers. i. 57.

787 Matt. x. 25.

788 Jer. ix. 1.

789 Luke xix. 41.

790 Eccles. ix. 8.

791 Luke xxiii. 43.

792 Cf. Eccles. xii. 7.

793 John xi. 35, John xi. 36.

794 Job iii. 3: cf. Jer. xx. 14.

795 Jer. xv. 10.

796 Jer. xii. 1.

797 Ps. lxxiii. 2, 3, 11, 12, Vulg.

798 Ps. lxxiii. 15.

799 Ezek. xviii. 20.

800 Ezek. xviii. 4.

801 Ex. xx. 5.

802 Ps. lxxiii. 13, Ps. lxxiii. 14.

803 Ps. lxxiii. 16, Ps. lxxiii. 17.

804 Ps. xxxvi. 6.

805 Rom. xi. 33.

806 Job i. 21.

807 Ps. cxix. 137.

808 Ps. xcvii. 8.

809 Rom. x. 10.

810 2 Cor. xii. 8, 2 Cor. xii. 9, 2 Cor. xii. 10.

811 Cf. Tertullian, Apol. 33.

812 Acts ix. 15.

813 Wisd. iv. 11, Wisd. iv. 14.

814 2 Cor. v. 4.

815 2 Cor. v. 6.

816 Ps. cxx. 5, 6, Vulg.

817 Joh. i. 5.

818 Eph. v. 8.

819 A famous stoic who committed suicide in extreme old age. See Diogenes Laertius (vii. I) for an account of his death.

820 An academic philosopher of Ambracia, who is said to have killed himself after reading the Phaedo of Plato.

821 Cato of Utica, who, after the battle of Thapsus (46 b.c.), committed suicide to avoid failing into the hands of Caesar.

822 Isa. lxvi. 2.

823 Jon. ii. 2-7.

824 1 Thess. iv. 13.

825 Viz. Paulina, wife of Praetextatus and priestess of Ceres. See Letter XXIII.

826 Gen. xxxvii. 35.

827 2 Sam. xviii. 33.

828 Deut. xxxiv. 8.

829 Nu. xx. 29.

830 Gen. iii. 24: cf. Ezek. i. 15-20. Here as in his Comm. on Eccles. iii. 16-22, Jerome follows Origen, who, in his homily de Engastrimytho, lays down that until Christ came to set them free the patriarchs, prophets, and saints of the Old Testament were all in hell.

831 Apud inferos-Luke xvi. 23.

832 2 Sam. xvii. 1-4.

833 Acts viii. 2.

834 Gen. 1. 7-10.

835 Nu. xx. 29; Deut. xxxiv. 6-8.

836 Josh. xxiv. 30.

837 Ad inferos. Hades is meant, not Gehenna.

838 Rom. v. 14.

839 The Greek form of Joshua. Cf. Acts vii. 45, A. V.

840 I learn from Dr. Neubauer, of Oxford, that this is still a practice during mourning among the Jews of the East. He refers to Tur Joreh Deah. §378.

841 Gen. xxv. 34.

842 Gal. iii. 27.

843 1 Pet. ii. 9.

844 Lev. x. 6, Lev. x. 12.

845 Lev. xxi. 10-12.

846 Luke ix. 59-62.

847 Lev. xxi. 12, Vulg.

848 1 Joh. ii. 27.

849 Gen. xii. 1-4.

850 Ruth i.

851 Matt. i. 5.

852 Or Melania. She went with Rufinus to the East, and settled with him on the Mt. of Olives; and incurred Jerome's resentment as Rufinus' friend. See Ep. cxxxiii. 3. "She whose name of blackness attests the darkness of her perfidy."

853 Mark v. 39.

854 Luke xxiv. 5.

855 Joh. xx. 17.

856 Luke ii. 36, Luke ii. 37.

857 Isa. xx. 2.

858 Jer. xiii. 6, Jer. xiii. 7.

859 Ezek. iv. 9-16.

860 Ezek. xxiv. 15-18.

861 Amos vii. 12, Amos vii. 13.

862 Gal. iv. 16.

863 John vi. 60, John vi. 66.

864 Nasus. A play on the name Onasus.

865 Cf. Persius, l. 33.

866 Virg. A. vi. 497.

867 Onasus means "lucky" or "profitable;" it is another form of Onesimus.

868 Quoted from Quintilian i. 6, 34 (lucus a non lucendo).

869 Parcae, from parcere, to spare.

870 Eumenides, the Greek name for the Furies.

871 Pers. ii. 37, 38.

872 Montanus lived at Ardaban, in Phrygia, in the second half of the second century, and founded a sect of prophetic enthusiasts and ascetics, which was afterward joined by Tertullian.

873 Joh. xiv. 28; Joh. xv. 26.

874 Acts ii. 14-18.

875 Matt. xvi. 18.

876 Acts xxi. 9.

877 Acts xi. 28; Acts xxi. 10, Acts xxi. 11.

878 1 Cor. xii. 28; cf. Eph. iv. 11.

879 A presbyter of the Libyan Pentapolis who taught at Rome in the early years of the third century. He "confounded the persons" of the Trinity and was subsequently accounted a heretic. Cf. Letter XV.

880 1 Tim. v. 14.

881 Viz. the period between Easter Day and Whitsunday.

882 Called by the Montanists the New Jerusalem.

883 Oeconomos-according to a probable emendation. The text has cenonas.

884 Ezek. xviii. 23.

885 Jer. viii. 4.

886 Jer. iii. 22.

887 Mysteria.

888 Victuro martyre confarrata. The precise meaning of the words is obscure.

889 Some suppose him to have been a priest of Cybele, but it would be a mistake to lay too much stress on Jerome's words.

890 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

891 Novatian, a Roman presbyter in the middle of the third century, held that the "lapsed," who had failed during the persecutions, could not be readmitted to the church. His sect upheld an extreme moral puritanism, as is shown in the speech of Constantine to their bishop at the Council of Nicaea: "Acesius, you should set up a ladder to heaven, and go up by yourself alone."

892 Matt. xii. 32.

893 Matt. xxi. 33.

894 Matt. xviii. 11.

895 Matt. xii. 25, Matt. xii. 26.

896 Matt. xii. 24.

897 Viz. denial of Christ by Christians.

898 Matt. xxvi. 74.

899 Matt. xxvi. 33-35; Joh. xiii. 38.

900 Joh. xxi. 15-17.

901 Viz. Matt. xii. 32, quoted above.

902 Commentariolum.

903 For the meaning of these epithets as applied to Origen see Letter XXXIII.

904 Luke xii. 20.

905 Nummus. Sc. Sestertius = 4 cents = 2 pence.

906 Obolus = 3 1-2 cents = 1 penny 3 farthings.

907 Ps. lxxiii. 20, Vulg.

908 Gen. i. 26.

909 These were worn by both Greek and Roman actors.

910 Joh. xv. 19.

911 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

912 Senatus Matronarum. Comp. Letter XXXIII. 4: "Rome calls together its senate to condemn him."

913 Ps. lxxiii. 25.

914 Cf. Col. ii. 5.

915 Cf. Letter CXXX.

916 Matt. xxv. 1.

917 Ps. xxiii. 5, according to the Gallican psalter.

918 Eccles. x. 1, Vulg.

919 Rom. xiv. 4.

920 Ps. ii. 4.

921 Cf. 1 Sam. xii. 3.

922 Damasus meus sermo erat, or "spoke of none but me."

923 Ironical.

924 Matt. vii. 3.

925 Joh. xv. 18.

926 Haggai i. 1.

927 Ps. cxxxvii. 4.

928 Luke x. 30-35.

929 Joh. viii. 48.

930 Joh. viii. 49.

931 I.e. Paul. See 2. Cor. vi. 9.

932 1 Cor. x. 13.

933 He means the sin of incontinence.

934 2 Cor. vi. 8.

935 Rom. xiv. 10.

936 Sus Minervam.

937 2 Esdras. i. 30; Matt. xxiii. 37.

938 Gen. xii. 1.

939 I.e. Babel-Gen. xi. 9.

940 Gen. x. 11.

941 Gen. xi. 2, Gen. xi. 4.

942 Ps. cxxxvii. 1.

943 Ezek. viii. 3.

944 Deut. xi. 10.

945 Rom. xiv. 2.

946 Deut. xi. 14.

947 Dt. xi. 11.

948 Luke i. 26-31, Luke i. 39.

949 1 Sam. xvii. 49.

950 1 Sam. xviii. 6, 1 Sam. xviii. 7.

951 1 Chron. xxi. 15, 1 Chron. xxi. 18; 2 Chron. iii. 1.

952 Gen. xiv. 18.

953 Mysterium christianum in salvatoris sanguine et corpore dedicavit.

954 Cant. ii. 4 b, Vulg. Hebrew = A.V.

955 I.e. the place of a skull (Latin, Calvaria).

956 One of Jerome's fanciful ideas. Haddam srh

is the Hebrew for "the blood."

957 o prwtoplastoj = "the first-formed." The word is applied to Adam in Wisd. vii. 1.

958 Eph. v. 14.

959 Cf. Hymns Ancient and Modern, No. 235. "Truly Jerusalem name we that shore Vision of peace that brings joy evermore."

960 Hebrew, Shelomoh, connected with shalem, peace.

961 Ps. lxxvi. 2, LXX.

962 Ps. lxxxvii. 1, Ps. lxxxvii. 2.

963 Matt. xxiii. 37, Matt. xxiii. 38.

964 Matt. xxvii. 51.

965 Bellum Judaicum, vi. 5.

966 Rom. v. 20.

967 Matt. xxviii. 19.

968 Acts xiii. 46.

969 Sacramentum.

970 Luke xix. 41.

971 Joh. xi. 35, Joh. xi. 36.

972 Heb. ix. 3-5.

973 John xx. 6, John xx. 7, John xx. 12.

974 I.e. Joseph of Arimathaea.-Joh. xix. 38 sqq.

975 Isa. xi. 10.

976 Rev. xi. 7, Rev. xi. 8, R.V.

977 Rev. xi. 2.

978 Rev. xi. 7, Rev. xi. 8.

979 Rev. xxi. 16-18.

980 Gen. iv. 17.

981 Ezek. xvi. 55.

982 Deut. xxix. 23.

983 A.V. "the Lord."

984 Jude 5.

985 Jude 6.

986 Jude 7.

987 Matt. xxvii. 51, Matt. xxvii. 53.

988 E.g. Origen in his commentary on the passage.

989 Ps. cxxxii. 7.

990 Matt. v. 35.

991 Matt. xxv. 41.

992 Acts xx. 16.

993 Acts xxi. 13.

994 Cicero of Caecilius (in Q. Caec. xii.).

995 Luke xvii. 21.

996 Virgil, E. i. 67.

997 Luke xvii. 37.

998 Cf. Matt. xix. 30.

999 Rom. xiv. 4.

1000 Matt. vii. 1.

1001 Luke ii. 7.

1002 Otherwise called the capitol. Here stood the great temple of Jupiter, which was to the religion of Rome what the Parthenon was to that of Athens.

1003 Rev. xvii. 4, Rev. xvii. 5, Rev. xvii. 9; Rev. i. 15; Rev. xvii.; Rev. xviii.

1004 Rev. xviii. 4.

1005 Jer. li. 6.

1006 Rev. xviii. 2.

1007 Joh. xix. 25.

1008 Acts i. 9, Acts i. 12.

1009 Joh. xi. 43, Joh. xi. 44.

1010 Matt. iii. 13.

1011 Luke ii. 8.

1012 1 K. ii. 10.

1013 "Who was among the herdsmen of Tekoa"-Am. i. 1.

1014 Sarah, Rebekah, Leah-Gen. xlix. 31.

1015 Acts viii. 36.

1016 2 K. xiii. 21.

1017 1 K. xviii. 3, 1 K. xviii. 4.

1018 Lit. "sprout." In Isa. xi. 1 it is rendered by A.V. "branch."

1019 Joh. ii. 1-11.

1020 Matt. xvii. 1-9.

1021 Matt. xiv. 15, sqq.

1022 Matt. xv. 32, sqq.

1023 Luke vii. 11, sqq.

1024 Ps. lxxxiii. 9, Ps. lxxxiii. 10.

1025 Cant. iii. 4, Vulg.

1026 1 Cor. xiii. 5.

1027 I.e. his wife. Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 5.

1028 Serenilla, "calm."

1029 Dan. ix. 23, A.V. marg. Desiderius means "one who is an object of desire."

1030 Cf. 2 Peter ii. 7, 2 Peter ii. 8.

1031 I.e. the historian Suetonius.

1032 Probably Apollonius of Tyre, who appears to have written an account of the principal philosophers who followed Zeno.

1033 See this work in Vol. III. of this series.

1034 Cf. 1 Cor. xv. 8, 1 Cor. xv. 9.

1035 a.d. 392-3.

1036 Marcus Antonius, a Roman orator spoken of by Cicero. Orator c. 5, De Oratore i. c. 21, 47, 48. His treatise "De ratione dicendi" is lost. See Quintal iii. 1, 192.

1037 Marcus Antonius, a Roman orator spoken of by Cicero. Orator c. 5, De Oratore i. c. 21, 47, 48. His treatise "De ratione dicendi" is lost. See Quintal iii. 1, 192.

1038 Eccl. vii. 16: see Ag. Jov. i. 14.

1039 Against Jov. i. 3.

1040 A Gnostic presbyter of the second century who rejected the Old Testament.

1041 An Eastern teacher of the third century, a.d., the main feature of whose system was its uncompromising dualism.

1042 A Syrian rhetorician converted to Christianity by Justin Martyr. He wrote a harmony of the Gospels called Diatessaron.

1043 I.e. "the abstainers," or "the continent," a Gnostic sect in the second century.

1044 1 Tim. iv. 3.

1045 2 Tim. ii. 20.

1046 1 Cor. iii. 10-12.

1047 Heb. xiii. 4.

1048 Gen. i. 28.

1049 Matt. xiii. 8.

1050 From this passage compared with Ep. cxxiii. 9, and Bede De Temporum Ratlone, c. 1. (De Loquetâ Digitorum), it appears that the number thirty was indicated by joining the tips of the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, sixty was indicated by curling up the forefinger of the same hand and then doubling the thumb over it, while one hundred was expressed by joining the tips of the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. See Prof. Mayor's learned note on Juv. x. 249.

1051 E.g. Cyprian and Origen (Hom. i. in Jos.).

1052 Paterfamilias. Vide Cypr. de Hab. Virg. 21.

1053 Ag. Jov. i. 4.

1054 1 Cor. vii. 4.

1055 Ag. Jov. i. 7.

1056 Matt. xix. 9.

1057 1 Cor. vii. 1.

1058 Gen. xxxix. 12, Gen. xxxix. 13.

1059 1 Cor. vii. 3, R.V.

1060 Matt. xix. 6.

1061 1 Cor. vii. 7.

1062 Ag. Jov. i. 8.

1063 1 Cor. xii. 4.

1064 2 Cor. ii. 7.

1065 2 Cor. ii. 10.

1066 A.V. marg.

1067 2 Cor. ii. 10.

1068 Gen. xxxvii. 23.

1069 Acc. to the Vulgate. In A.V. it is the 45th.

1070 Ps. xlv. 10, P.B.V.

1071 1 Pet. iii. 7; 1 Pet. iv. 10.

1072 1 Cor. vii. 8-10.

1073 Ag. Jov. i. 10.

1074 Rom. vii. 2.

1075 1 Cor. vii. 39.

1076 1 Cor. vii. 18.

1077 Ag. Jov. i. 11.

1078 1 Cor. vii. 15, R.V.

1079 1 Cor. vii. 19.

1080 Jas. ii. 17.

1081 Univira.

1082 1 Cor. vii. 21.

1083 1 Cor. vii. 25.

1084 Ag. Jov. i. 12.

1085 1 Cor. vii. 21.

1086 Ag. Jov. i. 12.

1087 Ag. Jov. i. 13.

1088 1 Cor. vii. 35.

1089 Jerome here explains the word aperispastwj (A.V. "without distraction") in 1 Cor. vii. 35.

1090 Eccles. i. 13; Eccles. iii. 10.

1091 Ag. Jov. i. 13.

1092 Ag. Jov. i. 14.

1093 Nu. xx. 17.

1094 Eccles. vii. 16.

1095 Ag. Jov. i. 14.

1096 1 Cor. vii. 9.

1097 1 Tim. v. 11, 1 Tim. v. 12, R.V.

1098 1 Tim. v. 15.

1099 1 Cor. vii. 40.

1100 Ag. Jov. i. 14.

1101 Ag. Jov. i. 15.

1102 1 Cor. vi. 12.

1103 Eph. v. 23, Eph. v. 24.

1104 Ag. Jov. i. 9.

1105 Ag. Jov. i. 23.

1106 Viduitas vel continentia.

1107 Ag. Jov. i. 33.

1108 Ag. Jov. i. 40.

1109 Rev. xiv. 3.

1110 Rev. xiv. 4.

1111 Joh. ii. 1, Joh. ii. 2.

1112 Ag. Jov. i. 40.

1113 2 Tim. ii. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 21.

1114 I.e. continence in marriage.

1115 Virg. A. xi. 374, 5.

1116 Aliud esse gumnastikwj scribere, aliud dogmatikwj. The words do not appear to be used in this sense in the extant works of Aristotle.

1117 Plaut. Aul. ii. 2, 18.

1118 The reply of Origen to Celsus is still extant; those of Methodius, Eusebius and Apollinaris to Porphyry have perished. Cf. Letter LXX.

1119 Two philosophic opponents of Christianity who flourished, the first in the second, the second in the third, century of our era.

1120 Matt. xiii. 10-17.

1121 Isa. xxiv. 16, Vulg.

1122 Ag. Jov. i. 7.

1123 1 Cor. vii. 1, 1 Cor. vii. 2.

1124 Ag. Jov. i. 7.

1125 Eccles. i. 2.

1126 Gen. i. 31; 1 Tim. iv. 4.

1127 Col. i. 16. Cf. Milton, P. L. v. 601.

1128 Ex. iii. 14.

1129 Esth. xiv. 11.

1130 Job xviii. 14, 15 Vulg.

1131 Ag. Jov. i. 7.

1132 Matt. xiv. 15-21; Matt. xv. 32-38. Cf. Joh. vi. 5-13.

1133 Ps. xxxvi. 7, P.B.V.

1134 Ag. Jov. i. 3.

1135 Ag. Jov. i. 40.

1136 Rev. xiv. 1, Rev. xiv. 4.

1137 Ambrose, On Widowhood, xiii. 79; xiii. 81; xi. 69.

1138 Phil. iii. 14.

1139 Matt. xv. 32.

1140 Matt. xxvi. 26, Matt. xxvi. 29.

1141 Gen. iii. 16.

1142 1 Cor. vi. 20; 1 Cor. vii. 23.

1143 Cf. Eph. vi. 6.

1144 Ter. Andria Prol. 20, 21.

1145 Ag. Jov. i. 7.

1146 1 Th. v. 17.

1147 1 Cor. vii. 5.

1148 1 Pet. iii. 7.

1149 Ag. Jov. i. 20.

1150 1 Sam. xxi. 4, 1 Sam. xxi. 5.

1151 Ex. xix. 15.

1152 Rom. xiv. 5.

1153 Pers. ii. 16.

1154 That what is now known as reservation of the elements was practised in the early church there is abundant evidence to show. Justin Martyr (Apol. I. 65) writes: "The deacons communicate each of those present and carry away to the absent of the blest bread and wine and water." And those to whom the eucharist was thus taken were not bound to consume it immediately, or all at once, but might reserve a part or all for future occasions. According to Basil (Ep. 93), "in Egypt the laity for the most part had every one the communion in their own houses"-and "all those who dwell alone in the desert, when there is no priest, keep the communion at home and receive it at their own hands." So Jerome speaks (Letter CXXV. 20) of Exuperius as "carrying the Lord's body in a wicker basket, His blood in a vessel of glass." See the article Reservation in Smith and Cheetham's Dict. of Christian Antiquities.

1155 Ps. cxxxix. 11, Ps. cxxxix. 12.

1156 Cf. 1 Cor. xi. 28.

1157 Cf. Matt. xix. 12.

1158 Against Jov. i. 8.

1159 1 Cor. vii. 5.

1160 1 Cor. vii. 6, Vulg.

1161 1 Cor. vii. 8, 1 Cor. vii. 9.

1162 Ag. Jov. i. 9.

1163 1 Cor. vii. 8.

1164 Ag. Jov. i. 9.

1165 Fornication must still be subordinated to marriage.

1166 Ag. Jov. i. 13.

1167 1 Th. v. 23.

1168 Letter XXII.

1169 Ag. Jov. i. 14.

1170 Joh. iv. 16-18. Jerome's version of the story is inaccurate.

1171 Ag. Jov. i. 15.

1172 1 Cor. vi. 12.

1173 Gen. i. 10.

1174 Ag. Jov. i. 16.

1175 Gen. vii. 2.

1176 The author of a literal Greek version of the O. T. made in the second century.

1177 An ebionitic translator, free, not literal, in style.

1178 A careful reviser of the LXX. whose work was welcomed by the Church. His version of Daniel completely superseded the older one.

1179 Cf. Hor. Ep. i. 6, 67, 68.

1180 Cyprian, Letter to Fortunatus, xiii. 11.

1181 Virg. E. viii. 75.

1182 Virg. A. v. 217.

1183 Tert. de Exh. Cast. I.

1184 Matt. vi. 24.

1185 Gal. v. 17.

1186 Ag. Jov. i. 31.

1187 Joh. xx. 19.

1188 Joh. xix. 41.

1189 Cant. iv. 12.

1190 Joel, iii. 18; according to the LXX. and Hebrew. A.V. has "vale of Shittim" (thorns).

1191 LXX.

1192 Hebrew.

1193 Cf. Prov. v. 22.

1194 Matt. xiii. 7.

1195 Ezek. xliv. 2, Ezek. xliv. 3.

1196 Mal. iv. 2.

1197 Heb. v. 10.

1198 Joh. xx. 19, Joh. xx. 27.

1199 Cf. Letter XXII.

1200 Luke xvi. 19-25.

1201 Hor. AP. 390.

1202 See the Preface to Jerome's Comm. on Daniel.

1203 1 Cor. vii.

1204 1 Corinthians.

1205 1 Cor. vii. 7.

1206 Master of the catechetical school of Alexandria, 265 a.d. His writings have perished. His name occurs again in Letter LXX.

1207 Ad optata caeptaque pervenies.

1208 Pontifex.

1209 Sacerdos.

1210 Thus including Daniel.

1211 The Hebrew word for "Kings."

1212 Virg. A. iv. 298.

1213 Ps. l. 20.

1214 Matt. vii. 3-5.

1215 A philosopher of the Academy noted for his opposition to stoicism.

1216 Eight years.

1217 Jas. iii. 2.

1218 Lam. iii. 27, Lam. iii. 28.

1219 An early Roman dramatist of whose works only a few fragments remain. He is said to have translated the Electra of Sophocles, but for the most part to have preferred comedy to tragedy.

1220 Virgil, Aen. xi. 283, 284.

1221 Persius i. 29.

1222 Characters in the Eunuchus and Phormio of Terence.

1223 Juv. i. 15.

1224 Hor. S. i. iv. 34.

1225 Isa. l. 6.

1226 1 Pet. ii. 23.

1227 Luke xxiii. 34.

1228 Viz. Jerome and Jovinian.

1229 According to both these philosophers pleasure is the highest good.

1230 The followers of Jovinian.

1231 Jovinian himself.

1232 Virg. A. xii. 50, 51.

1233 Cic. pro Caelio xv.

1234 Jer. xii. 13, LXX.

1235 A play on words. Clericatus ("clerical position") is a derivative of clerus (klhroj), the word used in the LXX. for "lot."

1236 Matt. v. 22.

1237 Isa. xviii. 2, LXX.

1238 Cf. 2 Cor. x. 14.

1239 Rom. xii. 9.

1240 Paulinian, Jerome's brother, at this time about 28 years of age.

1241 I.e. the short service which preceded the eucharist. The words might, however, be rendered, "When the congregation was gathered together."

1242 Subdeacons cannot be traced back earlier than the third century. At first their province seems to have been to keep the church doors during divine service.

1243 It seems to be implied that John had done so.

1244 2 Cor. x. 8.

1245 That is, Origenistic heresies.

1246 Ps. cxli. 4, acc. to the Gallican Psalter.

1247 Acts ii. 40.

1248 Epiphanius, on a visit to Jerusalem, had preached against Origenism in the presence of John. See "Ag. John of Jerus.," §11.

1249 John actually did write to Theophilus of Alexandria giving a full account of the controversy from his (John's) point of view. (Ag. J. of Jerus., §37.)

1250 Matt. xviii. 8, Matt. xviii. 9.

1251 First Principles, i. 1; ii. 4.

1252 1 Cor. vi. 15, 1 Cor. vi. 19.

1253 yuxai apo tou yuxesqai. The etymology is right, but the explanation of it wrong.

1254 First Principles ii. 8.

1255 demaj as if from dew, "I bind."

1256 ptwma, from piptein: cadaver, from cado.

1257 swma.

1258 shma.

1259 Gen. i. 28; Gen. ix. 7.

1260 Ps. cxix. 67. From memory, or perhaps from the old Latin version.

1261 Ps. cxvi. 7.

1262 Ps. cxlii. 7.

1263 Ps. cxvi. 9. This form of the verse is peculiar to Jerome.

1264 Epiphanius had written a book "against all the heresies."

1265 In his note on Gen. iii. 21.

1266 Gen. ii. 23.

1267 Gen. ii. 21, Gen. ii. 22.

1268 Gen. iii. 7.

1269 Gen. iii. 23, LXX.

1270 Introitus.

1271 Gen. iii. 24.

1272 Gen. ii. 10.

1273 Gen. ii. 10, Gen. ii. 11, Gen. ii. 13.

1274 Jer. ii. 18, LXX. and Vulg.

1275 Gen. ii. 16.

1276 2 Cor. xii 2, 2 Cor. xii 4.

1277 In his note on Gen. i. 7.

1278 Fortitudines angelicae potestatis.

1279 Virtues.

1280 Gen. vii. 11.

1281 Prov. vi. 20.

1282 Isa. xxxii. 6, Vulg.

1283 Cf. Philem. 12.

1284 Ps. cxxxix. 21.

1285 Sacerdotium.

1286 Hab. i. 10, 16, 9, LXX.

1287 Jas. iii. 7.

1288 LXX. The Heb. text which A.V. follows gives "an hundred and thirty years."

1289 Gen. iv. 25; Gen. v. 3; Gen. i. 26.

1290 According to the LXX. The chronology of the Hebrew text gives a period of 1656 years (Gen. v.).

1291 Gen. ix. 4-6; substantially as in A.V.

1292 Gen. xi. 10-26.

1293 Matt. i. 17.

1294 This calculation appears to be based on the LXX.

1295 Acc. to the Vulg., which Jerome here follows, the thirty-eighth.

1296 Ps. 39, 6. "In a vain show," R.V.

1297 Wisd. ii. 23.

1298 Jas. iii. 8, 9.

1299 Acts. ix. 15.

1300 1 Cor. xi. 7.

1301 1 Joh. iii. 2.

1302 1 Pet. v. 1.

1303 2 Cor. iii. 18.

1304 Exod. xxxiv. 29 sqq.; 2 Cor. iii. 7.

1305 2 Kings ii. 11.

1306 Acts vi. 15.

1307 Matt. v. 8.

1308 Words added by this writer.

1309 1 Cor. x. 10.

1310 Rom. xvi. 20.

1311 See note on above.

1312 Velum ...tinctum atque depictum.

1313 Scrupulositas.

1314 Letter XIV. 9 v.

1315 Virgil, G. ii. 484.

1316 Virgil, Ec. ix. 51, 54, 55.

1317 1 K. i. 1-4.

1318 2 Cor. iii. 6.

1319 So called because first devised in the Oscan town of Atella.

1320 1 K. i. 4.

1321 The name Solomon means "man of peace."

1322 1 Chr. xxviii. 3.

1323 Prov. iv. 5-9.

1324 Ps. i. 2.

1325 A slip of the pen for Theophrastus.

1326 Cicero, de Sen. v.

1327 Cicero, de Sen. vii.

1328 Id. ibid.

1329 Cic. de Sen. viii.

1330 Homer, Il. i. 249; Cic. de Sen. x.

1331 Gen. xxxviii. 28, Gen. xxxviii. 29.

1332 Josh. ii. 18.

1333 1 Chron. ii. 55, Vulg.

1334 Luke xii. 49.

1335 Luke xxiv. 32.

1336 Rom. xii. 11.

1337 Zech. xi. 15.

1338 Matt. xxiv. 12.

1339 Cyprian, Ep. ad Donatum.

1340 Pss. xvi. 5; Pss. lxxiii. 26.

1341 Ps. xvi. 5, Ps. xvi. 6.

1342 Nu. xviii. 24.

1343 1 Cor. ix. 13.

1344 1 Tim. vi. 8.

1345 Virgil, Aen. iii. 436.

1346 Jer. xii. 13, LXX. There is a play on the word klhroj, which means (1) portion, (2) clergy.

1347 1 Cor. xv. 33.

1348 Another allusion to the word klhroj.

1349 Major domus.

1350 The vow of celibacy is probably intended.

1351 The disability alluded to was enacted by Valentinian.

1352 Titus, i. 9; 2 Tim. iii. 14.

1353 1 Pet. iii. 15.

1354 Mal. i. 6.

1355 Cicero, de Orat. iii. 1.

1356 So the Vulgate.

1357 1 Pet. v. 4.

1358 1 Cor. xiv. 30-33.

1359 Prov. x. 1.

1360 This is not extant.

1361 Virgil, Ec. viii. 63.

1362 1 Cor. xii. 12-27.

1363 Mortariola. See Nu. vii. 24, Vulg.

1364 1 Cor. x. 11.

1365 Luke xvi. 9.

1366 Acts iii. 6.

1367 Levit. xxi. 14.

1368 Levit. xxi. 17-23.

1369 Gen. i. 28.

1370 Deut. xvi. 5.

1371 Levit. xxiii. 40-42.

1372 Joel ii. 15.

1373 1 Cor. ii. 13.

1374 Rom. vii. 14.

1375 Ps. cxix. 18.

1376 Matt. xii. 1-9.

1377 Ps. cxviii. 8, Ps. cxviii. 9.

1378 1 Tim. iii. 3.

1379 Levit. x. 9; the word shechar occurs in the Greek text of Luke i. 15.

1380 Cf. Shakespere:-

Make rich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits.

1381 Gal. i. 10.

1382 2 Cor. vi. 8.

1383 Ps. cxxi. 6.

1384 Matt. vi. 5.

1385 Matt. xxiii. 5.

1386 Some irrelevant sentences are found here in the ordinary text which are obviously an interpolation.

1387 Wisd. viii. 7, the cardinal virtues of Greek philosophy.

1388 Viz. thy misdeeds.

1389 Ps. l. 20, Ps. l. 21.

1390 Prov. xxiv. 21, 22, Vulg.

1391 The principal physician of this name flourished in the fifth century, b.c.

1392 Acts xx. 35.

1393 1 Cor. vii. 29.

1394 1 Tim. iii. 2.

1395 Viz. Letter XXII.

1396 Matt. vii. 3-5.

1397 Gymnasia.

1398 Dionysius of Syracuse.

1399 Cf. Quint. X. i. 32.

1400 Apollonius of Tyana, whose strange life and adventures have been written for us by Philostratus.

1401 Magus.

1402 Gen. ii. 11.

1403 Philostratus iii. 7.

1404 i.e. dwellers in Palestine.

1405 Herod. iii. 17, 18.

1406 Acts ix. 15.

1407 A favourite title for theologians in the Middle Ages.

1408 2 Cor. xiii. 3.

1409 Gal. i. 17, Gal. i. 18.

1410 Gal. ii. 1, Gal. ii. 2.

1411 Cic. de Orat. iii. 56, the word `brute 0' is inserted by Jerome.

1412 2 Cor. x. 4-6.

1413 2 Tim. iii. 14, 2 Tim. iii. 15.

1414 1 Tim. iv. 14.

1415 Tit. i. 9.

1416 Sancta rusticitas.

1417 Hag. ii. 11.

1418 Deut. xxxii. 7.

1419 Ps. i. 2.

1420 Dan. xii. 3.

1421 Acts ix. 15.

1422 1 Thess. iv. 9.

1423 Luke ii. 46.

1424 2 Cor. xi. 6.

1425 Joh. i. 1.

1426 1 Cor. i. 19.

1427 1 Cor. i. 21.

1428 1 Cor. ii. 6, 1 Cor. ii. 7.

1429 1 Cor. i. 24.

1430 "Upon Muthlabben" AV. See Perowne on the words.

1431 1 Sam. ix. 9.

1432 Joh. viii. 56.

1433 Ps. cxix. 18.

1434 Rom. vii. 14.

1435 Rev. v. 1.

1436 Isa. xxix. 11.

1437 Rev. iii. 7.

1438 Acts viii. 27.

1439 Acts viii. 30, Acts viii. 31.

1440 Hor. Ep. II. 1. 115, 116.

1441 Hor. Ep. II. i. 117.

1442 Virgil's full name was Publius Vergilius Maro.

1443 Virg. E. iv. 6, 7.

1444 Virg. A. i. 664.

1445 Virg. A. ii. 650.

1446 Cc. 1-2.

1447 C. x.

1448 C. xi.

1449 C. xlvi.

1450 Cc. vii-xii.

1451 C. xx.

1452 C. viii.

1453 C. xxvi.

1454 Cc. xxiii., xxiv.

1455 C. xxxiii. See Letter lxxviii.

1456 1 Cor. xiv. 19.

1457 The mention of Job at this point is curious: it would seem that in Jerome's opinion he was coaeval with or very little later than Moses.

1458 Job xix. 25-27, Vulg.

1459 i.e., Joshua the son of Nun whose name is so rendered by the LXX. Cf. Ecclus. xlvi. 1, AV.

1460 Gal. iv. 26.

1461 Isa. xvi. 1, Vulg. `the rock of the wilderness 0'=Moab.

1462 Also called Coniah and Jehoiachin.

1463 They are reckoned as forming one book in the Hebrew Bible.

1464 Hos. i. 2.

1465 Hos. iii. 1, 3, 4.

1466 Joel i. 4.

1467 Joel ii. 29.

1468 Acts i. 13, Acts i. 15.

1469 The allusion is to Psalms cxx.-cxxxiv. One hundred and twenty is the sum of the numerals one to fifteen.

1470 Amos vii. 14.

1471 Amos iv. 1.

1472 Amos vi. 11.

1473 Amos vii. 1.

1474 Amos vii. 7.

1475 So the Vulgate.

1476 So the LXX.

1477 Amos viii. 1.

1478 Amos viii. 11.

1479 `Edom 0' means `red 0' and is connected with `Adâmâh 0'=`the earth. 0'

1480 Jerome interprets the Hebrew word `Morasthite 0' to mean `my possession. 0'

1481 Mic. v. 1, Vulg.

1482 i.e., Nineveh-Nahum iii. 1.

1483 Nahum i. 15.

1484 The name strictly means `embrace. 0'

1485 Hab. ii. 1.

1486 Hab. iii. 3, Hab. iii. 4.

1487 Strictly `the Lord guards 0' or `hides. 0'

1488 Zeph. i. 10.

1489 So RV. marg. Probably a place in Jerusalem.

1490 Zeph. i. 11, RV.

1491 Ps. cxxvi. 5.

1492 So Vulg. `the desire 0' AV.

1493 Hag. ii. 6, Hag. ii. 7.

1494 Strictly `the Lord is mindful. 0'

1495 i.e., Joshua the High Priest.

1496 Zech. iii. 3.

1497 Zech. iii. 9.

1498 Zech. iv. 2, Zech. iv. 3.

1499 Zech. vi. 1-3.

1500 Zech. ix. 10.

1501 Zech. ix. 9.

1502 This word is not in the Vulg.

1503 Mal. i. 10, Mal. i. 11, RV.

1504 Jer. i. 11.

1505 Jer. i. 13.

1506 Jer. xiii. 23.

1507 Lamentations cc. I.-IV., each verse in which begins with a different letter of the alphabet.

1508 Dan. ii. 45.

1509 See note on LII. 3, p.

1510 The Song of Songs.

1511 i.e. the feast of Purim-Esth. ix. 20-32.

1512 Paraleipomena, the name given in the LXX. to the books of Chronicles.

1513 Veteris instrumenti 'epitomh.

1514 Ps. cxix. 20, PBV.

1515 Plato, Ap. Soc. 21, 22.

1516 Quadriga. cf Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. III. ii. 8.

1517 Clement of Alexandria, following Philo, makes cherub mean wisdom.

1518 Ezek. i. 18, Vulg.

1519 Ezek. i. 7.

1520 Ezek. i. 14.

1521 Ezek. i. 7.

1522 Ezek. i. 11.

1523 Ezek. i. 16.

1524 Ezek. i. 20.

1525 i.e. those of Rome, Corinth, Galatia, Ephesus, Philippi, Colosse, Thessalonica.

1526 Onesimus.

1527 Col. iv. 14; 2 Cor. viii. 18.

1528 Matt. vii. 8.

1529 A verbose rhetorician mentioned by Cic. de Inv. i. 6.

1530 Eusebius of Cremona, who for the next five years remained with Jerome, and afterwards corresponded with him from Italy. See Letter LVII. Rufinus, Apol. i. 19. Jerome, Apol. iii. 4, 5, etc.

1531 2 Cor. vi. 10.

1532 1 Tim. vi. 8.

1533 Cf. Acts v. 4.

1534 Matt. v. 40.

1535 Matt. iv. 18-22.

1536 Mark xii. 41-44.

1537 The last king of Lydia, celebrated for his riches.

1538 i.e. a celibate.

1539 Lucius Furius Camillus, the hero who conquered Veii and freed Rome from the Gauls.

1540 Wisdom iv. 13.

1541 Horace, A. P. 94: the allusion is to a scene in the Heauton Timorumenus of Terence.

1542 Matt. viii. 22.

1543 1 Joh. ii. 6.

1544 Ex. xx. 12.

1545 Ps. xlv. 10, Ps. xlv. 11.

1546 Cant. iv. 7.

1547 Ps. xlv. 10.

1548 Cf. 1 Pet. iii. 3.

1549 Hac ambitione ditata.

1550 Numb. xi. 20, Numb. xi. 31-4.

1551 Pet. ii. 22.

1552 Furia's sister-in-law Blaesilla was through her mother Paula descended from the Gracchi. See Letter CVIII.

1553 Acts xx. 28.

1554 Virg. A. iv. 32.

1555 See Letter XXXVIII.

1556 Persius i. 32 sqq.

1557 Propositum. The word was passing from the meaning of a purpose into that of a formal vow.

1558 Rom. x. 2.

1559 Titiana.

1560 Ezek. xxxiii. 12.

1561 Gen. xxviii. 12.

1562 Rev. iii. 16.

1563 Luke vii. 47.

1564 1 Tim. v. 5.

1565 Eph. vi. 16.

1566 1 Tim. v. 6.

1567 Ezek. xviii. 20.

1568 1 Tim. v. 24, 1 Tim. v. 25.

1569 1 Cor. ix. 27.

1570 1 Tim. iv. 4.

1571 The island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea.

1572 The hundred-eyed son of Inachus appointed by Hera to be the guardian of Io.

1573 1 Cor. vi. 18.

1574 Luke xxi. 34.

1575 Eph. v. 18.

1576 Ter. Enn. iv. 5, 6.

1577 1 Tim. v. 23.

1578 Rom. xiv. 21.

1579 Rom. xiv. 2.

1580 Dan. i. 16.

1581 i.e. Ahab and Zedekiah whose fate is recorded Jer. xxix. 20-23. According to Jerome tradition identified them with the elders who tempted Susannah. although these latter are said to have been stoned and not burned.

1582 Matt. xiii. 45, Matt. xiii. 46.

1583 Jer. vi 16. `The ways. 0' Vulg. VA V. `More than one 0' is Jerome's Gloss.

1584 Ex. xxxiii. 3.

1585 Gen. xxxvii. 23.

1586 Ezek. xvi. 12.

1587 Afterwards Bishop of Tolosa (Toulouse). He is mentioned again in Letters CXXIII. and CXXV.

1588 Luke xvi. 9.

1589 Ps. xli. i, PBV.

1590 Matt. v. 42.

1591 Gal. vi. 10.

1592 Cf. Matt. xxv. 35, Matt. xxv. 36.

1593 1 Cor. vi. 12.

1594 Prov. xix. 25, Vulg.

1595 Cf. Virg. A. iv. 298.

1596 Her cousin Eustochium seems to be meant.

1597 Ex. xv. 21.

1598 Matt. xxv. 4.

1599 Matt. xxvii. 29.

1600 1 Tim. v. 15, 1 Tim. v. 11.

1601 Agrorum tributa.

1602 Luke ii. 36.

1603 Penuel (AV. Phanuel) means `face of God 0' cf. Gen. xxxii. 30.

1604 Asher = `blessedness or wealth. 0'

1605 1 K. xvii.

1606 Joh. xii. 24.

1607 i.e., that of penitence.

1608 Judith xiii.

1609 Ps. cxix. 103.

1610 The meaning of Deborah.

1611 Jerome appears to have read ymtn

for ym(n

. The latter means `my pleasantness. 0'

1612 Made long afterwards.

1613 Isa. xvi. 1 Vulg. `the rock of the desert 0' is a poetical name for Moab.

1614 Mark xii. 43.

1615 Isa. vi. 2, Isa. vi. 3. See Letter, XVIII. ante.

1616 Isa. vi. 6.

1617 See Letters XXIII., LXXVII., etc.

1618 Luke ii. 36.

1619 Ps. xlix. 7. Vulg.

1620 Ps. lxxxvii., 5.

1621 Matt. vi. 34.

1622 Gen. xxx. 33, AV. marg.

1623 Josh. xxii. 27: AV. and RV. have "in time to come."

1624 Instrumentum-a legal term introduced by Tertullian. He uses it both of the Christian dispensation and of its written record.

1625 1 Joh. v. 19. Where, however, the word is entw ponhew.

1626 Matt. vi. 13. apo tou ponhrou.

1627 1 Cor. vi. 18.

1628 Capitulum, "Passage." The present division of the Bible into chapters did not exist in Jerome's time. It is ascribed by some to Abp. Stephen Langton and by others to Card. Hugh de St. Cher.

1629 1 Cor. vi. 13-18.

1630 1 Cor. vi. 13.

1631 Tertullian, on Fasting, I.

1632 Matt. xix. 5; 1 Cor. vi. 16.

1633 Ps. clxi. 4 Vulg.

1634 Rom. vii. 1-3.

1635 1 Cor. vii. 39.

1636 Matt. v. 32.

1637 Matt. xix. 10-12.

1638 Deut. xxii. 23-27.

1639 1 Cor. x. 21.

1640 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

1641 Deut. xxiv. 1-4.

1642 Cf. Letter XL.

1643 1 Cor. xv. 25-28.

1644 Ps. lxii. 1, Vulg.

1645 Gal. iii. 13.

1646 Joh. xiv. 6.

1647 Joh. xii. 32.

1648 Acts xxvi. 2, Acts xxvi. 3.

1649 i.e., the son of Sirach.

1650 Ecclus. xxv. 9.

1651 Letter LI. to John Bp. of Jerusalem.

1652 Cf. Jude 9.

1653 i.e., `most reverend pope. 0' This title at first given to all bishops was in Jerome's time becoming restricted to metropolitans and patriarchs. Jerome, however, still uses it in the wider sense. The omission of the title here may well have seemed deliberate, as Jerome was known to entertain very bitter feelings towards John of Jerusalem.

1654 Livy v. 27.

1655 Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus.

1656 Jerome constantly speaks of Rufinus in this way. See Letter CXXV. 18 and Apol. c. Ruf. I. 13, 32.

1657 Rufinus is meant.

1658 Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, was confined by her father in a brazen tower to which Zeus obtained access in the shape of a shower of gold.

1659 Epiphanius.

1660 Ter. And. prol. 17.

1661 The two speeches on the Crown.

1662 Only a small part of this is extant.

1663 Hor. A. P. 133.

1664 i.e the poets of the so called New Comedy.

1665 kakozhlian.

1666 That is, five years later. Jerome translated the Chronicle of Eusebius at Constantinople in 381-2.

1667 Vix brevis viae spatia consummo.

1668 Preface, translated in this Volume,

1669 Preface §2.

1670 This life long supposed to have been the work of Athanasius was originally composed in Greek but had been rendered into Latin by Evagrius bishop of Antioch.

1671 i.e., Hilary of Poitiers.

1672 Lit. the seventy translators.

1673 Mark v. 41.

1674 Matthew xxvii. 9, Matthew xxvii. 10.

1675 Quod. AV. has `whom. 0'

1676 Zech. xi. 12, 13, Vulg.

1677 Statuarius.

1678 Zech. xi. 12, Zech. xi. 13, AV.

1679 Pedissequus.

1680 Joh. xix. 37: Zech. xii. 10.

1681 i.e., the Italic, for the Vulgate, which was not then published, accurately represents the Hebrew.

1682 Matt. xxvi. 31: Zech. xiii. 7.

1683 Matt. ii. 13-15.

1684 Hos. xi. 1.

1685 i.e., the Septuagirt and Vulgate versions.

1686 James iii. 2.

1687 Matt. ii. 23.

1688 Isa. xi. 1.

1689 So AV. the Vulg. varies slightly.

1690 Matt. i. 22, Matt. i. 23: Isa. vii. 14.

1691 AV.

1692 Matt. ii. 5, Matt. ii. 6.

1693 i.e. the Versio Itala which was vulgata or `commonly used 0' at this time as Jerome's Version was afterwards.

1694 Mic. v. 2.

1695 1 Cor. i. 27.

1696 Mark i. 1-3; see RV.

1697 Mal. iii. 1.

1698 Isa. xl. 3.

1699 Mark ii. 25, Mark ii. 26.

1700 1 Sam. xxi. 1.

1701 1 Sam. xxii. 16-18.

1702 1 Cor. ii. 8, 1 Cor. ii. 9.

1703 This book is no longer extant. It belonged to the same class as the Book of Enoch.

1704 Isa. lxiv. 4, lxx. AV. has `what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him. 0'

1705 Rom. ix. 33.

1706 Lit. `with the old version. 0'

1707 1 Pet. ii. 8. AV. is different.

1708 So the Vulg.: AV. punctuates differently.

1709 i.e. Hamor.

1710 Acts vii. 15-16.

1711 Drachmae.

1712 Spelunca duplex.

1713 AV. marg.

1714 Gen. xxxiii. 18-20. AV. varies slightly.

1715 Ps. xxii. 1.

1716 Isa. xxxi. 9, LXX.

1717 According to the LXX.

1718 Amos vi. 4-6.

1719 Jerome's Vulgate version supplied from the Hebrew the omissions and removed the redundancies of the old Latin version. These were due to the uncertain text of the LXX., on which alone the old Latin version was founded.

1720 This statement is not borne out by the facts.

1721 Cf. Deut. vii. 13.

1722 proarqra.

1723 Lit. `with the heaven and with the earth 0' (Gen. i. 1). In Hebrew the preposition `with 0' is identical in form with the sign of the accus. Hence Aquila's rendering.

1724 Jerome apostrophises his critic.

1725 The famous grammarian and critic of Homer.

1726 Juv. i. 15.

1727 Oleum perdit et impensas qui bovem mittit ad ceroma.

1728 Rufinus and Melania, who were believed by Jerome to have instigated the theft. Their names are inserted in some copies.

1729 Plato, Apol. Soc. 21, 22.

1730 This saying is variously attributed to Chilon and others of the seven wise men of Greece.

1731 Matt. xii. 35.

1732 Luke vi. 44.

1733 Luke xiv. 10.

1734 Wisd. iv. 9.

1735 Nu. xi. 16.

1736 Story of Susannah.

1737 Acts ix. 15.

1738 1 Cor. xv. 10.

1739 Ps. lv. 13: Consessu substituted for consensu of the Vulgate.

1740 Virgil, Aen. xii. 603.

1741 Matt. xxiii. 27.

1742 Matt. xix. 21.

1743 Compare Letter LII.

1744 Cf. Luke xvi. 12.

1745 Cicero, pro Murena, V.

1746 Matt. xxiii. 37.

1747 Ps. xlvi. 4.

1748 Matt. v. 14.

1749 Gal. iv. 26.

1750 Phil. iii. 20., RV.

1751 Joh. iv. 24.

1752 Joh. iii. 8, RV. marg.

1753 Ps. xxiv. 1.

1754 Judg. vi. 36-40.

1755 Luke xiii. 29.

1756 Luke xvi. 22.

1757 Ps. lxxvi. 1.

1758 Ps. xix. 4.

1759 Only the second sentence was spoken in the temple: the first was uttered in the chamber of the last supper.

1760 Joh. xiv. 31.

1761 Matt. xxiii. 38.

1762 Luke xxi. 33.

1763 Jer. vii. 4.

1764 2 Cor. vi. 16.

1765 Rom. viii. 11.

1766 Luke xvii. 21.

1767 Hadrian died in 138 a.d.; Constantine became Emperor in 306 a.d.

1768 Ps. lxxxv. 11, Vulg.

1769 Ezek. viii. 14.

1770 For the tradition that Christ was born in a cave Justin Martyr is the earliest authority (dial. c. Try. 78).

1771 Adonis, killed by a boar and spending half his time in the upper, half in the lower world, is a type of summer overcoming and overcome by winter.

1772 Cf. Luke, vi.

1773 Acts iv. 37.

1774 Castella.

1775 Monachus, lit. "a solitary." Men frequently at this time made vows, especially those of celibacy, without entering a monastery.

1776 2 Kings vi. 1, 2 Kings vi. 2.

1777 Jer. xxxv.

1778 Jer. xxxv. 19.

1779 This title occurs only in the LXX.

1780 2 Kings, x. 15, 2 Kings, x. 16.

1781 Jer. xxxv. 11.

1782 Therasia, the wife of Paulinus is meant.

1783 Matt. x. 16.

1784 Matt. xv. 26.

1785 Matt. xxv. 40.

1786 Cicero, de Off. 11. xv.

1787 Probably a quotation from memory incorrectly made up from Lucan's `Nomina vana Catonis 0' (i. 313).

1788 Persius, iii. 30.

1789 Quintilian, Inst. Or. viii. Procm.

1790 Plautus, Curc. I. i. 55.

1791 Ps. cxix. 18.

1792 2 Cor. iii. 14, 2 Cor. iii. 15.

1793 i.e., the new testament as well as the old may have its true meaning concealed from some.

1794 Luke viii. 8, Luke viii. 10.

1795 Rev. iii. 7.

1796 Cf. Letter LXX. 5.

1797 1 Chron. xi. 5, 1 Chron. xi. 6.

1798 Cf. Luke xii. 3.

1799 Horace, Sat. I. ix. 59, 60.

1800 Virgil, Georg. iii. 67, 68.

1801 Afterwards noted as an assailant of Jerome's ascetic doctrines. See the introduction to Letter LXI.

1802 The allusion seems to be to the behaviour of Vigilantius during an earthquake which occurred when he was at Bethlehem. His fright on the occasion exposed him to the ridicule of the community there. (Against Vig., i. 11.)

1803 As before, Therasia, the wife of Paulinus is meant.

1804 1 Thess. iv. 13.

1805 Mark v. 39.

1806 Joh. xi. 11.

1807 Wisd. iv. 11, Wisd. iv. 14.

1808 Hos. xiii. 15, LXX.

1809 Hos. xiii. 14.

1810 Rom. v. 14.

1811 Ps. xiv. 1.

1812 Rom. iii. 12.

1813 Matt. xxvii. 52, Matt. xxvii. 53.

1814 Eph. v. 14.

1815 Matt. iii. 2.

1816 Matt. xi. 12.

1817 Gen. iii. 24.

1818 Cf. Letter XXXIX.

1819 2 Cor. x 3.

1820 Phi. iii. 20.

1821 Luke xvii. 21.

1822 Ps. lxxvi. 1.

1823 Virg. A. viii. 723.

1824 Luke xxiii. 38.

1825 A Thracian tribe.

1826 The words are quoted by Cicero (T. Q. iii. 13) apparently from the Telamon of Ennius. They are ascribed to Anaxagoras by Diog. Laert.

1827 In his De consolatione of which only a few fragments remain.

1828 Val. Max. v. 10.

1829 In the first year of the Republic. Acc. to Livy (ii. 8) his son was not really dead.

1830 The conqueror of Macedonia. He celebrated his triumph 167 b.c.

1831 Ps. xxx. 5.

1832 Rom. xiii. 12.

1833 Deut. xxxiv. 8.

1834 Josh. xxiv. 30.

1835 Letter XXXIX.

1836 Ps. xlviii. 8.

1837 Joh. xi. 35.

1838 Phi. i. 23.

1839 Phi. i. 21.

1840 i.e. Epaphroditus.

1841 Phi. ii. 27.

1842 mhden agan, ne quid nimis. A saying of one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, 6th cent. b.c. See Grote iv. 127.

1843 Heb. xi. 32.

1844 Judg. xi. 1.

1845 Ezek. xviii. 4.

1846 Gen. xlix. 27.

1847 Dedit escam. This is the reading of the LXX. The Vulgate, like the A.V., has "shall divide the spoil." Compare Letter LXIX 6.

1848 Acts ix. 17. (Cf. Letter LXIX. )

1849 Letter XIV.

1850 For other allusions to a Roman officer's uniform see Letters LXXIX. and CXVIII.

1851 Acts x.

1852 Matt. xix. 21.

1853 Matt. vi. 24.

1854 Like Bonosus (Letter III. 4).

1855 Wisd. iv. 9.

1856 Nu. xi. 16. Presbyterum. This name (afterwards contracted into Priest) is taken from that of the Elders of Israel.

1857 Rom. xii. 15.

1858 1 Tim. v. 2.

1859 Luke xi. 5, Luke xi. 8.

1860 Luke xviii. 1, Luke xviii. 5.

1861 Letter LII.

1862 Matt. xii. 36.

1863 Jerome here confounds two distinct persons: C. Fabius Pictor was the painter; his grandson Q. Fabius the historian.

1864 Ex. xxxi. 2, Ex. xxxi. 3.

1865 1 K. vii. 14. A mistake of Jerome. It was Hiram's father who was a Tyrian.

1866 Hippias of Elis. See Cic. Or. iii. 32.

1867 Conciliabula.

1868 1 Pet. i. 24.

1869 A similar phrase occurs in Letter CXVIII.

1870 Plato, Phaedo xii. Cic. T. Q. 1. 31.

1871 1 Cor. xv. 31, Vulgate.

1872 Gen. v. 27.

1873 Virg. G. iii. 66-68.

1874 Died 361 a.d.

1875 Julian.

1876 Died 363 a.d.

1877 Died 364 a.d.

1878 Died 375 a.d.

1879 Burned to death in a hut after the battle of Adrianople, 378 a.d.

1880 Died 383 a.d. by the hand of Andragathius.

1881 Strangled by Arbogastes at Vienne, 392 a.d.

1882 Aspirants to the purple who were put to death, the first by Valens, the second and third by Theodosius.

1883 Hor. C. II. x. 11, 12.

1884 Banished by Eutropius who had owed his advancement to him.

1885 The prime minister of Theodosius I. Shortly after the accession of Arcadius Gainas the Goth procured his assassination.

1886 One of the generals of Theodosius I., banished to the Oasis at the instigation of Eutropius.

1887 Virg. A. ii. 369.

1888 i.e. the Huns have taken the place of the Chaldaeans described in Hab. i. 8, LXX.

1889 Virg. A. vi. 625-7.

1890 Jer. xxvii. 6.

1891 2 K. xix. 35.

1892 2 Chr. xx. 5-25.

1893 Ex. xvii. 11.

1894 Jornandes corroborates the account of the Huns here given by Jerome.

1895 Isa. xxx. 17.

1896 Herod. vii. cc. 45, 46.

1897 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 1 Cor. xiii. 7, 1 Cor. xiii. 8.

1898 Bishop of Aquileia. His brother Eusebius was also a bishop.

1899 1 Th. v. 21. "Prove all things," Vulg. and A. V.

1900 Probably Aterbius (for whom see Jerome Apol. iii. 33, and note on Letter LXXXVI.) had brought with him some test-formula of orthodoxy which he called upon all anti-Origenists to sign.

1901 Isa. vi. 2. See Letter XVIII.

1902 A disciple of Cleanthes and Zeno, and after them the leading teacher of the Stoic school at Athens. He was born in 280 a.d.

1903 This expression is given in Greek.

1904 The father of Vigilantius is said by Jerome to have been an inn-keeper.

1905 onw lura

1906 Jerome subsequently (Letter CIX.) nicknamed his opponent Dormitantius (`the Sleepy One 0'), his own name Vigilantius meaning `the Wakeful. 0'

1907 Dan. ii. 34, Dan. ii. 45.

1908 Isa. xiv. 14.

1909 1 Th. v. 21.

1910 Is. v. 20.

1911 See note on Letter LVIII.

1912 Luke xviii. 2-5.

1913 Heb. xii. 6.

1914 Rom. i. 8.

1915 That of the Origenists.

1916 Virgil, Aen. iv. 367.

1917 Quoted from a poet in the Latin Anthology.

1918 Matt. xiii. 8.

1919 Paula and her two daughters, Paulina and Eustochium.

1920 Ezek. x. 8-22.

1921 Hab. iii. 8, LXX.

1922 Cf. Wisdom, viii. 7.

1923 1 Cor. i. 24.

1924 Heb. xiii. 4.

1925 i.e., continence in marriage.

1926 Virg. A. i. 494.

1927 Gen. xxxv. 16.

1928 The respective meanings of Benoni and Benjamin.

1929 Gen. i. 28.

1930 1 Sam. iv. 19-22.

1931 Ichabod means `there is no glory 0'; glory being (apparently) a synonym for the ark.

1932 1 Cor. i 26.

1933 Matt. xiii. 31.

1934 Matt. xiii. 33.

1935 Isa. liv. 1.

1936 Virg. A. vi. 625, 627.

1937 Ecclus. iii. 30.

1938 Viz. the treatise entitled Of Work and Alms.

1939 Dan. iv. 27.

1940 Ecclus. iv. 25. Est confusio adducens peccatum: et est confusio adducens gloriam et gratiam, Vulg. Jerome probably quotes from memory. AV. follows the Greek and the Vulg.

1941 Gal. i. 10.

1942 Cf. Jer. i. 18. Ezek. iii. 8, Ezek. iii. 9.

1943 Cf. Luke xiv. 11.

1944 1 S. ii. 30.

1945 Cf. the remark of Aeneas Silvius that "men should be given to places not places, to men."

1946 Palma, i.e. tunica palmata.

1947 Cf. Matt. xix. 29.

1948 Gen. xxvi. 12.

1949 Gen. xxii.

1950 Matt. xix. 21.

1951 Matt. xix. 12.

1952 Rom. ix. 16

1953 Acts v.

1954 1 Cor. ix. 9.

1955 1 Tim. v. 18.

1956 1 Cor. ix. 13.

1957 1 Tim. vi. 8.

1958 Cf. Letter LVIII.

1959 Matt. xiii. 44.

1960 Matt. xiii. 45.

1961 Cf. Dt. xxi. 11, Dt. xxi. 12.

1962 Jer. ii. 22.

1963 Cant. ii. 6. AV. "his' for `her. 0'

1964 Jerome is thinking of Ruth.

1965 1 Cor. i. 30: Heb. xii. 14.

1966 Ps. lxxiii. 26.

1967 Quintilian.

1968 What was the mistake? Did the orator say, "Well enough if fast enough"? The text seems obscure.

1969 Fabius Pietor.

1970 Cf. Letter XLVI.

1971 Cant. iii. 1.

1972 Cant. v. 2.

1973 Cf. Cant. i. 7, Cant. ii. 5, Cant. v. 2.

1974 Ps. lxviii. 13.

1975 Isa. vii. 14, Isa. vii. 15.

1976 Ps. lxviii. 14, Vulg. (acc. to some mss.). Intermedios cleros-the lot or inheritance-with an allusion perhaps to the word clergy formed from clerus.

1977 Perhaps an allusion to Isa. viii. 1. Mahershalal-hash-baz `Spoil speedeth, prey hasteth. 0'

1978 i.e. the oak of Mature under which he entertained the three angels (Gen. xviii. 1-8).

1979 Virg. Aen. vii. 112-129.

1980 Beth-lehem means `house of bread. 0'

1981 v. §14 below.

1982 Gen. xiii. 5-11.

1983 The letter Y. Cf. Pers. iii. 56, 57 and Conington's note.

1984 Gen. xxiii. 19.

1985 i.e. Kirjathsepher close to Hebron (Josh. xv. 13-15) where Sarah was buried.

1986 Cf. Jos. xv. 14.

1987 An allusion to the name of Abraham's heir, Isaac or `laughter 0' (Gen. xxi. 3, Gen. xxi. 6).

1988 Gen. xiv. 13-16.

1989 Rom. xii. 1.

1990 Matt. xx. 28.

1991 Job ii. 4, Job ii. 5.

1992 Luke xix. 2-9.

1993 Gen. iv. 7, LXX.

1994 Luke xiv. 28.

1995 See Letter LXI

1996 Joh. ix. 2, Joh. ix. 3.

1997 Ps. xci. 10.

1998 Ps. lxxiii. 13, Ps. lxxiii. 15.

1999 Gen. xxvii.

2000 Gen. xlviii. 10.

2001 Gen. xlix. 10.

2002 2 K. xxiii. 29.

2003 Ezek. xvi. 42. In the Vulgate the tenses are different, but the sense is substantially the same.

2004 Heb. xii. 6.

2005 Luke xvi. 25.

2006 Nahum i. 9.

2007 Luke vi. 42.

2008 Heraclius, a deacon of Pannonia, who had been sent to Bethlehem by his bishop Amabilis to procure from Jerome a long promised commentary on the Visions of Isaiah. This, which Jerome subsequently incorporated as book V. in his complete work on the prophet, Heraclius succeeded in obtaining from him. See the Preface to the Commentary.

2009 Matt. xx. 15.

2010 AV. `unbelief. 0'

2011 Rom. xi. 32.

2012 Rom. v. 20.

2013 Ex. xii. 29, Ex. xii. 30, Ex. xii. 38.

2014 The Cainites appear to have denied the efficacy of the atonement.

2015 AV. `sin. 0'

2016 Joh. i. 29.

2017 Joh. v. 19.

2018 i.e. Paul.

2019 1 Pet. i. 2.

2020 1 Tim. iii. 2.

2021 This synod held in 359 a.d. was attended by about 450 bishops. It put forth an Arian formula which caused general consternation. "The whole world," says Jerome, "groaned and was astonished to find itself Arian."

2022 See note on Letter LXI. 3.

2023 Cf. Cic. In Pis. 1.

2024 1 Tim. iii. 1-7.

2025 Tit. i. 5-9.

2026 Rendered `elders 0' in AV.

2027 Cf. Rom. i. 26, Rom. i. 27.

2028 Exoleti.

2029 A Scottish tribe, cannibals according to Jerome (Against Jov. ii. 7.)

2030 Bk. V. 457.

2031 Matt. vii. 5.

2032 Matt. xxiii. 23, Matt. xxiii. 24, RV.

2033 Gen. i. 28.

2034 Heb. xiii. 4.

2035 1 Cor. iii. 17, RV.

2036 1 Cor. vi. 11.

2037 Ex. xxi. 10.

2038 Lev. xxi. 7, Lev. xxi. 13.

2039 Canon xv.

2040 Cf. Ph. ii. 14, Ph. ii. 15.

2041 1 Tim. iii. 4.

2042 Isa. xxvii. 11, LXX. AV. follows the Hebrew.

2043 AV. that are at ease.

2044 Isa. xxxii. 9.

2045 Prov. xxxi. 10, Prov. xxxi. 11.

2046 Prov. xiv. 1.

2047 Jer. iii. 20.

2048 2 Cor. xi. 2.

2049 i.e. that of strained interpretations.

2050 V. Dict. Ant. s. v. stola and cf. Cic. Phil. ii. 18, 44.

2051 Gen. i. 2.

2052 It is hardly necessary to remark that this derivation is purely fanciful and has no foundation in fact.

2053 Ezek. i. 22.

2054 Gen. ii. 7.

2055 Query a reference to Isa. xl. 12: the Latin is obscure.

2056 Paradisus.

2057 Gen. ii. 8, Gen. ii. 10.

2058 Ezek. xlvii. 1, Ezek. xlvii. 8.

2059 Gen. viii. 8, Gen. viii. 11.

2060 Matt. iii. 16.

2061 Ps. lxxiv. 13, 14 LXX.

2062 Deut. viii. 15.

2063 udrofobouj et lymphaticos faciunt.

2064 Exod. xv. 23-27; Luke x. i.

2065 Gen. xxvi. 15, Gen. xxvi. 18.

2066 Gen. xxi. 31.

2067 1 Kings i. 38; 2 Chron. xxxii. 30.

2068 Gen. xxiv. 15, Gen. xxiv. 16.

2069 Gen. xxix. 10, Gen. xxix. 11.

2070 Gen. xxvii. 36.

2071 Exod. ii. 16, Exod. ii. 17.

2072 Joh. iii. 23.

2073 Matt. iii. 13, Matt. iii. 17.

2074 The turning of the water into wine at Cana (Joh. ii. 1, Joh. ii. 11).

2075 Joh. iv. 13, Joh. iv. 14.

2076 Joh. iii. 5.

2077 Joh. xix. 34: Jerome here follows Tertullian and Cyril of Jerusalem.

2078 Matt. xxviii. 19.

2079 Acts ii. 38.

2080 Isa. lxvi. 7, Isa. lxvi. 8.

2081 Gen. xlix. 27.

2082 Acts ix. 17, Acts ix. 18. Comp. Letter LX. 8.

2083 Acts viii. 27-38.

2084 Jer. xiii. 23.

2085 Acts xix. 1-7.

2086 Ps. xxix. 3, Ps. xxix. 10. AV. `the Lord sitteth upon the flood. 0'

2087 Cant. iv. 2.

2088 Gal. iv. 19.

2089 1 Cor. iii. 2.

2090 AV. "though wilt cast all their sins."

2091 Mic. vii. 19.

2092 Ps. xxxii. 1-2.

2093 Ezek. ii. 1.

2094 Ezek. xxxvi. 24-26. AV. punctuates differently.

2095 Gal. vi. 15, 'nature for `creature, 0' a slip of memory.

2096 Rev. xiv. 3.

2097 Eph. iv. 22.

2098 Rom. vii. 6.

2099 Rev. ii. 17.

2100 Rom. vi. 3, Rom. vi. 4.

2101 Col. ii. 13, Col. ii. 14.

2102 Doctor Gentium.

2103 1 Tim. iii. 1-7.

2104 Tit. i. 6.

2105 AV. `sober. 0'

2106 Lev. x. 9.

2107 Cic. de Or. i 29.

2108 Cf. 2 Cor. x. 14.

2109 Cf. Dt. xvii. 9-11.

2110 Tit. i. 9-14.

2111 Cf. 1 Tim. v. 6.

2112 Gen. ix. 20, Gen. ix. 21.

2113 Gen. xix. 30-38.

2114 Isa. l. 6.

2115 1 Pet. ii. 23.

2116 AV. `patient. 0'

2117 1 Sam. xii. 3-5.

2118 Cf. 1 Tim. vi. 8.

2119 Tit. i. 7.

2120 1 Sam. ii. 12-17, 1 Sam. ii. 22.

2121 The case of Ambrose.

2122 AV. `patient. 0'

2123 Sacerdos: as usual a bishop is meant.

2124 Lit. `chair. 0'

2125 Jas. ii. 11.

2126 Jas. ii. 10.

2127 Either a teacher of civil law mentioned by Pliny (viii. 40), or else one of the writers of the Augustan History.

2128 The authority for this is Josephus.

2129 Prov. i. 1-6.

2130 Tit. i. 12.

2131 1 Cor. xv. 33. The line is also attributed to Euripides.

2132 Acts xvii. 28.

2133 Acts xvii. 22.

2134 Cf. 1 Sam. xvii. 50, 1 Sam. xvii. 51.

2135 Deut. xxi. 10-13.

2136 Hos. i. 2-4.

2137 Isa. vii. 20.

2138 Ezek. v. 1-5.

2139 i.e. Lactantius, vide Inst. v. 4.

2140 The author of a polemical treatise against Christianity, fragments of which still persuaded in Origen's reply. He was a Platonist.

2141 A neoplatonist writer who flourished in the third century.

2142 See note on Letter XLVIII.

2143 Contemporary with Eusebius the historian. His Symposium still extant proves him to have been a warm admirer of Plato.

2144 The learned bishop of Caesarea (a.d. 260-340). His Church History and other works are translated or described in Vol. i. of this series.

2145 Probably the learned Bishop of Laodicea, whose views were condemned at Constantinople in 381.

2146 Julian was emperor from a.d. 261 to a.d. 263. He reverted from Christianity to paganism and did all in his power to harass the Church.

2147 According to Theodoret (H. E. iii. 25) Julian's last words were "Though hast conquered, O Galilaean."

2148 A Jew born at Jerusalem a.d. 37. His historical works, still extant, are of great value.

2149 See note on Letter XXII.

2150 The author of an apology for the Christians presented to the Emperor Hadrian. Only small fragments of the work are now extant. See for him and Aristides Jerome's Book on Famous Men, in Vol. iii. of this series, c. xix. xx.

2151 Another Athenian apologist contemporary with Quadratus. His Apology has lately been published. Cambridge, Eng., 1891.

2152 Commonly called Justin Martyr. Born in Samaria of Greek parents, he is said to have undergone martyrdom at Rome. Fl. a.d. 140-150.

2153 Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.

2154 Fl. a.d. 170. He composed an Apology addressed to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

2155 A highly esteemed writer, from 171 a.d. onwards, who wrote many treatises, amongst which were an apology addressed to Marcus Aurelius, and several works against Montanism.

2156 Fl. a.d. 171, the writer of several pastoral letters to other churches famous in their day but no longer extant.

2157 See note on Letter XLVIII.

2158 Born at Edessa c. 155 a.d. died 223 a.d. A mystical theologian of a gnostic type who held a high position at the court of the Abgars. His writings have perished.

2159 Bishop of Lyons in the latter half of the second century. He was a native of Asia Minor and his younger days had known Polycarp.

2160 Bishop of Lyons, suffered martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius.

2161 A convert from stoicism to Christianity in the latter part of the second century who as the head of the catechetical school at Alexandria was the instructor of Clement.

2162 Head of the catechetical school at Alexandria a.d. 190-203.

2163 strwmateij.

2164 upotupwseij.

2165 See Letter XXXIII. Of Origen's Miscellanies only a few fragments remain. `They appear to have discussed various topics in the light of ancient philosophy and scripture. 0'-Westcott.

2166 A neoplatonic and neopythagorean philosopher who flourished in the age of the Antonines.

2167 A Stoic philosopher, the friend and teacher of the poet Persius. Having criticised Nero's literary style too freely he was banished by that emperor.

2168 An active Christian writer of the reign of Commodus.

2169 Fl. a.d. 200-225, the first antipope. His Refutation of All Heresies is of great interest and value.

2170 Fl. a.d. 186. accused of being a Christian, he delivered in the senate an apology for the faith.

2171 A writer of the third century who compiled a Chronicle of the world's history from the creation to his own day. It has long since perished.

2172 Surnamed Thaumaturgus or Wonderworker. One of Origen's pupils, he wrote a Panegyric (extant) on his master. Fl. 233-270.

2173 Head of the catechetical school, and afterwards bishop, of Alexandria. He died a.d. 265.

2174 Trained in the school of Alexandria and praised by Eusebius for his great learning.

2175 The intimate friend of Eusebius of Caesarea and founder of the famous library in that city.

2176 See note on Letter XLVIII.

2177 A presbyter of Antioch and apparently a pupil of Malchion. He suffered martyrdom at Nicomedia a.d. 311.

2178 A presbyter of Antioch in the reign of Aurelian. He took part in the proceedings against Paul of Samosata.

2179 See note on above.

2180 Bishop of Antioch at the time of the Nicene Council. One of the earliest and most vigorous opponents of Arianism.

2181 Bishop of Alexandria from a.d. 326 to a.d. 373. The great champion of the diversity of Christ again Arius and the followers.

2182 Flor. a.d. 341-359. After studying at Alexandria he lived for some time at Antioch where he took part in an Arian council.

2183 A famous lawyer of Berytus converted to Christianity by Spyridon a bishop in Cyprus.

2184 Bishop of Amasea in Pontus, a constant student of Demosthenes and himself no mean orator.

2185 An Egyptian bishop the friend of Antony and Athanasius. Some of his writings are still extant.

2186 This bishop is best known through the Emperor Julian's vain attempt to expel him from his see.

2187 a.d. 329-379. Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and a strenuous champion of orthodoxy. His works are still extant.

2188 Gregory of Nazianzus. Bishop of Sasima and for a short time of Constantinople (a.d. 379-381).

2189 Flor. a.d. 350-400. Archbishop of Iconium. A friend of Basil and of Gregory Nazianzen.

2190 An African writer who is his last days became a Montanist. Flor. a.d. 175-225.

2191 A Roman lawyer of the second century. His Apology-a Dialogue entitled Octavius-is extant.

2192 Fl. a.d. 300. A professor of rhetoric at Sicca in Africa and a heathen. He composed his apology to prove the reality of his conversion.

2193 An African rhetorician and apologist of the fourth century. His works are extant.

2194 A celebrated man of letters at Rome in the middle of the fourth century, the story of whose conversion is told in Augustine's Confessions (viii. 2-5).

2195 Bishop of Carthage. He suffered martyrdom a.d. 358. His works are extant.

2196 Bishop of Poitiers (died a.d. 368). A champion of the orthodox faith against Arianism.

2197 A Spanish Christian of the fourth century. His "Story of the Gospels," a life of Christ in hexameter verse, still exists.

2198 For most of the writers mentioned in this section see also Jerome's Book of Famous Men translated in Vol. iii. of this series.

2199 For an account of Epicurus see Letter V. note. He professed to have read but little.

2200 That Rufinus is the person meant is plain from a reference made to this passage in Apol. adv. Rufinum, i. 30 and also from Letter CII. Jerome is however mistaken in connecting this Calpurnius with Sallust. He is mentioned by Plutarch as a treacherous friend. Sallust does mention a certain Calpurinus Bestia, and Jerome has probably confounded the two.

2201 Ps. lv. 6. PBV.

2202 Cant. iii. 1.

2203 Matt. viii. 11.

2204 Acts x. 1.

2205 Rom. xv. 24.

2206 Italy.

2207 Rom. xv. 19.

2208 Acts xxviii. 30.

2209 Utriusque instrumenti aeternam domum. The `twofold record 0' is that of the old and new testaments both of which speak of the church under the figure of a house. For the term "instrument" see note on Letter

2210 Matt. iv. 19.

2211 Cf. Ps. civ. 26.

2212 Ps. lxiii. 1, Ps. lxiii. 2.

2213 Ps. lv. 7, Ps. lv. 8.

2214 Luke ix. 62.

2215 Matt. ix. 20.

2216 Cant. v. 2.

2217 Matt. xxiv. 17, Matt. xxiv. 18.

2218 Gen. xiii. 10.

2219 Jerome quoting from memory substitutes `crown 0' for `prize. 0'

2220 1 Cor. ix. 24.

2221 Ruth i. 14.

2222 Luke xix. 5.

2223 Joh. xii. 2.

2224 Mark xiv. 8.

2225 Matt. xxvi. 6.

2226 Gen. xii. 1.

2227 Ps. xxxix. 12.

2228 Phil. iii. 13.

2229 Ps. lxxxiv. 7.

2230 Matt. xii. 50.

2231 His wife Theodora.

2232 Gen. xxxix. 12.

2233 Mark xiv. 51, Mark xiv. 52.

2234 2 Kings ii. 11, 2 Kings ii. 13.

2235 1 Kings xix. 21.

2236 Ecclus. xiii. 1.

2237 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

2238 Matt. vi. 24.

2239 A disciple of Socrates, subsequently the founder of the Cynic School. Fl. 366 b.c.

2240 See note on Letter LXVI.

2241 Matt. xix. 28.

2242 2 Cor. viii. 14.

2243 Luke xvi. 9.

2244 Acts iv. 34, Acts iv. 35.

2245 Prov. xiii. 8, LXX.

2246 Prov. iii. 9, LXX.

2247 Cf. Matt. vi. 20.

2248 See note on Letter XXII.

2249 A writer of the sub-apostolic age who had been a disciple of the apostle John. He was bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia.

2250 Another sub-apostolic writer who was also a disciple of John. He became bishop of Smyrna and underwent martyrdom at the age of 86.

2251 See note on Letter XXXIII.

2252 The blind theologian of Alexandria by whose teaching Jerome had himself profited. See Letter XXXIV.

2253 The old testament as translated direct from the Hebrew.

2254 The first eight books.

2255 This work Jerome accomplished between the years 383 and 390 a.d. Only the Psalter and Job are extant.

2256 This task he undertook at the request of pope Damasus in 383 a.d. See Letter XXVII.

2257 i.e. on Saturday.

2258 At this time the communion was celebrated daily at Constantinople, in Africa, and in Spain. At Rome it was celebrated on every day of the week except Saturday (the Sabbath). See Socrates, H.E. v. 22.

2259 A leading Roman churchman, bishop of Portus, in the early part of the third century, the rival and enemy of pope Callistus and author of many theological treatises, one of which-the Refutation of all Heresies-has recently become famous.

2260 Compare the similar advice given by Gregory the Great to Augustine of Canterbury (Bede, H. E. 1. 27).

2261 Nothing in the book of Acts bears out this statement. Fasting at the times mentioned was forbidden in Jerome's day.

2262 Daily if you will and on fast days as well as on feast days.

2263 Ps. xxxiv. 8.

2264 Ps. xlv. 1, Vulg.

2265 i.e. the period of fifty days between Easterday and Whitsunday. See Letter XLI.

2266 i.e. his wife Theodora.

2267 Jer. x. 23.

2268 Exod. iii. 3.

2269 Hos. xiii. 15, Vulg. Quia ipse inter fratres dividet. AV. follows the Hebrew.

2270 Hos. xiii. 14, Hos. xiii. 15.

2271 Isa. xi. 1, Vulg.

2272 Cant. ii. 1.

2273 Ps. lxiii. 1, 2, Vulg.

2274 1 Thess. iv. 13.

2275 Luke ii. 14, Vulg.

2276 Rom. i. 7.

2277 Ps. lxxvi. 2. "Salem" (A.V.), the Hebrew word for peace.

2278 See Jerome's Book of Hebrew Names Cf. also Letter CVIII.

2279 Matt. xviii. 10.

2280 Wisd. iv. 11-14.

2281 Matt. xii. 36.

2282 Gal. iii. 28.

2283 1 Cor. xv. 53.

2284 Matt. xxii. 30.

2285 Origenism.

2286 Probably as revived by Priscillian, who was put to death 385. See Jerome On Illustrious Men, c. 121.

2287 These terms, the meanings of which are very uncertain, are either the names of aeons or magical formulae used by the Marcosians in the celebration of their mysteries.

2288 A gnostic of the school of Valentinus, who taught in the middle of the second century. Jerome is in error when he describes him as a disciple of Basilides.

2289 2 Tim. iii. 6, 2 Tim. iii. 7.

2290 An error for `two hundred years ago. 0'

2291 Is. xxxiii. 15. Jerome's allusion may be to the execution of Priscillian in 385. Lucinius may have shared the views of Ambrose and Martin against the shedding of blood.

2292 Ps. cxii. 9.

2293 Luke ix. 48.

2294 Matt. x. 40.

2295 Isa. xlix. 2.

2296 Ps. cxxi. 4.

2297 Dan. iv. 13. Lit. May Hir, that is the watcher, Hir being the Hebrew word.

2298 Cant. v. 2.

2299 Ps. xxv. 7.

2300 1 Tim. iii. 6. AV. adapted.

2301 James iv. 6.

2302 Cf. Ps. lxxv. 5.

2303 Matt. xi. 29.

2304 Ps. cxxxii. 1, Vulg. AV. has `afflictions. 0'

2305 Prov. xviii. 12.

2306 Eccl. iv. 9-12. The last clause is Jerome's own.

2307 Cant. iv. 9.

2308 Ex. iii. 3.

2309 Cicero ascribes this piece of fanaticism to Democritus and Metrodorus.

2310 Jer. ix. 21. LXX.

2311 Matt. v. 28.

2312 Joh. iv. 35.

2313 The legendary oppressor of the Jews, whose fate is described in the Book of Judith.

2314 Hagg. i. 6.

2315 Matt. vi. 20.

2316 Nu. xxxiii. 47, Nu. xxxiii. 48.

2317 Josh. v. 2, Josh. v. 9.

2318 Josh. vi. 20.

2319 Josh. x. 1, Josh. x. 26.

2320 Josh. viii. 10, Josh. xi. 10.

2321 Letter XXXIX.

2322 Letter LX.

2323 Letter LXVI.

2324 Ennius.

2325 Matt. xix. 9. 1 Cor. vii. 11.

2326 1 Cor. vi. 16.

2327 A Roman jurist of great renown who held high legal office first under Marcus Aurelius and afterwards under Severus. He was put to death by Caracalla.

2328 1 Cor. vii. 9.

2329 Rom. vii. 23.

2330 1 Tim. v. 14.

2331 1 Tim. v. 15.

2332 A senator who having conspired against Nero was by that emperor put to death. His palace on the Aelian Hill was long afterwards bestowed by Constantine upon pope Silvester who made it a church which it has ever since remained.

2333 Joh. xviii. 15-27: Joh. xxi. 15-17.

2334 Ex. xxxii. 30-35.

2335 2 Sam. xii. 16.

2336 Ps. li. 4, Ps. li. 12.

2337 1 Kings xxi. 25.

2338 1 K. xxi. 19, 1 K. xxi. 21.

2339 1 K. xxi. 27.

2340 1 K. xxi. 28, 1 K. xxi. 29.

2341 2 Chr. xxxiii. 12, 2 Chr. xxxiii. 13.

2342 Jon. iii. 5-10.

2343 Luke xviii. 13.

2344 Rigourists who denied the power of the Church to absolve persons who had fallen into sin.

2345 Ph. iv. 18.

2346 Ps. li. 17.

2347 Cf. Ezek. xviii. 23.

2348 Bar. v. 5, cf. Isa. lx. 1.

2349 Luke ix. 26.

2350 Nu. xii. 14.

2351 Isa. xlvii. 1, Isa. xlvii. 2.

2352 Isa. xlvii. 14, Vulg.

2353 Linteamina.

2354 Ecclus. xi. 25.

2355 Dilapidare, vendre pierre àpierre-Goelzer.

2356 Luke xvi. 19-24.

2357 Virg. Aen. vi. 625-627.

2358 Eccl. i. 18.

2359 Nu. xxiv. 15-19.

2360 Nu. xxxiii.

2361 Letter LXIV.

2362 Letter LXXVIII. on the Mansions or Halting-places of Israel in the Desert.

2363 The Sea of Azov.

2364 The Don.

2365 An Asiatic tribe to the East of the Caspian Sea.

2366 Hdt. i. 106, (of the Scythians).

2367 The Origenistic controversy in which Jerome, Paula and Epiphanius took one side, John bishop of Jerusalem, Rufinus, and Melania the other.

2368 Letter XIV.

2369 i.e. in the desert where many women lived as solitaries.

2370 Like that in which Abraham entertained the angels. See Letter LXVI. 11.

2371 Num. xxiii. 21. LXX.

2372 Acts xxviii. 7.

2373 Rom. viii. 28: note that Jerome substitutes `fear 0' for `love. 0'

2374 The remnant of her fortune.

2375 Luke xvi. 9.

2376 Virg. A. xi. 139.

2377 Virg. A. viii. 287, 288.

2378 Eph. vi. 12.

2379 Luke xv. 7, Luke xv. 10.

2380 i.e. Letter LXXVIII. q. v.

2381 Eccl. ix. 8; Rev. iii. 4.

2382 Rev. xiv. 4.

2383 Matt. xx. 15.

2384 Luke x. 30; Luke xv. 5.

2385 Joh. xiv. 2.

2386 Rom. v. 20.

2387 Luke vii. 47.

2388 Matt. xi. 29.

2389 Lev. xix. 15.

2390 Isa. xli. 8; Jas. ii. 23.

2391 Also named Nebridius, Prefect of Gaul, then of the East.

2392 See letter CXXIV.

2393 Luke xviii. 1-5.

2394 Aelia Flaccilla, the wife of Theodosius who is here called "the unvanquished emperor."

2395 Salvina was the daughter of Gildo who at the time was tributary king of Mauritania.

2396 Acts x. 1, Acts x. 2.

2397 Wisdom iv. 11, Wisdom iv. 14.

2398 Acts x. 34, Acts x. 35.

2399 Matt. viii. 10.

2400 Gen. xli. 42-44.

2401 Gen. xli. 50-52.

2402 Eccl. vii. 12.

2403 Matt. xix. 23, Matt. xix. 24.

2404 Mark x. 27.

2405 1 Tim. vi. 17-19: AV. has "eternal life" in the last verse.

2406 Animal tortuosum. The epithet recurs in Letter CVII.

2407 Ps. lv. 6.

2408 Matt. xiii. 31, Matt. xiii. 32.

2409 Isa. lx. 6.

2410 Gen. xxxvii. 25.

2411 Jer. viii. 22.

2412 So the Vulgate renders Zaphnath-Paaneah the name given to Joseph by Pharaoh. (Gen. xli. 45).

2413 Horace, Epist. I. vii. 30, 31.

2414 1 Tim. vi. 9.

2415 Matt. xix. 21.

2416 Luke xvi. 9.

2417 Matt. iv. 18-22.

2418 2 Cor. viii. 14.

2419 1 Tim. vi. 8.

2420 Ecclus. iii. 30.

2421 Cf. Dan. iii. 25.

2422 Gen. xxxix. 12.

2423 The allusion is to the word "officer" in Gen. xxxvii. 36. See AV. margin.

2424 Rom. vii. 23.

2425 Arcadius and Honorius.

2426 Isa. xl. 6.

2427 Gen. iii. 19.

2428 Wisd. iv. 9.

2429 Wisd. iv. 13.

2430 Virg. A. iii. 490.

2431 Virg. G. iv. 82.

2432 Arcadius.

2433 Eudoxia.

2434 Ps. cxxvii. 3.

2435 1 Tim. v. 9, 1 Tim. v. 10.

2436 The three degrees of chastity are those of a virgin, a widow, and a wife.

2437 1 Tim. iv. 12.

2438 Gal. ii. 9, Gal. ii. 10.

2439 Cf. 1 Tim. v. 3.

2440 1 Tim. ii. 15. AV. has `sobriety 0' for `chastity. 0'

2441 1 Tim. v. 22.

2442 1 Tim. v. 6.

2443 Acts ix. 15.

2444 2 Cor. xiii. 3, Vulg.

2445 Rom. vii. 19.

2446 1 Cor. ix. 27.

2447 1 K. iii. 3.

2448 Many drew a distinction between the flesh of quadrupeds and that of birds, abstaining from the former but using the latter.

2449 1 Tim. iv. 4.

2450 Rom. xiv. 21.

2451 Eph. v. 18.

2452 1 Cor. vii. 34.

2453 Virgil, Aen. iv. 28, 29.

2454 Dido, queen of Carthage.

2455 Quoted from Tertullian (ad Mart. IV.). The same words recur in Letters CVII. and CXXX.

2456 Prov. iv. 23.

2457 Matt. xv. 19.

2458 Gen. viii. 21.

2459 Gal. v. 19-23.

2460 Horace, Sat. I iii. 68, 69.

2461 Horace, Sat. I. vi. 66.

2462 Ps. lxxvii. 4.

2463 Ps. iv. 4, LXX. Quoted Eph. iv. 26.

2464 A pythagorean philosopher, mathematician, general, and statesman. He was a contemporary of Plato.

2465 Jas. i. 20.

2466 1 Cor. vii. 9.

2467 Heb. xiii. 4.

2468 1 Tim. v. 14, 1 Tim. v. 15.

2469 Ezek. xvi. 25.

2470 Ezek. xxiii. 3.

2471 Exod. xxxii. 4.

2472 Ezek. xx. 25.

2473 1 Tim. v. 11, 1 Tim. v. 12.

2474 Phil. iii. 13.

2475 As Judith cut off the head of Holofernes (Judith xiii.).

2476 Luke ii. 36-38.

2477 i.e. Jerome.

2478 Cant. i. 4. See the Preface to Origen on the Canticles translated in this volume.

2479 Rem maioris gloriae sequitur ut pater verbi sit potius quam interpres.

2480 i.e. St. Paul.

2481 Or Pamphilus.

2482 See this treatise in vol. iii. of this series. Rufinus with John of Jerusalem had been already accused of Origenism. See Letter LI. 6.

2483 For this adjuration comp. Rev. xxii. 18, Rev. xxii. 19, and Stieren's Irenaeus i. 821.

2484 Matt. xxv. 41.

2485 Matt. xxii. 13.

2486 Mark ix. 44.

2487 Chromatius and Eusebius of Aquileia.

2488 Concordia, near Aquileia.

2489 See the introduction to Letter CXVII.

2490 i.e. insincerely.

2491 Plautus, Aul. ii. 2, 18.

2492 Paulinian (of whose ordination an account is given in Letter LI.) had been sent to Italy by Jerome in a.d. 398 partly to counteract the proceedings of Rufinus and partly to sell the family property at Stridon (see Letter LXVI.

2493 Rufinus the Syrian, to be carefully distinguished from his more famous namesake (to whom this letter is addressed) of Aquileia. He was a monk in Jerome's monastery at Bethlehem.

2494 Gal. v. 15.

2495 Joh. xiv. 27.

2496 Matt. v. 9.

2497 1 Cor. iv. 21.

2498 Cf. Heb. xii. 18.

2499 Ps. cxxxii. 1, LXX.

2500 Matt. xi 29.

2501 Rom. xii. 18.

2502 Jer. xi. 14, LXX.

2503 Matt. v. 23, Matt. v. 24.

2504 1 Cor. xiv. 16, where in the Greek `giving of thanks 0' is `eucharist. 0'

2505 Matt. xxvi. 48, Matt. xxvi. 49: the kiss of peace formed an integral part of the eucharistic office from primitive till mediaeval times.

2506 Attributed by Cicero to Ennius.

2507 Prov. 1. 7.

2508 1 Joh. iv. 18.

2509 1 K. xii. 10.

2510 Tarquin the Proud the last king of Rome was driven into exile because of his many acts of tyranny.

2511 Nu. xii. 3.

2512 Exod. xvii. 4.

2513 Exod. xxxii. 31, Exod. xxxii. 32.

2514 Joh. x. 11, RV.; Luke xv. 4, Luke xv. 5.

2515 Rom. ix. 3, Rom. ix. 4, RV.

2516 Eph. vi. 4.

2517 John, Bishop of Jerusalem, who had accused Jerome of Origenism, a charge which was brought against himself by Epiphanius (see Letter LI.).

2518 Jerome represents John as saying that he took advantage of a verse in the lesson "to preach on faith and all the dogmas of the Church (c. Joh. Jer. ii.).

2519 Jerome now addresses John of Jerusalem.

2520 The Origenists.

2521 The orthodox.

2522 Philemon, 10.

2523 The highest and lowest offices in the Roman magistracy. Jerome insinuates that if the ordained slave was a common informer so also was John of Jerusalem.

2524 A hit at Rufinus.

2525 The statement that he had read 6000 volumes of Origen was attributed to Epiphanius by Rufinus and John of Jerusalem. Cf. Apol. c. Ruf. ii. c. 13.

2526 Paulinian, who had been ordained by Epiphanius.

2527 Sacerdotes; lit. `sacrificing priests. 0'

2528 Not by himself but by Epiphanius.

2529 Otherwise Lydda, a town in the south of Judah at this time the seat of a bishopric.

2530 Aelia Capitolina was the name given by Hadrian to the colony established by him on the site of Jerusalem.

2531 Nu. iv. 3, LXX. AV. follows the Hebrew.

2532 2 Cor. v. 17.

2533 1 Tim. iv. 12.

2534 The word `presbyter 0' means elder.

2535 Here as frequently in Jerome the word `sacerdos 0' is used to denote a bishop.

2536 Probably Isidore, who had taken a view hostile to Jerome, and who at this time fell under the displeasure of Theophilus.

2537 The execution of the decree was stopped by the sudden death of the imperial minister Rufinus.

2538 John of Jerusalem.

2539 Ps. xxiv. 1.

2540 Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 19.

2541 1 Cor. xiii. 4-7.

2542 1 Cor. xiii. 13.

2543 Eccl. iv. 12.

2544 Cf. Col. iii. 14.

2545 Cf. Joh. xiii. 20.

2546 Gal. v. 15.

2547 i.e. Rufinus's version of Origen's treatise, On First Principles, with the Preface, translated in vol. iii. of this series. See also Letters LXXX. and LXXXI.

2548 1 Thess. v. 15.

2549 Rom. xii. 21.

2550 Matt. v. 39.

2551 Of these the two founders of Montanism the first was a Phrygian of the second century who professed to be the special organ of the Holy Ghost while the second was a female disciple who claimed to exercise the gift of prophecy in furtherance of his aims.

2552 Dimidiatam Christi introduxit oeconomiam. Apollinaris taught that in Christ the divine personality supplied the place of a human soul. In his view, therefore, Christ ceased to be "very man."

2553 Eusebius, although he sided with the Arians, always claimed to be orthodox. However, as Newman says, "his acts are his confession."

2554 Isa. v. 20.

2555 Hor. S. 1. x. 1-4.

2556 See Letter L.

2557 From this Jew Jerome took lessons in Hebrew during the earlier years of his life at Bethlehem. From time to time he also consulted other Jewish scholars.

2558 Joh. iii. 2.

2559 Cf. Rev. ii. 9.

2560 Isa. vi. 2.

2561 Cf. Letter XVIII.

2562 Matt. vii. 6.

2563 Ps. cxix. 11.

2564 Ps. xv. 2, Ps. xv. 3 from memory.

2565 Gal. vi. 10.

2566 strwmateij, lit. = `tapestries. 0' See note on Letter LXX.

2567 The doctrine alluded to is probably that of the Trinity.

2568 i.e. the Bishops present at Nicaea.

2569 The founder of a Gnostic sect in the second century. He taught first in Egypt and afterwards in Rome.

2570 See note on Letter XLVIII.

2571 The Montanists were so called because the headquarters of their sect were at Pepuza a small village in Phrygia.

2572 Croesus when he asked whether he should resist Cyrus was told that, if he did so, he would overthrow a mighty kingdom, a prophecy fulfilled in his own destruction; while Pyrrhus long afterwards received an equally evasive answer in the words, "Pyrrhus the Sons of Rome may well defeat."

2573 1 Cor. xv. 40.

2574 Article XI. of the Apostles' Creed speaks in the original forms of the resurrection not of "the body" but of "the flesh:" and it is still found in this shape in the Anglican office for the visitation of the sick.

2575 Cf. Matt. xxii. 30.

2576 Cf. Luke xxiv. 39.

2577 A favourite metaphor with Jerome to describe the nature of Christian penitence.

2578 Ps. xcv. 6, Vulg.

2579 AV. `prove. 0'

2580 1 Thess. v. 21.

2581 See note on above.

2582 Acts iii. 21.

2583 See Jerome's preface to his version of Origen's Homilies on Ezekiel: and his preface to his own Treatise on Hebrew Names. See also Letter XXXIII.

2584 Origen died at Tyre about the year 255 a.d.

2585 See note on Letter LXX.

2586 tomoi.

2587 Tractatus.

2588 Hexaëmeron: an account of the creation is meant.

2589 Gen. xxxiv. 30.

2590 His father Leonides suffered martyrdom in the persecution of Severus.

2591 Rom. x. 2.

2592 i.e. Judas the Gaulonite whose fanatical rising against the Romans is mentioned in Acts v. 37.

2593 Hor. A. P. 359, 360.

2594 Cf. Gal. i. 8.

2595 Rom. i. 8.

2596 The (traditional) founders of the Roman Church.

2597 Jerome was baptized at Rome about the year 367 a.d.

2598 Pelusiotae, men of Pelusium, supposed to be derived from phloj, "clay." See Jerome's Comm. on Jer. xxix. 14-20.

2599 Gal. iv. 26.

2600 See the description of Rufinus in Letter CXXV. 18.

2601 Matt v. 44 from memory.

2602 This treatise the joint work of Eusebius and his friend Pamphilus has perished. Part of the Latin version of Rufinus still remains. Jerome at this time erroneously supposed that the two friends had written separate works in defence of Origen. (See De VV. Ill. c. 75, 81, in vol. iii. of this series.)

2603 In accordance with this edict (promulgated in 88 b.c.) all the Romans in Pontus were massacred in one day.

2604 This letter is no longer extant.

2605 A wealthy Alexandrian, who employed shorthand writers to take down Origen's lectures. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. B. vi. c. 23.

2606 If the text is sound here Jerome is again misled by supposing that Eusebius and Pamphilus had written separate books in defence of Origen.

2607 Eusebius calls himself Eusebius Pamphili, that is, `the friend of Pamphilus. 0'

2608 Rom. ix. 16.

2609 1 Cor. vii. 14.

2610 Cf. Hor. S. II. viii. 21.

2611 Dionysius of Heraclea called the renegade because he abandoned the Stoic for the Cyrenaic school.

2612 Isa. v. 20.

2613 Ad. Ux. ii. 2.

2614 AV. `purified. 0'

2615 2 Sam. xi. 4.

2616 Doubtless some Egyptian monk or ecclesiastic placed under ban by Theophilus on account of Origenism.

2617 John of Jerusalem. He had probably, like Rufinus, been reconciled to Jerome, and seems to have taken no part in the subsequent quarrel between Jerome and Rufinus.

2618 Joel iii. 13.

2619 Tit. ii. 15.

2620 Rev. xii. 9.

2621 Bishop of Rome, a.d. 398-402.

2622 Acts v. 29.

2623 See the preceding letter.

2624 The bishops of Palestine are meant. See Letter XCII.

2625 2 John 10, inexactly quoted.

2626 Jer. i. 10.

2627 Eph. i. 23.

2628 Eph. v. 27.

2629 Letter XCII.

2630 Cyprus.

2631 i.e. John Chrysostom who had been raised to the patriarchate in 398 a.d.

2632 Cf. 1 Cor. v. 4, 1 Cor. v. 5.

2633 Plebs.

2634 By Theophilus.

2635 Cf. Exod. xvii. 8-14.

2636 1 Tim. i. 19.

2637 In Aeliae encaeniis. Aelia was the name given by the emperor Hadrian to the Roman colony founded by him on the site of Jerusalem.

2638 The monk Ammonius is said to have done this and similar things.

2639 Some fifty, led by Ammonius and his three brothers (called the Long or Tall Monks) went first to Syria and then to Constantinople.

2640 This woman is said to have brought a charge of immorality against Isidore and then suppressed it on being placed by him on the list of widows who received the church's bounty. Isidore was now eighty years old, and there were many causes for the quarrel. Palladius, Socrates and Sozomen intimate that the real cause of Theophilus' enmity to his old confidant Isidore was that Isidore knew secrets unfavorable to Theophilus. He afterwards went with the Long Monks to Constantinople, where Chrysostom by his reception of them incurred the hatred of Theophilus. See Jerome Letter CXIII.

2641 Magister hactenus navis hora tempestatis `quoris et periculo magnam patitur animi jactationem.

2642 Gal. i. 8.

2643 See the account of the meeting of Eusebius with Rufinus in the presence of Simplicianus. Ruf. Apol. i. 19.

2644 Hab. iii. 3, LXX.

2645 Cant. ii. 3.

2646 Isa. xix. 19.

2647 Rom. v. 20.

2648 Acts i. 1.

2649 The allusion is to Rufinus.

2650 Virg. A. iii. 426.

2651 Cf. I. Sam. xxviii. 13.

2652 Joh. viii. 23.

2653 Matt. iii. 7.

2654 Many of the Egyptian Origenists had fled to Constantinople and thrown themselves on the kindness of the patriarch John Chrysostom.

2655 Jer. xiii. 23.

2656 Letter XCVIII.

2657 Letter XCVI.

2658 He was already dead when these words were written.

2659 Letter C.

2660 Origen.

2661 See Letter CVIII.

2662 1 Cor. vii. 13, 1 Cor. vii. 14, the word `believing 0' is twice inserted by Jerome.

2663 Luke xviii. 27.

2664 Cf. Luke xxiii. 42, Luke xxiii. 43.

2665 Dan. iv. 33-37.

2666 The Persian sun-god, at this time one of the most popular deities of the Roman pantheon. Gracchus appears to have done this as Urban Praetor, A. C. 378.

2667 In the year 389 a.d. the temple of Serapis at Alexandria had been pulled down and a Christian church built upon its site.

2668 Elsewhere (Life of Hilarion §20) Jerome relates an extraordinary story about the discomfiture of this `demon. 0'

2669 A well-known Thracian tribe not to be confounded with the Goths.

2670 Cf. Hor. A.P., 21, 22. Amphora caepit Institui: currente rots cur urceus exit?

2671 The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings are called in the Hebrew Bible the Former Prophets.

2672 Ex. xiii. 2.

2673 Luke i. 41.

2674 Matt. iii. 4.

2675 Cf. Letter LXXIX. Apparently Jerome means that the difficulty of penitence is as great as that of the camel passing through the eye of a needle. John, he implies, by wearing the camel's hair shows that he has surmounted this.

2676 Quintilian, Inst. I. 1.

2677 Quint. Inst. I. 1.

2678 The contemporary and rival of Cicero.

2679 Horace, Epist. I. ii. 69.

2680 Quint. Inst. I. 1.

2681 Matt. xiii. 46.

2682 Inferna.

2683 Cf. 1 Cor. iii. 17.

2684 1 Sam. ii. 27-36.

2685 1 Tim. iii. 4.

2686 Tim. ii. 15 A.V. has `sobriety 0' for `chastity 0' but Jerome deliberately prefers the latter word.

2687 Jon. iv. 11.

2688 Babylon, the world-power. Jer. l. 23.

2689 Gen. xxxiv.

2690 Lucretius, I. 936, sqq.

2691 Ezek. xviii. 20.

2692 John ix. 21.

2693 The letter Y used by Pythagoras to symbolize the diverging paths of good and evil. Cf. Persius. iii. 56.

2694 Deut. xv. 21.

2695 Luke ii. 52.

2696 Cf. Luke ii. 43-46.

2697 Luke i. 29.

2698 Ps. xlv. 13.

2699 Cant. i. 4.

2700 Cant. v. 7.

2701 Cf. Ezek. xvi. 1-10.

2702 Cant. v. 2.

2703 Cant. viii. 10.

2704 Cant. v. 3.

2705 Again quoted in Letter CXXVIII.

2706 Eph. v. 18.

2707 1 Tim. v. 23.

2708 Cp. Letter LXXIX, The heathen sage is glass, the Christian virgin the pearl.

2709 See note on Letter XXII.

2710 A Virgilian expression, 9, II., 121.

2711 Simila, but as elsewhere (L. 52, 6) this is spoken of as a luxury, perhaps we should read similia = `and such like. 0'

2712 Jerome refers to his second book against Jovinian.

2713 Cf. the dying words of S. Francis (which have a similar reference) `I have sinned against my brother the ass. 0'

2714 i.e. having vowed to abstain from bread, they indemnify themselves with flesh.

2715 Vermiculata pictura.

2716 Jerome tells us that he read the book with Blaesilla for this purpose.

2717 i.e. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges.

2718 Of these a large number are still extant. Over twenty of them are "festal epistles" announcing to the churches the correct day on which to celebrate Easter.

2719 These include commentaries on many parts of Scripture and a work on the Trinity.

2720 Virgil, A. viii. 507.

2721 Comp. Ecclus. xix. 30.

2722 The number 100 denotes virginity to which in her own person Paula could have no claim. See note on Letter XLVIII.

2723 Gen. i. 28.

2724 1 Cor. vii. 1.

2725 Eccl. iii. 5.

2726 1 Cor. vii. 4.

2727 1 Cor. vii. 20.

2728 1 Sam. ii. 21.

2729 The allusion is to Aristotle who was tutor to Alexander, King of Macedon.

2730 Luke xx. 38.

2731 2 Cor. v. 6.

2732 Ps. cxx. 5, Ps. cxx. 6 acc. to Jerome's latest version.

2733 1 Joh. v. 19.

2734 Ps. cxxxix. 12, A.V. marg.

2735 Joh. i. 5.

2736 Ps. xxxix. 12.

2737 Phil. i. 23.

2738 1 Cor. ix. 27.

2739 Rom. xiv. 21.

2740 Ps. xxxv. 13.

2741 Ps. xli. 3.

2742 Ps. xxxii. 4.

2743 Cf. Acts vii. 56.

2744 Ps. lv. 6.

2745 Sacerdotes.

2746 Mark x. 28-30.

2747 Virg. A. i. 292.

2748 See Letter XXXIX.

2749 Of continence. See Letter LXVI. 3.

2750 a.d. 382.

2751 Theodosius and Valentinian.

2752 Wife of Flavius Clemens, believed to have been a Christian martyr.

2753 i.e. the straits of Messina.

2754 A port on the S.W. coast of the Peloponnese.

2755 Virg. A. iii. 126-8.

2756 At this time one of the three bishops who claimed the see of Antioch. See Ep. xv. 2.

2757 Acts xxi. 5.

2758 2 K. xxiii. 29.

2759 A maritime city of Palestine which subsequently to its restoration by Herod became first the civil, and then the ecclesiastical, capital of Palestine.

2760 Acts xxi. 8, Acts xxi. 9.

2761 Acts ix. 36-41.

2762 Acts ix. 32-34.

2763 John xix. 38.

2764 1 Sam. xxii. 17-19.

2765 Jon. i. 3.

2766 Andromeda had been chained to a rock by her father to assuage the wrath of Poseidon who had sent a sea monster to ravage the country. Here she was found by Perseus who slew the monster and effected her rescue. See Josephus B. J. iii. ix. 3.

2767 Luke xxiv. 13, Luke xxiv. 28-31.

2768 2 Chr. viii. 5.

2769 Josh. x. 12-14.

2770 Josh. ix.

2771 Judges xix. Judges xx. According to Judges xx. 47 the number of Benjamites who escaped was six hundred.

2772 Josephus, A.J. xx. ii. 6.

2773 Or more fully Aelia Capitolina, a Roman colony from which all Jews were expelled.

2774 Praetorium. The word occurs in John xviii. 28.

2775 Matt. xxviii. 2.

2776 2 Sam. v. 7, 2 Sam. v. 9.

2777 Isa. xxix. 1. Vulg.

2778 Ps. lxxxvii. 1, Ps. lxxxvii. 2.

2779 Matt. xvi. 18.

2780 Rev. xxii. 14.

2781 Acts ii. 16-21.

2782 Gen. xxxv. 18, Gen. xxxv. 19.

2783 This legend of the cave dates back to Justin Martyr.

2784 Isa. i. 3.

2785 Isa. xxxii. 20, LXX.

2786 Luke ii. 15, rhma.

2787 Joh. i. 1, Joh. i. 14 logoj the Vulg. has `verbum 0' both here and in Luke.

2788 The name means this in Hebrew.

2789 Joh. vi. 51.

2790 The word `not 0' is inserted by Paula from Matt. ii. 6.

2791 `Will he 0' A.V. following the Hebrew.

2792 Mic. v. 2, Mic. v. 3: Cf. Matt. ii. 6.

2793 Ps. cx. 3, Vulg.

2794 Acts xiii. 46.

2795 Matt. xv. 24.

2796 LXX. acc. to one reading.

2797 Gen. xlix. 10, LXX.

2798 This clause comes from the LXX.

2799 Ps. cxxxii. 2-5.

2800 Ps. cxxxii. 6, Vulg.

2801 Jerome taught Paula Hebrew.

2802 Ps. cxxxii. 7.

2803 Ps. cxxxii. 14.

2804 Ps. cxxxii. 17, Vulg.

2805 Ps. xxii. 29, 30, LXX.

2806 Gen. xxxv. 21: Mic. iv. 8.

2807 Luke ii. 14.

2808 Jud. vi. 37.

2809 Ex. xii. 21-23.

2810 Joh. i. 29.

2811 Jer. xiii. 23.

2812 Acts viii. 27-39.

2813 This town played an important part in the wars of the Maccabees.

2814 Nu. xiii. 23, Nu. xiii. 24.

2815 Isa. lxiii. 3.

2816 Cellulae, lit. `little cells. 0'

2817 Joh. viii. 56: cf. Gen. xviii. 1, R.V.-q.v.

2818 Josh. xiv. 15. In Hebrew `Adam 0' and `man 0' are the same word. Hence the mistake.

2819 Cor. iii. 6.

2820 Jud. i. 13-15.

2821 Perhaps identical with "the valley of Berachah" mentioned in 2 Chr. xx. 26.

2822 Gen. xviii. 23-33.

2823 Isa. xv. 5.

2824 Gen. xiv. 2.

2825 Eph. v. 18.

2826 Gen. xix. 30-38.

2827 Cant. i. 7.

2828 Gen. xliii. 16.

2829 Amos i. 1.

2830 Luke xxiv. 50, Luke xxiv. 51: Acts i. 9-12.

2831 Nu. xix. 1-10.

2832 Ezek. x. 18, Ezek. x. 19.

2833 The jaw was the priest's portion and hence the epithet `priestly 0': or else Bethphage belonged to the priests.

2834 Matt. xxi. 1-7.

2835 Humilia.

2836 Luke x. 30-35.

2837 Strictly Damim.

2838 Luke xix. 4.

2839 Matt. xx. 30-34.

2840 i.e. the Jews and the Gentiles.

2841 1 Kings xvi. 34.

2842 Josh. v. 3.

2843 Rom. ii. 28, Rom. ii. 29.

2844 Josh. iv. 3, Josh. iv. 20.

2845 Rev. xxi. 14.

2846 2 K. ii. 19-22, type and antitype are, as often, here confounded.

2847 Mal. iv. 2.

2848 Josh. iii. 17.

2849 Josh. vii. 24-26.

2850 Zech. iii. 9.

2851 Isa. xxviii. 16.

2852 Gen. xxviii. 12, Gen. xxviii. 13.

2853 Josh. xxiv. 30.

2854 Josh. xxiv. 33.

2855 Cf. 1 Sam. i. 3.

2856 Judg. xxi. 19-23: cf. Liv. i. 9.

2857 From Joh. iv. 5.

2858 The founder of a Samaritan sect akin to the Essenes.

2859 Luke vii. 28.

2860 Other authorities for these strange phenomena are Hilary, Sulpicius, and Paulinus.

2861 1 Kings xviii. 4.

2862 Matt. xiv. 13-21.

2863 According to the common tradition, but Hermon is more likely to have been the place.

2864 In the original `Hermon and the Hermons 0'; an allusion to the Hebrew text of Ps. xlii. 6.

2865 Jud. v. 21, Vulg.

2866 Luke vii. 11-15.

2867 Jud. xv. 17-19, R.V.

2868 Micah i. 1, Micah i. 14.

2869 Jer. ii. 18.

2870 Isa. xix. 18.

2871 Ps. lxxviii. 12.

2872 A mistake: No is Thebes.

2873 i.e. presbyters and deacons. Cf. §29, infra.

2874 At that time the most famous of the Egyptian hermits.

2875 Ps. vi. 6.

2876 Jerome's own name had been coupled with Paula's when they both lived at Rome, but he was able to shew that his relations with her were wholly innocent.

2877 2 Cor. viii. 13, 2 Cor. viii. 14.

2878 Luke iii. 11. The word alteram, one of two (therefore, Jerome means, retaining the second) is found in the Syriac Version of Cureton. It is not found in the Vulgate.

2879 Matt. v. 7.

2880 Ecclus. iii. 30.

2881 Luke xvi. 9.

2882 Luke xi. 41.

2883 Dan. iv. 27, LXX.

2884 Zech. ix. 16, LXX.

2885 Rev. xxi. 14.

2886 Rev. xxi. 19-21.

2887 Job ii. 4, Job ii. 5.

2888 Matt. xxiii. 27.

2889 Hor. C. ii. x. ii.

2890 Wisd. ii. 24.

2891 The enemy of Solomon-1 K. xi. 14. Who Paula's enemy may have been we do not know.

2892 2 Cor. xii. 7.

2893 Gen. xxvii. 41-46: Gen. xxviii. 1-5.

2894 1 Sam. xxi. 10.

2895 Matt. v. 39.

2896 Rom. xii. 21.

2897 Phil. ii. 7, Phil. ii. 8.

2898 Job xl. 8, LXX.

2899 Matt. v. 10.

2900 Ps. xxxix. 1, Ps. xxxix. 2, acc. to the Gallican psalter.

2901 Ps. xxxviii. 13.

2902 Ps. xxxviii. 14.

2903 Deut. xiii. 3.

2904 Isa. xxviii. 9-11, LXX.

2905 Rom. v. 3-5.

2906 2 Cor. iv. 16.

2907 Vulg.

2908 2 Cor. iv. 17, 2 Cor. iv. 18.

2909 Isa. xlix. 8.

2910 Isa. li. 7, Isa. li. 8.

2911 Luke xxi. 19, R.V.

2912 Rom. viii. 18.

2913 1 Th. iii. 4, R.V.

2914 Prov. xiv. 29.

2915 2 Cor. xii. 10.

2916 2 Cor. iv. 7.

2917 1 Cor. xv. 54.

2918 2 Cor. i. 5.

2919 2 Cor. i. 7.

2920 Ps. xlii. 11.

2921 Luke ix. 23.

2922 Luke ix. 24.

2923 Matt. xvi. 26.

2924 Job i. 21.

2925 1 Joh. ii. 15-17.

2926 Ps. lxxvii. 4, Vulg.

2927 Matt. x. 37.

2928 Ps. lxxix. 11, LXX.

2929 1 Cor. iv. 9.

2930 1 Cor. iv. 10.

2931 1 Cor. i. 25.

2932 Ps. lxix. 5.

2933 Ps. lxxi. 7.

2934 Ps. lxxiii. 22, Ps. lxxiii. 23.

2935 Mark iii. 21.

2936 Joh. viii. 48.

2937 Luke xi. 15.

2938 2 Cor. i. 12.

2939 Joh. xv. 19.

2940 Cf. Ps. xliv. 21.

2941 Ps. xliv. 17, Ps. xliv. 18.

2942 Ps. xliv. 22.

2943 Ps. cxviii. 6, P.B.V.

2944 Prov. vii. 2, LXX.

2945 Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 11.

2946 The Gathering; perhaps used, like the Greek sunodoj, for the Communion. The opening prayer came thus to be called The Collect. See note on Letter LI.

2947 For the canonical hours see note on Letter XXII.

2948 1 Cor. iv. 21.

2949 1 Tim. vi. 8.

2950 Cf. Sall. Cat. xi.

2951 Ecclus. xiii. 2.

2952 Ps. lxiii. 1.

2953 e.g. Aristotle, E.N. ii. 6.

2954 Ne quid nimis, in Greek Mhden agan.

2955 Rom. vii. 24.

2956 2 Tim. iv. 7, 2 Tim. iv. 8.

2957 Rev. xiv. 4.

2958 Cf. Luke vi. 21.

2959 Ps. xlviii. 8.

2960 Jer. ii. 13.

2961 Joh. iv. 14.

2962 Ps. xxx. 11.

2963 Ps. cii. 9.

2964 Ps. xlii. 3.

2965 Cf. Ps. lxxviii. 25.

2966 Ps. xxxiv. 8.

2967 Ps. xlv. 1, R.V.

2968 Isa. lxv. 13, Isa. lxv. 14.

2969 Ps. xlii. 1, Ps. xlii. 2.

2970 Wisd. ix. 15.

2971 1 Cor. xv. 44.

2972 Ps. lxxiv. 19, R.V.

2973 Ps. lxviii. 30, R.V.

2974 Matt. xxii. 29, Matt. xxii. 30.

2975 Luke vii. 27. `Angel 0' is a Greek word and means `messenger. 0'

2976 Joh. xx. 26-28.

2977 Job. xxi. 4.

2978 Luke xxiv. 42, Luke xxiv. 43.

2979 Mark v. 43.

2980 Joh. xii. 2.

2981 Joh. xx. 19.

2982 Matt. xiv. 25.

2983 Matt. xiv. 29.

2984 Matt. xiv. 31.

2985 Joh. xx. 27.

2986 Luke xxiv. 39, Luke xxiv. 40.

2987 Globos stoicorum atque aëria quaedam deliramenta.

2988 Ps. xxxvi. 6.

2989 Rom. xi. 33, Rom. xi. 34.

2990 Jerome was at this time about 60 years old.

2991 Eph. iv. 13.

2992 Jas. i. 19.

2993 Deut. xxvii. 9, R.V.

2994 Vetus et novurn instrumentum.

2995 Toxotius, Laeta, the younger Paula. Comp. Letter CVII.

2996 Matt. viii. 25: Luke viii. 24.

2997 Ps. xliv. 23.

2998 Eccles. ix. 2.

2999 Ps. xxvi. 8.

3000 Ps. lxxxiv. 1, Ps. lxxxiv. 2.

3001 Ps. lxxxiv. 10, Vulg.

3002 For the technical meaning of inclamatio vide Virg. A. 1. 219, with Conington's note.

3003 i.e. presbyters and deacons-see above.

3004 Cant. ii. 10-12, Vulg.

3005 Ps. xxvii. 13.

3006 Acts ix. 39.

3007 Ps. cxxxi. 2.

3008 Corbona. See Matt. xxvii. 6, Vulg.

3009 1 Cor. ii. 9.

3010 Cant. v. 10.

3011 Gen. xii. 1.

3012 Jer. li. 6.

3013 Ruth i. 16.

3014 Stilus.

3015 Horace, C. III. xxx. 1.

3016 2 Cor. iii. 6.

3017 Eph. i. 21.

3018 Rom. i. 25.

3019 Matt. x. 40.

3020 Deut. xxxiv. 6.

3021 Probably Exuperius of Toulouse.

3022 Ps. ii. 9.

3023 1 Cor. v. 5.

3024 Ps. l. 18.

3025 Ps. ci. 8.

3026 Ps. cxxxix. 21, Ps. cxxxix. 22.

3027 Ps. cxvi. 15.

3028 Cic. Cat. ii. 1, of Catiline.

3029 A contemporary and ally of Augustus.

3030 Nu. xxv. 7, Nu. xxv. 8.

3031 1 K. xviii. 40.

3032 Luke vi. 15: so called probably because he came from the most fanatical party among the Pharisees.

3033 Acts v. 1-10.

3034 Acts xiii. 8-11.

3035 Deut. xiii. 6-9.

3036 Deut. xiii. 5.

3037 Acts viii. 2.

3038 Matt. xxvi. 40, Matt. xxvi. 41.

3039 Ps. cxix. 62.

3040 Luke vi. 12.

3041 Acts xvi. 25-38.

3042 Col. iv. 2.

3043 2 Cor. xi. 27.

3044 Ps. cxxi. 4.

3045 Dan. iv. 13. Jerome gives the Hebrew word for watcher, viz. ry(

3046 Ps. xliv. 23.

3047 Matt. viii. 25: Luke viii. 24.

3048 Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 26.

3049 Matt. iii. 10.

3050 Hos. vi. 5, LXX.

3051 Isa. xxi. 9.

3052 Joh. vii. 24.

3053 So the embroidered cloths used in Catholic Churches to cover the sacramental elements are still called.

3054 Hor. Sat. I. x. 3, 4.

3055 Ps. lxix 12.

3056 Ps. cxli. 3, Ps. cxli. 4.

3057 Luke ii. 51.

3058 Joh. xix. 26, Joh. xix. 27.

3059 Viz. men's society.

3060 Prov. x. 9.

3061 Rom. xii. 17.

3062 Luke xiv. 26.

3063 Lineatos juvenes. The linea appears to have been a close-fitting jerkin.

3064 To ingratiate himself with their mistress. Cf. 108.

3065 Jer. ii. 22.

3066 From Jer. iii. 3.

3067 Contubernalis.

3068 Viz. the mother and daughter.

3069 Viz. the monk who was son of the widow and brother of the virgin.

3070 Cf. Letter LX.

3071 Ecclus. xxii. 6.

3072 Luke vii. 11-15.

3073 Matt. ix. 24.

3074 Joh. xi. 39, Joh. xi. 43, Joh. xi. 44.

3075 Amos v. 19.

3076 Cf. Rev. xix. 11-16.

3077 Job i. 20, 21, LXX.

3078 Horace, C. III. iii. 7, 8.

3079 Job ii. 3.

3080 Job ii. 4, Job ii. 5.

3081 He alludes to the prohgmena of the Stoics.

3082 1 K. xxi. 10, Vulg. (which mistranslates the neutral verb of the Hebrew).

3083 Job ii. 6.

3084 Ecclus. ii. 1.

3085 Luke xvii. 10 (adapted).

3086 Mark x. 21.

3087 Acts v. 1-10.

3088 Luke xvi. 9.

3089 Matt. ix. 9.

3090 Ps. xvi. 5.

3091 Nu. xviii. 20-24.

3092 Luke ix. 62.

3093 Gen. xxxix. 12.

3094 2 K. ii. 11, 2 K. ii. 13.

3095 But see 1 Cor. ix. 5.

3096 1 Tim. ii. 4; 2 Pet. iii. 9.

3097 Crates the Theban.

3098 Rom. xii. i.

3099 Heb. xii. 6.

3100 Mark xii. 43, Mark xii. 44.

3101 Cf. Heb. xi. 17-19.

3102 Judg. xi. 34-40; Heb. xi. 32.

3103 Lev. xix. 2; 1 Pet. i. 16.

3104 Luke xviii. 28.

3105 Ps. xc. 10.

3106 Ps. cxxvii. 5 (adapted from R.V.S.)

3107 Luke xvi. 25 (adapted).

3108 Gen. xxviii. 12, Gen. xxviii. 13. Cp. Letters CVIII. and CXXIII.

3109 Of this lady nothing is known.

3110 Words of Virg. A. 1. 364, relating to Dido.

3111 For Hedibia and her family, see an article in Dict. of Christ. Biog.

3112 This lady lived in Gaul and was a diligent student of scripture. Letter CXX. is address to her.

3113 Joh. i. 41, Joh. i. 45.

3114 Joh. i. 42.

3115 Joh. i. 47.

3116 Gen. xix. 15-26.

3117 Cf. Wisdom, x. 7.

3118 Jas. ii. 23.

3119 Gen. xviii. 1.

3120 Cant. i. 7.

3121 1 Sam. xv. 35.

3122 2 Cor. ii. 4.

3123 Ezek. ii. 10, LXX.

3124 Prov. xviii. 3, LXX.

3125 Isa. xxii. 12, Isa. xxii. 13.

3126 Ezek. xxxiii. 10, Ezek. xxxiii. 11.

3127 Jer. ii. 25, LXX.

3128 Jer. viii. 4.

3129 Isa. xxx. 15, LXX.

3130 Ezek. xviii. 30-32.

3131 Ezek. xxxiii. 11.

3132 Ps. lxxxv. 4.

3133 Ps. xxx. 7.

3134 Ps. xviii. 37, R.V.

3135 Hos. ii. 7-9.

3136 Hos. ii. 6.

3137 Joh. xiv. 6.

3138 Ps. cxxvi. 5, Ps. cxxvi. 6.

3139 Ps. vi. 6.

3140 Ps. xlii. 1-3.

3141 Ps. lxiii. 1-3 R.V.

3142 Luke xix. 41.

3143 Luke xxii. 62.

3144 Ps. cxix. 136.

3145 Jer. ix. 1.

3146 Jer. xxii. 10.

3147 Matt. viii. 22.

3148 Lam. ii. 18.

3149 Rom. xii. 15.

3150 Jer. ii. 21.

3151 Jer. ii. 27.

3152 Jer. iii. 6, Jer. iii. 7.

3153 Jer. iii. 1, Vulg. The Hebrew contains nothing corresponding to the words "and I will receive thee." The Latin Version mentioned in the text is of course the old Latin.

3154 Isa. xxxi. 6, LXX.

3155 Isa. xlv. 21, Isa. xlv. 22.

3156 Isa. xlvi. 8, 9, LXX.

3157 Joel ii. 12, Joel ii. 13.

3158 Hos. xi. 8, Hos. xi. 9.

3159 Ps. vi. 5.

3160 Ps. xxxii. 5, Ps. xxxii. 6.

3161 Lam. ii. 18.

3162 Ps. lxxxv. 10.

3163 In the Vulg. the fiftieth.

3164 Cf. the heading of the psalm in A.V.

3165 2 Sam. xii. 13.

3166 Ps. li. 1.

3167 Ps. li. 2-4.

3168 Rom. xi. 32.

3169 Ps. li. 13.

3170 Ps. xcvi. 6, Vulg.

3171 Ps. xxxviii. 5.

3172 Prov. xxviii. 13.

3173 1 Kings xxi. 19, 1 Kings xxi. 23.

3174 1 Kings xxi. 27-29.

3175 Matt. xii. 41.

3176 Matt. ix. 13.

3177 Luke xv. 8-10.

3178 Luke xv. 4, Luke xv. 5.

3179 Luke xv. 10.

3180 Matt. iii. 2.

3181 Luke xv. 11-24.

3182 Eccles. ix. 8.

3183 Ps. iv. 6, acc. to the Gallican and Roman psalters. The allusions throughout are to the ritual practised in Jerome's day in connection with the reception of penitents.

3184 Ezek. xxxiii. 12.

3185 Prov. xxiv. 16.

3186 Cf. Matt. xviii. 21, Matt. xviii. 22.

3187 Cf. Luke vii. 47.

3188 Luke vii. 48.

3189 Cf. Luke xviii. 14.

3190 Jer. xviii. 7-12.

3191 Luke ii. 34.

3192 1 Cor. v. 1, 1 Cor. v. 2.

3193 2 Cor. ii. 7.

3194 Job xiv. 4, 5, LXX.

3195 Job xxv. 5.

3196 Job iv. 18.

3197 Rom. vii. 24.

3198 Rom. vii. 18.

3199 Prov. xxiv. 16.

3200 Cf. Ezek. xxxiii. 12.

3201 Luke i. 20-22.

3202 Jer. xxiii. 28.

3203 Matt. iii. 12.

3204 Ps. lv. 6.

3205 1 Cor. vii. 5.

3206 Deut. v. 31.

3207 Ps. xl. 2.

3208 Cf. Matt. vii. 24-27.

3209 1 Cor. vi. 17.

3210 Virgil, Aeneid, i. 364.

3211 A favourite phrase with Jerome. See Letter CXVII.

3212 Viz. Artemia.

3213 Matt. ix. 1-7.

3214 Matt. xv. 22.

3215 Ps. cxix. 176.

3216 Cf. Letter LX.

3217 Letters LIV., LXXV., LXXIX., and others.

3218 Ageruchia = Greatheart.

3219 Luke ii. 36, Luke ii. 37.

3220 See Letter XLVIII., also infra.

3221 Cf. Letter LXXVII.

3222 1 Tim. v. 14, 1 Tim. v. 15.

3223 1 Tim. v. 9, 1 Tim. v. 10.

3224 1 Tim. v. 5.

3225 1 Tim. v. 11, 1 Tim. v. 12.

3226 1 Tim. v. 14, 1 Tim. v. 15.

3227 So Vulg.

3228 Ovid, Am. iii. 2, 83.

3229 1 Cor. vii. 8, 1 Cor. vii. 9.

3230 Cf. Letters XLVIII. and LXXIX.

3231 So R.V. marg.

3232 1 Cor. vii. 39, 1 Cor. vii. 40, cf. Rom. vii. 2.

3233 2 Cor. vi. 14-16.

3234 Dt. xxii. 10.

3235 1 Tim. v. 9.

3236 1 Cor. vii. 29.

3237 1 Tim. v. 3-5, 1 Tim. v. 16.

3238 1 Tim. v. 17.

3239 Ex. xx. 12.

3240 Mark vii. 11.

3241 Text corrupt: probably `quasi 0' should be substituted for `si. 0'

3242 Cf. Luke xvi. 9.

3243 A reminiscence of Tert. de Exh. Cast. vii.

3244 1 Cor. vii. 8, 1 Cor. vii. 9.

3245 Jerome seems to be here relying on tradition.

3246 Lev. xxii. 12, Lev. xxii. 13.

3247 From Tert. de Exh. Cast. xiii.

3248 Julian, Orat. v.

3249 See Dict. Antiq. s.v. flamen.

3250 The sacred bull of Memphis, generally called Apis.

3251 Dido.

3252 Who refused to survive the fall of Carthage. The story is told by Polybius.

3253 See Livy, I. cc. 57, 58.

3254 Against Jov. i. 20.

3255 The battle of Aix was fought in 102 b.c.

3256 The priestesses in these temples seem to have been vowed to chastity.

3257 Val. Max. vi. 1.

3258 Jer. iii. 3.

3259 2 Tim. ii. 20.

3260 Matt. xiii. 8: for this explanation of the parable see Letter XLVIII.

3261 See Letter XLVIII. and note there.

3262 Luke xiii. 32.

3263 Cf. Joh. iv. 18.

3264 1 Cor. vi. 12.

3265 Matt. xix. 12.

3266 Job i. 21.

3267 Gen. ii. 21, Gen. ii. 22.

3268 Gen. ii. 24, LXX.

3269 Eph. v. 31, Eph. v. 32.

3270 Gen. iii. 20.

3271 Gen. iv. 19.

3272 Rev. ii. 9.

3273 Cant. vi. 8, Cant. vi. 9.

3274 2 Joh. i. In Latin `choice 0' and `elect 0' are one word.

3275 1 Pet. iii. 20, 1 Pet. iii. 21.

3276 Gen. vii. 13.

3277 Gen. vii. 2.

3278 Gen. viii. 20.

3279 Gen. xxxviii. 12-18.

3280 Hos. i. 2, Hos. i. 3.

3281 Cf Jer. v. 8.

3282 Luke xvii. 27-29.

3283 Gen. i. 28, Gen. ix. 7.

3284 1 Cor. x. ii, R.V.

3285 1 Cor. vii. 29.

3286 Matt. iii. 10.

3287 Eccles. iii. 5.

3288 Jer. xvi. 2.

3289 Cf. Ezek. xxiv. 16-18, Ezek. xxiv. 27.

3290 Ps. cxxviii. 3, Ps. cxxviii. 6.

3291 1 Cor. vi. 17.

3292 Ps. lxiii. 8.

3293 Matt. v. 38, Matt. v. 39.

3294 Ps. xlv. 3.

3295 Matt. xxvi. 52.

3296 A gnostic of the second century who rejected the whole of the old testament as incompatible with the new.

3297 Gal. iv. 22-26.

3298 Gen. xxix. 17, Gen. xxix. 18.

3299 Gen. xxv. 22, Gen. xxv. 23.

3300 Gen. xxxviii. 27-30.

3301 Eph. ii. 14.

3302 Gomer the wife of Hosea.

3303 Hos. ii. 7, Hos. iii. 3.

3304 Rom. xi. 25, Rom. xi. 26.

3305 Virg. A. iv. 32-34: 548, 552.

3306 From Tert. de Exh. Cast. xii.

3307 Matt. vi. 33.

3308 Matt. vi. 26, Matt. vi. 28.

3309 1 Tim. v. 11.

3310 1 Tim. v. 2. Jerome substitutes `love 0' for `rebuke. 0'

3311 Rom. xii. 17, cf. Letter cxvii.

3312 Rom. ii. 24.

3313 1 Cor. ix. 5.

3314 1 Cor. x. 29.

3315 1 Cor. ix. 14.

3316 1 Cor. iv. 12: 1 Thess. ii. 9: 2 Cor. xii. 14.

3317 1 Cor. viii. 13.

3318 Matt. vi. 25, Matt. vi. 27, Matt. vi. 34.

3319 Gen. xxviii. 11-13.

3320 Cf. Letters cviii. and cxviii.

3321 Gen. xxxii. 7, Gen. xxxii. 10.

3322 Matt. x. 9, Matt. x. 10.

3323 2 Cor. vi. 10.

3324 Acts iii. 6.

3325 1 K. xix. 11-13, cf. Exod. xxxiii. 21-23.

3326 Cf. Juv. i. 88.

3327 Jerome follows Tertullian, Irenaeus, and the majority of the fathers in supposing the apostle to allude to the Roman Empire. See Letter CXXI. Comm. in Hierem. xxv. 26, Comm. in Dan. vii, 7, 8.

3328 2 Thess. ii. 7, 2 Thess. ii. 8.

3329 Matt. xxiv. 19.

3330 Ps. lxxxiii. 8.

3331 Now Maintz.

3332 Now Worms.

3333 Tribes whose memories linger in the names Amiens and Arras.

3334 See note on Letter LIV.

3335 Arcadius and Honorius.

3336 Stilicho who induced the senate to grant a subsidy to the Gothic King Alaric. See Gibbon, C. xxx.

3337 This, one of Jerome's few criticisms on the public policy of his day, shows him to have taken a narrow and inadequate view of the issues involved.

3338 In the year 390 §.

3339 i.e. Galatia.

3340 The great Carthaginian general in the second Punic war.

3341 King of Epirus who invaded Italy in the years 280, 279, 276, 275 b.c.

3342 Hannibal.

3343 Pyrrhus.

3344 Lucan, Phars. v. 274.

3345 Virg. A. vi. 625-627.

3346 See note on Letter CXXX.

3347 1 Tim. v. 13.

3348 Phil. iii. 19.

3349 Letter XXII.

3350 Letter LIV.

3351 Letter LXXIX.

3352 The `certain person 0' is of course Rufinus.

3353 See Letter LXXXIII.

3354 See Letter LXXXIV.

3355 Rom. x. 2, R.V.

3356 Cf. Luke x. 19: Ezek. ii. 6.

3357 This statement is not borne out by the existing fragments of the treatise. In fact Origen declares Christ's divinity in unambiguous language. "Being God he was made man" First Principles, I. Preface.

3358 F. P., I. 1, 8.

3359 F. P., I. 2, 6.

3360 F. P., I. 2, 7.

3361 F. P., I. 2, 8.

3362 F. P., I. 2, 9, 13. The last words are omitted by Rufinus.

3363 F. P., I. Preface, 4.

3364 F. P., I. 3, 5. The words are omitted by Rufinus.

3365 F. P., I. 5, 5.

3366 F. P., I. 6, 2.

3367 Isa. lxv. 17.

3368 Rom. viii. 19-21, R.V.

3369 1 Cor. xv. 53, 1 Cor. xv. 54.

3370 This word is doubtful.

3371 Matt. xiii. 8.

3372 Joh. x. 18.

3373 Luke xix. 10.

3374 The paralogism in this reasoning-so obvious to modern minds-is due to the confusion of the copula with the verb substantive.

3375 Rom. viii. 20.

3376 Phaedo, 70-77.

3377 2 Tim. ii. 20.

3378 Mal. i. 2, Mal. i. 3.

3379 2 Tim. ii. 21.

3380 i.e. demons.

3381 Luke i. 41.

3382 Cf. Acts xvi. 16, A.V. margin.

3383 Isa. lxvi. 22.

3384 Eccles. i. 9, Eccles. i. 10.

3385 Rom. viii. 20, R.V.

3386 Rom. viii. 21, R.V.

3387 Joh. xvii. 21.

3388 Reading adversariorum fortitudinum ...bella consurgere.

3389 Passim.

3390 Rev. xiv. 6.

3391 This term had not in Jerome's time become restricted to its later sense. Anything mysterious or sacred was called a sacrament. Here it refers to the mystic teaching of the O.T.

3392 Eph. vi. 12.

3393 Joh. xiv. 28.

3394 2 Cor. iv. 16: Gen. i. 27.

3395 Luke xxiii. 43.

3396 Joh. xiii. 26.

3397 Matt. xxvi. 49.

3398 Joh. iv.

3399 Lev. ii. 13.

3400 Col. iv. 6.

3401 Matt. v. 13.

3402 Luke xiv. 35.

3403 Luke ix. 62.

3404 Acts x. 3-16.

3405 Matt. v. 8.

3406 1 Tim. vi. 10.

3407 Gal. v. 15.

3408 Lybicae Syrtes.

3409 An important city of Abyssinia in Jerome's day, 120 miles from the Red Sea. It is now in ruins.

3410 Gen. ii. 11.

3411 Matt. xiii. 45-46: Matt. vi. 19, Matt. vi. 20.

3412 The Old Comedy at Athens ridiculed citizens by name. Most of the extant plays of Aristophanes belong to it.

3413 Pietas.

3414 Virgil, Aen. iv. 67.

3415 Pontifex.

3416 Mark i. 6.

3417 2 Kings iv. 38, 2 Kings iv. 39: 2 Kings vi. 1, 2 Kings vi. 2.

3418 i. e. `garden. 0'

3419 Matt. xviii. 8, Matt. xviii. 9.

3420 Matt. v. 28.

3421 Prov. xx. 9.

3422 Job xxv. 5, Job xxv. 6.

3423 Isa. xxxiv. 5, R.V.

3424 Gen. iii. 18.

3425 Acts ix. 15.

3426 1 Cor. ix. 27.

3427 Rom. vii. 24.

3428 Prov. iv. 23.

3429 Luke viii. 21.

3430 1 Sam. i. 27, 1 Sam. i. 28.

3431 Jer. xxxv. 6. Jer. xxxv. 7.

3432 See Letter LVIII. and note there.

3433 An allusion to the word `monachus, 0' `solitary 0' or `monk. 0'

3434 Acts vii. 29, Acts vii. 30.

3435 Matt. iv. 19.

3436 Rom. xii. 1.

3437 Letter LII.

3438 Cf. Letter CXXX.

3439 Rom. xiv. 4.

3440 2 K. vi. 5, 2 K. vi. 6.

3441 Ex. xv. 23, Ex. xv. 27.

3442 1 Sam. xxv. 38.

3443 Luke xii. 20.

3444 1 Thess. v. 17.

3445 Ps. xix. 13.

3446 1 Cor. ix. 14.

3447 1 Thess. ii. 9.: 1 Cor. iv. 12.

3448 1 Cor. ix. 11.

3449 Virg., G. i. 108-10.

3450 Prov. vi. 8, LXX.

3451 Prov. xiii. 4, LXX.

3452 Ezek. xvi. 25

3453 Cf. Letter XXII.

3454 In Letter XVIII. Jerome speaks of his teacher as one so learned in the Hebrew language that the very scribes regarded him as a Chaldaean (i.e., as a graduate of the Babylonian school of Rabbinic learning).

3455 2 Cor. ii. 7.

3456 Cic., T. Q. iv. 35.

3457 Esth. ii. 1-4.

3458 Ps. xxxiv. 14.

3459 Phil. iv. 7.

3460 Ps. lxxvi. 2, LXX.

3461 Rom. xii. 13, R.V. marg.

3462 Pliny, N. H. x. 32.

3463 Romulus and Remus, the first of whom slew the second.

3464 Gen. xxv. 22.

3465 When Jerome wrote, these terms had but recently come into use in the West i no doubt, however, the offices described by them were of older date. Archpresbyters seem to have been the forerunners of those who are now called "rural deans."

3466 1 Cor. xiv. 15.

3467 Eph. v. 19.

3468 Ps. xlvii. 7.

3469 Deut. xxvii. 9, R.V.

3470 Cic., Off. 1. 36.

3471 Caninam exercent facundiam. The phrase recurs in Letter CXXXIV.

3472 See also Lactantius, vi. 18.

3473 The most celebrated physician of antiquity.

3474 1 Tim. vi. 8.

3475 'agoranmoi.

3476 Phil. iii. 13.

3477 Imitated from Persius (I. 58-60).

3478 i.e., Rufinus who was now dead. The nickname is taken from a burlesque very popular in Jerome's day entitled "The Porker's Last Will and Testament." In this the testator's full name is set down as Marcus Grunnius Corocotta, i.e., Mark Grunter Hog. In the beginning of the twelfth book of his commentary on Isaiah Jerome mentions the "Testament" as being then a popular school book.

3479 Plautus, Aulularia, I. 1. 10.

3480 A Platonist of the third century after Christ, much celebrated for his learning and critical skill. "To judge like Longinus" became a synonym for accurate discrimination.

3481 A martinet of the old school, who did his utmost to oppose what he considered the luxury of his age. He was censor in 184 b.c.

3482 Lucr. V. 905, Munro. The words come first from Homer, Il. vi. 181.

3483 Ps. cxli. 4, Vulg.

3484 Ps. l. 20.

3485 Ps. lvii. 4.

3486 Ps. lv. 21.

3487 Eccl. x. 11, R.V. marg.

3488 Ps. cxli. 4.

3489 Gal. vi. 7.

3490 1 Sam. xvi. 7.

3491 Prov. xxv. 23.

3492 Ps. lxxviii. 57.

3493 Ecclus. xxvii. 25.

3494 Isa. xxxiii. 15.

3495 Prov. xxiv. 21, Prov. xxiv. 22 Vulg.

3496 1 Tim. v. 19, 1 Tim. v. 20 (inexact).

3497 Ps. cxli. 5. LXX.

3498 Heb. xii. 6.

3499 Isa. iii. 12. LXX.

3500 Matt. xviii. 15-17.

3501 Eph. v. 27.

3502 2 Cor. xi. 2.

3503 Matt. xxv. 1-10.

3504 He was bishop of Massilia (Marseilles).

3505 Num. xx. 17.

3506 Isa. xxvi, 12. LXX.

3507 Bishop of Toulouse. See Letter LIV. 11, and Pref. to Comm. on Zech.

3508 1 Kings xvii. 8-16.

3509 John ii. 14-16: Matt. xxi. 12, Matt. xxi. 13.

3510 Gen. xii. 1: Heb. xi. 8.

3511 The allusion is probably to Clement of Alexandria.

3512 John v. 17.

3513 Against Rufinus, ii. §§8-10; iii. §30; in neither place, however, does Jerome clearly state his own view.

3514 See Letter LXIX, introduction. It is doubtful whether Oceanus was in holy orders although the title `father 0' seems to imply it.

3515 Eccl. iii. 4.

3516 Virg., A. iv. 43. It does not appear who these barbarians were. Barce is near Cyrene in Africa.

3517 Gen. xvi. 12. R.V. marg.

3518 Cicero, pro Milon. 4.

3519 This Fabiola (who must be carefully distinguished from the lady so often mentioned by Jerome) is probably the person to whom Augustine addressed a letter on communion with the spiritual world.

3520 This Roman lady, like her friend Marcella, took a great interest in the study of scripture. In Letter LXV. Jerome gives her an explanation of the 45th Psalm.

3521 See Letter XXIII.

3522 Luke ii. 36, Luke ii. 37.

3523 Ps. cxix. 1.

3524 Matt. v. 25.

3525 i.e. the Indian Ocean.

3526 Eph. v. 22.

3527 Cf. Letter LXXIX.

3528 Ps. cxix. 11.

3529 Ps. i. 2.

3530 1 Cor. x. 31.

3531 Ps. cxix. 104.

3532 Acts i. 1.

3533 1 Tim. v. 23.

3534 The successor of Athanasius in the see of Alexandria.

3535 A fragment from the Medea of Ennius relating to the unlucky ship Argo which had brought Jason to Colchis. Here however the words seem altogether out of place. Unless, indeed, they are supposed to be spoken by pagans.

3536 Magdala means `tower. 0'

3537 So Ewald.

3538 Joh. xviii. 15, Joh. xviii. 16, R.V.

3539 Joh. xix. 26, Joh. xix. 27.

3540 Tertullian goes so far as to call him `Christ's eunuch 0' (de Monog. c. xvii.).

3541 Tota philosophorum vita commentatio mortis est-Cicero, T. Q. i. 30, 74 (summarizing Plato's doctrine as given in his Phaedo, p. 64).

3542 1 Cor. xv. 31 (apparently quoted from memory).

3543 Luke xiv. 27: cf. Luke ix. 23.

3544 Ps. xliv. 22.

3545 Ecclus. vii. 36.

3546 Pers. v. 153 Corvington.

3547 Rom. xii. 1.

3548 In 382 a.d.

3549 2 Tim. iv. 2.

3550 1 Tim. ii. 12.

3551 Literally "thickness of a nail."

3552 The movement connected with Rufinus' translation of Origen's Peri 'Arxwn. His coming was likened, in the dream of his friend Macarius (Ruf. Apol. i. 11), to that of a ship laden with Eastern wares.

3553 The same proverb occurs in Letter VII.

3554 Cf. Ezek. xxxiv. 18.

3555 i.e. That published by Rufinus. See Letter LXXX.

3556 olbioj, i.e. Macarius, a Roman Christian who wrote a book on the providence of God. To him Rufinus dedicated his version of Origen's treatise.

3557 Apparently the Roman clergy who sided with Rufinus.

3558 Rom. i. 8.

3559 Siricius, the successor of Damasus. He died a.d. 398.

3560 Luke xvi. 8.

3561 James iii. 5.

3562 Rufinus obtained such letters from Pope Siricius when he left Rome for Aquileia. See Jer. Apol. iii. 21.

3563 398 a.d.

3564 The allusion is to the capture of Rome by Alaric in 410 a.d.

3565 Jer. xiv. 11, Jer. xiv. 12.

3566 Emendata manu scorpii. The scorpion is Rufinus whom Jerome accused of suppressing the worst statements of Origen so that the subtler heresy might be accepted.

3567 i.e. the Origenistic heresy.

3568 Luke xviii. 8.

3569 Matt. xxiv. 12.

3570 Gal. ii. 13. The allusion is perhaps to John of Jerusalem; possibly to Chrysostom.

3571 Ps. civ. 29.

3572 Ps. cxlvi. 4.

3573 Luke xii. 20.

3574 The Canaanite name for Jerusalem.

3575 By Alaric the Goth, 408 a.d.

3576 By Alaric, 410 a.d.

3577 Isa. xv. 1.

3578 Ps. lxxix. 1. LXX.

3579 Ps. lxxix. 1-3.

3580 Virg. A. ii. 361.

3581 Virg. A. vi. 266.

3582 Job 1. 21, LXX.

3583 Spes in ea magis laudanda est quam res. Cic. de Rep. Jerome again quotes the words in Letter CXXX.

3584 cf. Hor. 1 S. i. 25, 26.

3585 Numb. xi. 4, Numb. xi. 20, Numb. xi. 31.

3586 Prov. v. 3.

3587 Rev. x. 9. Rev. x. 10.

3588 Lev. ii. 11.

3589 Ex. xxvii. 20.

3590 Ex. xii. 8.

3591 1 Cor. v. 8.

3592 Jer. xv. 17, LXX.

3593 1 Cor. vii. 24.

3594 1 Cor. vii. 18.

3595 Gen. iii. 21.

3596 Gen. iii. 25.

3597 Thess. iv. 4.

3598 Jer. ii. 13, Cisternas dissipates.

3599 Prov. v. 15.

3600 1 Cor. vii. 21, 1 Cor. vii. 22.

3601 1 Pet. iii. 7.

3602 Eph. v. 13, R. V.

3603 Male pacatae, a pun on Pacatula, which means `Little Peaceful. 0'

3604 Lanifica. Cf. the well-known epitaph on a Roman matron: "She stayed at home and spun wool."

3605 Already quoted in Letter CVII.

3606 cf. Letter CXXIII. 15.

3607 Nu. xvi. 46-48, Vulg.

3608 Ex. xxxii. 10.

3609 Rom. ix. 3.

3610 Isa. xxiv. 2.

3611 Ex. xxxii. 32.

3612 Prov. xiv. 28.

3613 Cicero in his Dialogue on the Republic. Cf. Or. xxx.

3614 Rom. xii. 1.

3615 Pontifex.

3616 2 Cor. xi. 2.

3617 Ps. xlv. 9, Ps. xlv. 13, Ps. xlv. 14.

3618 i.e. After receiving the veil.

3619 Cant. i. 4.

3620 Ps. xlv. 13.

3621 1 Cor. iii. 6.

3622 In the year 395 a.d.

3623 Which took place before the fall of Rome in 410 a.d.

3624 Matt. xi. 8.

3625 2 Kings i. 8: Matt. iii. 4.

3626 Matt. xi. 14: Luke i. 17.

3627 Luke i. 41.

3628 Matt. xi. 7-14. Jerome here borrows a phrase from Cyprian, de Op. et El. xv.

3629 Luke ii. 36, Luke ii. 37.

3630 Acts xxi. 9.

3631 Esther xiv. 16.

3632 A virgin 13 years old beheaded at Rome uncier Diocletian after vain efforts first made to overcome her faith by subjecting herto assault and outrage.

3633 See §7 for the cruelties of the Count Heraelian.

3634 Quam habitura pronubam?

3635 Wedding songs so called from the place of their origin, Fescennia in Etruria. See Catullus LXI. for the several customs here mentioned.

3636 1 John iv. 18.

3637 Eph. vi. 14-17.

3638 Virg., A. ii. 774.

3639 Over Hannibal, b.c. 216. Jerome is quoting from Cicero, Brutus, III.

3640 The reference is to the siege of the Capitol by Brennus and the Gauls, b.c. 390.

3641 See note on Letter LXXIX.

3642 i.e. Juliana and Proba, the mother and grandmother of Demetrias.

3643 Luke xvi. 9.

3644 i.e. Olybrius, the father of Demetrias.

3645 Horace, Carm. iii. 3. 7, 8.

3646 Job 1. 16.

3647 Job vii. 1.

3648 Matt. iv. 1, sqq.

3649 Gen. xxii. 1.

3650 Rom. v. 3-5.

3651 Rom. viii. 35, Rom. viii. 36.

3652 Isa. xxviii. 9, 10, LXX.

3653 Rom. viii. 18.

3654 Heraclian, Count of Africa.

3655 Honorius.

3656 i.e. Pluto, king of the lower world.

3657 Sabinus, the son-in-law of Heraclian.

3658 Virg., A. x. 79.

3659 Jerome here apostrophizes Heraclian.

3660 Alaric the Goth.

3661 Reading dedignatus for dignatus.

3662 Virg., A. iii. 435.

3663 Matt. xiii. 25.

3664 Cant. iii. 1: Cant. i. 7.

3665 Ps. lxiii. 8.

3666 Jer. xvii. 16, LXX.

3667 Nu. xxiii. 21, LXX.

3668 i.e. The Indian Ocean.

3669 Matt. viii. 12.

3670 Joh. viii. 12.

3671 Matt. v. 25, Matt. v. 26.

3672 Matt. xii. 36.

3673 Eccles. x. 4. Jerome takes `the ruler 0' to be the devil.

3674 Ps. xl. 2.

3675 Ps. civ. 18.

3676 Gen. iii. 16.

3677 Cant. ii. 16.

3678 Rev. xiv. 4.

3679 Eccles. ix. 8.

3680 Cant. ii. 1.

3681 Matt. x. 23.

3682 Ps. cxlii. 4.

3683 Ps. civ. 18.

3684 Isa. xi. 6-8.

3685 Eccles. x. 4.

3686 Prov. iv. 23.

3687 Ps. xix. 12-14.

3688 Ps. cxxxvii. 9.

3689 Ps. xix. 13.

3690 Nu. xiv. 18.

3691 Amos i. 3.

3692 Exod. xii. 23, Exod. xii. 20.

3693 Ps. lvii. 7, Ps. lvii. 8.

3694 Isa. xxiii. 15, Isa. xxiii. 16.

3695 See Letter CXXII.

3696 1 Cor. ix. 27.

3697 Rom. vii. 24, Rom. vii. 18, Rom. vii. 19.

3698 Rom. viii. 8, Rom. viii. 9.

3699 Ps. lxix. 10.

3700 Ps. cii. 9.

3701 Ps. xxxv. 13, Vulg.

3702 Deut. viii. 3.

3703 Joh. xiii. 15: 1 Pet. ii. 21.

3704 Matt. iv. 1.

3705 Rom. xvi. 20.

3706 Matt. iv. 3.

3707 Lev. xxiii. 27, Lev. xxiii. 29.

3708 Job xl. 16. Cf. Letter XXII.

3709 Jas. iii. 6, R.V. marg.

3710 Hos. vii. 4, Vulg.

3711 Eph. vi. 16.

3712 Song of the Three Holy Children, 24.

3713 Dan. iv. 16, Dan. iv. 25, Dan. iv. 32.

3714 Lev. xxv. 8.

3715 Dan. iii. 25.

3716 Acts ix. 15.

3717 1 Cor. vii. 25.

3718 See Letter CVIII.

3719 Mhden 'agan quoted by Terence (Andria, 61).

3720 Heb. xii. 14, R.V.

3721 See Jerome's commentary on the parable.

3722 Matt. xxv. 1-12.

3723 See Letters XXII., LII., etc.

3724 Luke ii. 51.

3725 Sall. Cat. i. 20.

3726 Heb. xiii. 4.

3727 1 Pet. v. 6.

3728 1 Pet. v. 5.

3729 Rom. ix. 16.

3730 Cf. Letter XXII.

3731 The fragment of Lucilius (preserved by Cic. de Fin. V. 30) says nothing of Cato: possibly therefore the text is here corrupt. See for Cato Letter LII.

3732 Ps. iv. 4, LXX.

3733 Eph. iv. 26.

3734 Eph. v. 5.

3735 Matt. xix. 16, Matt. xix. 21.

3736 Luke xviii. 22. Cf. Letter CXIX.

3737 Acts iv. 34, Acts iv. 35.

3738 Acts v. 1-10.

3739 A philosopher of the Neoplatonic school (fl. 232-300 a.d.). Of his books against Christianity only small fragments remain.

3740 But see Letter LII.

3741 Gal. vi. 10.

3742 See note on Letter XXII.

3743 Prov. xiii. 4, LXX. comp. Letter CXXV.

3744 Anastasius was pope from 398 to 402 a.d.

3745 That of the Origenists.

3746 Rom. i. 8.

3747 Virg. Ecl. iv. 60.

3748 Ps. xix. 9.

3749 Ps. xcii. 15.

3750 Ps. lxxxiv. 6, R.V.

3751 Ps. cxix. 67.

3752 Ps. cxlii. 7.

3753 John ix. 2.

3754 A phrase borrowed from Cicero (p. Sext. Rosc.).

3755 Apparently Letter CXXIV. concerning Origen's book on First Principles.

3756 Cf. Letter CXXV.

3757 Ps. lvii. 4.

3758 Cf. Letters LIII. and LXVI.

3759 Eph. iv. 14.

3760 2 Tim. iii. 7.

3761 1 Cor. xv. 33; the words are quoted from a lost comedy of Menander.

3762 The words are not extant in Petronius but occur in Martial ii. 12. 4.

3763 i.e. the head of the community.

3764 Letter XXII. to Eustochium.

3765 See Letter XXII. ante.

3766 Exod. xii. 11.

3767 Ps. xxvi. 8.

3768 Ps. xxvii. 4.

3769 Cf. Letter LII.

3770 Isa. xiv. 13, Isa. xiv. 14.

3771 Cf. Letter LXXIX.

3772 Rom. vii. 24.

3773 Virgil. aeneid. vi. 733, 734.

3774 Horace, Sat. I. iii. 68, 69.

3775 Tertullian, against Hemogenes, c. ix.

3776 Ecclus. x. 9.

3777 Rom. vii. 23.

3778 Rom. vii. 19.

3779 Eccles. i. 9. Jerome inverts the words of the Preacher.

3780 Rom. xi. 32.

3781 Rom. iii, 23.

3782 Eccles. vii. 20.

3783 1 K. viii. 46.

3784 Prov. xx. 9.

3785 Ps. li. 5.

3786 Ps. cxliii. 2.

3787 1 S. xvi. 7.

3788 Ps. xliv. 21: Heb. iv. 13.

3789 Ps. i. 2.

3790 Jerome here addresses Pelagius.

3791 Matt. xiii. 3, Matt. xiii. 11.

3792 Virgil, Georg. ii. 325-327.

3793 See note on Letter LXXV.

3794 He was condemned by a council at Saragossa in 380-381 a.d. and was put to death by Maximus at Treves in 385 a.d. at the instigation of the Spanish bishops. Martin of Tours tried to save his life in vain.

3795 According to Sozomen (H. E. vi. c. 30) Evagrius was in his youth befriended by Gregory of Nyssa, who left him in Constantinople to assist Nectarius in dealing with theological questions. Being in danger, both as to his chastity and as to his personal safety on account, of an acquaintance be had formed with a lady of rank, he withdrew to Jerusalem, where he was nursed through a severe illness by Melanium. The rest of his life he spent as an ascetic in the Egyptian desert. See also Pallad. Hist. Laus., §lxxxvi.

3796 Viz., Melanium, who having sided with Rufinus in his controversy with Jerome, incurred the latter's displeasure. The name means `black. 0' See Letter IV.

3797 Viz., Rufinus of Aquileia, Jerome's former friend.

3798 These three were known as `the long brothers. 0' Their expulsion from Egypt by Theophilus was one of the causes which led to the downfall of John of Chrysostom.

3799 A contemporary Egyptian monk of great celebrity.

3800 See Letter XCII. and note.

3801 Lucretius, i. 935-937.

3802 Viz., John of Lycopolis, an Egyptian hermit of the latter half of the fourth century. His reputation for sanctity was only second to that of Antony. The book about monks here spoken of does not occur in the list of the writings of Evagrius in the Dict. of Chr. Biog., taken froth Socrates, Gennadius and Palladius. Rufinus' History of the Monks bears a close affinity to the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius, who was closely allied to Evagrius; and it is possible that Jerome may have attributed Palladius' work to Evagrius. See Prolegomena to Rufinus, and comp. Ruf. Hist. Mon. i. with Pall. Hist. Laus., xliii.

3803 In his references (here and in his comm. on Jeremiah, book iv., ch. 22) to the Gnomes of Sixtus or Xystus, Jerome is both inaccurate and unfair. For Rufinus merely states that the author was traditionally identified with Sixtus, bishop of Rome and martyr; and he does not endorse the statement. In its present forth the book is so strongly Christian in tone and language that it is strange to find it described as Christless and heathen. Of its origin nothing certain is known, but probably it is "the production of an early Christian philosopher working up heathen material with a leaven of the Gospel" (Dict. Chr. Biog. s. v. Xystus).

3804 It is not clear which Sixtus is meant. Sixtus I. is not known to have been a martyr and Sixtus II. can hardly be intended. For though his claim to the title is undisputed he can scarcely have written what Origen already quotes as well known.

3805 Jerome elsewhere twits Rufinus with the same mistake (see Comm. on Jer., book iv., ch. 22). He was not, however, alone in making it, for even Augustine was for a time similarly deceived (see his Retractations, ii. 42).

3806 Cf. Against Rufinus, i. 8, 9. There is now no doubt that Jerome was wrong and Rufinus right as to the authorship of the book. See the article entitled Eusebius in the Dict. of Christian Biog. and the prolegomena to his works as issued in this series.

3807 Ps. xvi. 7 and Origen's Comm. ad loc.

3808 See Against Jovinian, book ii. 1. His second position is that "persons baptized with water and the spirit cannot be tempted of the devil."

3809 Eph. iv. 14; 2 Tim. iii. 6, 2 Tim. iii. 7.

3810 2 Tim. iv. 3.

3811 Ezek. xiii. 10-16.

3812 This legendary companion and disciple of Simon Magus is said to have been identified by him with Helen of Troy. According to Justin Martyr she had been a prostitute at Tyre.

3813 Cf. Epiphanius, Adv. Haer. lib. i. tom. ii, p. 76, ed. Migne.

3814 Jerome is alone in speaking of this emissary. It has been suggested that he may have had in mind the gnostic Marcellina, who came to Rome during the episcopate of Anicetus.

3815 Apelles, the most famous of the disciples of Marcion, lived and taught mainly at Rome. Philumena was a clairvoyante whose revelations he regarded as inspired.

3816 See Letter XLI.

3817 Constantia, sister of Constantine the Great.

3818 Lucilla, a wealthy lady of Carthage, having been condemned by its bishop Caecilianus, is said to have procured his deposition by bribing his fellow-bishops.

3819 Agape, a Spanish lady, was a disciple of the gnostic Marcus of Memphis (cf. Letter LXXV. ). She was thus one of the links between the gnosticism of the East and the Priscillianism of Spain. Elpidius was a rhetorician who spread in Spain the Zoroastrian opinions which culminated in Priscillianism.

3820 Of these sisters nothing further is known.

3821 2 Th. ii. 7.

3822 Jer. xvii. 11, Vulg.

3823 Viz., "A man may be without sin." See for this and the other statements of Pelagius, Aug. de Gestis Pelagii, esp. c. 2 and 6. Jerome's Anti-Pelagian Dialogue takes these words as containing the essence of Pelagianism.

3824 Isa. viii. 20, LXX.

3825 Celestius is meant, after Pelagius the principal champion of free will.

3826 1 Cor. iv. 7.

3827 Rom. ix. 16.

3828 Phil. ii. 13.

3829 John v. 17.

3830 Ps. xxxiv. 8.

3831 Ps. cxi. 10.

3832 1 Joh. iv. 18.

3833 Luke xvii. 10.

3834 Phil. iii. 12, Phil. iii. 13.

3835 Isa. lxv. 5, LXX.

3836 1 Cor. x. 31.

3837 Jas. iv. 13-16.

3838 Ps. xxv. 15.

3839 Jer. x. 23.

3840 Prov. xvi. 9.

3841 Ps. xciv. 20, LXX and Vulg.

3842 Ps. xvii. 4, LXX.

3843 Matt. vii. 13.

3844 Matt. v. 44.

3845 autarkhj, self-determined.

3846 1 Pet. ii. 22.

3847 Rom. viii. 3.

3848 Rom. iii. 20.

3849 Rom. vii. 22-25. In the Latin as in the Greek one word does duty for `grace 0' and `thanks. 0'

3850 R. V.

3851 Rom. vii. 14-20.

3852 This is the well known dualism of Manes (Manichaeus), who held that the physical world and the human body are essentially evil.

3853 cf. Matt. xxvi. 41.

3854 Gal. v. 17.

3855 Rom. vii. 19.

3856 Rom. ix. 20, Rom. ix. 21.

3857 Mal. i. 2, Mal. i. 3. Rom. ix. 13.

3858 Josh. vii.

3859 1 Sam. iv.

3860 2 Sam. xxiv.

3861 This objection is dealt with at lengths by Augustine (Letter CXI. See Vol. I. Series I. of this Library).

3862 Eph. ii. 5.

3863 Ps. xxxii. 1.

3864 Matt. xxvi. 41.

3865 Ps. l. 16, Ps. l. 17.

3866 Or rather, mock humility.

3867 cf. 1 Cor. iii. 2.

3868 Hos. ix. 11, Hos. ix. 14, partly after the LXX., partly from memory.

3869 Isa. xxix. 14, as quoted by Paul, 1 Cor. i. 19.

3870 1 Cor. i. 25.

3871 Joh. xix. 23, Joh. xix. 24.

3872 Jon. i. 12.

3873 Matt. xii. 39, Matt. xii. 40.

3874 Luke, x. 18.

3875 The Anti-Pelagian Dialogue, to which this letter is a kind of prelude.

3876 Cf. Letter CXXIII.

3877 Luke i. 20-22.

3878 Job xlii. 6.

3879 1 Kings xxii. 19.

3880 2 Chr. xxxv. 20-24.

3881 At this time bishop of Carthage and a friend of Augustine.

3882 Letter CXXXVI.

3883 Tit. iii. 10, Tit. iii. 11.

3884 i.e. John of Jerusalem. See the next letter.

3885 i.e. Paula the younger, Eustochium's niece, concerning whose education Jerome had written to her mother Laeta (Letter CVII.).

3886 The attack was supposed to have been instigated by Pelagius.

3887 In Jerome's writings this title is often given to bishops. Presbyters are by him rarely so called.

3888 Pelagius would naturally be understood by Catiline, and Celestius by Lentulus, who was Catiline's lieutenant. But it is known that, after the Synod of Diospolis which acquitted them, Celestius went to Africa, Ephesus, Constantinople, and Rome, while Pelagius apparently remained in Palestine, where he died.

3889 At this time in Palestine whither he had come as the bearer of letters from Augustine to Jerome and others.

3890 The family meant is probably the one warned by Jerome in his letter to Ctesiphon (CXXXIII, In that case the troubler of its peace is of course Pelagius.

3891 1 Tim. vi. 15.

3892 It would seem as if Jerome, like Augustine, had at first thought favourably of Pelagius.

3893 Ps. lviii. 4.

3894 i.e. the monastic establishment under Jerome's guidance at Bethlehem. See Letters CXXXV.-CXXXVII.

3895 That is Augustine's to Jerome and the expected answer.

3896 In Jerome's Letters, No. CXXXI.; in Augustine's, No. CLXVI.

3897 In Jerome's Letters, No. CXXXIV.; in Augustine's, No. CLXXII.

3898 After the Council of Diospolis Jerome suffered much from the violence of the Pelagians. See Letters CXXXVI.-CXXXIX.

3899 i.e. railing.

3900 Suo sensu abundet. Rom. xiv. 5, Vulg.

3901 i.e. Pelagianism.

3902 2 Cor. x. 12.

3903 At this point the text is obscure.

3904 i. e. Adam, "our first-formed father." (Wisd. x. 1.)

3905 Rom. ix. 11.

3906 Wisdom x. 1.

3907 2 Cor. xii. 4.

3908 Matt. xxiii. 10.

3909 Acts i. 7.

3910 Ps. xxxix. 4.

3911 Job xiv. 5, LXX.

3912 i.e. you may be quite sure that souls are created by God.

3913 Letter CXXXI., ante.

3914 Letter CXXXII., ante.

3915 1 Cor. vii. 27.

3916 Matt. xxiv. 17, Matt. xxiv. 18.

3917 Luke ix. 62.

3918 Gen. xxxix. 12.

3919 Luke xiv. 26, Luke xiv. 27.

3920 Pravitates, deformities. Matt. xix. 24.

3921 Matt. xix. 21.

3922 2 Cor. viii. 12.

3923 Luke xxi. 1-4.

3924 Luke xv. 20-23.

3925 Isa. xxxii. 6, RV.

3926 Acts vi. 1, Acts vi. 2.

3927 Ad quorum preces Christi corpus sanguisque conficitur. Cp. Letter XIV.

3928 Ph. i. 1.

3929 Sacerdotes.

3930 Acts xx. 28, RV.

3931 A.V. `elders. 0'

3932 Tit. i. 5-7.

3933 Tim. iv. 14.

3934 AV. `of God. 0'

3935 1 Pet. v. 1, 1 Pet. v. 2. The last clause from RV.

3936 episkopoj.

3937 Mark iii. 17.

3938 Joh. xiii. 23.

3939 2 Joh. 1.

3940 3 Joh. 1.

3941 Orbis major est urbe.

3942 In this passage Jerome does his best to minimize the distinction between bishops and presbyters. Elsewhere also he stands up for the rights of the latter (see Letter LII.

3943 At Rome there were only seven, that having been the number of `servers 0' appointed by the apostles. (See Acts vi. and Sozomen H. E. vii. 19.)

3944 Contrary to the eighteenth canon of Nicaea.

3945 Acts vi. 2.

3946 This analogy had become very common in Jerome's day. The germ of it is to be found in Clem. ad Cor. I. xl.

3947 1 Sam. xv. 11, 1 Sam. xv. 17.

3948 1 Cor. v. 1.

3949 2 Cor. xii. 21.

3950 Luke xvi. 13, Luke xvi. 16.

3951 Phil. iii. 19.

3952 Rom. ii. 4, Rom. ii. 5.

3953 Ex. v. 2.

3954 Ezek. xii. 27, Ezek. xii. 28.

3955 Ps. lxxiii. 11, Ps. lxxiii. 12.

3956 Ps. lxxiii. 13.

3957 So the Vulgate, from which Jerome quotes.

3958 Ps. lxxiii. 3-9.

3959 Cf. Matt. x. 23.

3960 Matt. x. 24, Matt. x. 25.

3961 Luke xxiii. 31.

3962 So the Latin.

3963 Mal. iii. 14, Mal. iii. 15, Mal. iii. 18.

3964 A writer and actor of mimes, probably in the first century of the Empire.

3965 Am. i. 3, LXX.

3966 Ezek. xxxiii. 11.

3967 Luke v. 31.

3968 Cf. Ezek. xvi. 6.

3969 Ex. xx. 5.

3970 Ezek. iii. 1: Ezek. ii. 9, 10, Vulg.

3971 Is. xxviii. 15.

3972 Isa. xxii. 12-14.

3973 1 Sam. xv. 11.

3974 Acts vi. 5.

3975 Rev. ii. 6, Rev. ii. 15.

3976 Women guilty of adultery were legally punishable with death until the time of Justinian.

3977 Ps. lxxxv. 11, Ps. lxxxv. 12.

3978 Mimus, scurra, atellanus.

3979 1 Cor. xi. 5, 1 Cor. xi. 6.

3980 At the Eucharistic service the gospel was commonly though not exclusively read by a deacon. (See Const. Apost. II. 57, 5, and Sozomen, H. C. VII. 19.)

3981 Gal. iv. 16.

3982 The goddess who in the Roman pantheon presided over funerals. The gladiators meant are the so-called bustuarii who were engaged to fight at the funeral pile (bustum) in honour of the dead.

3983 i. e. by the use of depilatories.

3984 Jer. iii. 3.

3985 Mal. iii. 7.

3986 Rev. iii. 17.

3987 Cf. Cyprian, Epist. ad Demet. xxv.

3988 Luke x. 30-34.

3989 Joh. xi. 39, Joh. xi. 44.

3990 Luke i. 79.

3991 Matt. ix. 27: cf. Luke xviii. 35-38.

3992 Mark x. 50.

3993 Isa. xxx. 15, LXX.

3994 Ps. li. 5, Ps. li. 7.

3995 Luke xiii. 11-13.

3996 Gen. iv. 7, LXX.

3997 An etymological allusion. Nod = `ebb and flow. 0'

3998 Num. xxv. 6-8.

3999 2 Sam. xiii. 14.

4000 1 Kings xxi. 13.

4001 1 Kings xxi. 29.

4002 Ezek. xviii. 4.

4003 1 Sam. viii. 3.

4004 1 Sam. ii. 12-17, 1 Sam. ii. 22.

4005 1 Sam. iv. 18.

4006 2 Sam. vi. 6, 2 Sam. vi. 7.

4007 Sacerdotes, lit. priests.

4008 2 Cor. xi. 14, 2 Cor. xi. 15.

4009 Matt. vii. 15.

4010 i.e. to the church at large represented by individual virgins.

4011 Heb. vi. 6, Heb. vi. 7-8.

1 See life of Paulus above.

2 Matt. xi. 18.

3 Luke xiv. 33.

4 Isa. xiv. 14.

5 2 Thess. iii. 10.

6 Exod. xv. 1.

7 Ps. xx. 7.

8 Luke v. 31.

9 He was also the god of agricultural fertility. The festival of the Consualia, supposed to have been instituted by Romulus, was on August 21.

10 Or secretary-Candidatus, a qu`stor appointed by the Emperor to read his rescripts, etc.

11 Matt. viii. and Mark v.

12 Interpres. Probably one who spoke for him to the people, as Elijah had Elisha as his attendant.

13 Jovian, a.d., 363-4.

14 Morbo regio. The dictionaries give "jaundice" as the meaning, but it is universally used in modern times for scrofula. Here it seems to mean leprosy.

15 Matt. v. 14.

16 Scutarius, one of a corps of guards, whose prominent weapons were shields.

17 Matt. x. 8.

18 More properly in Argolis. It was the native town of Aesculapius, who was worshipped under the form of a serpent.

19 Boas because they can swallow oxen (boves).

20 Matt. xvii. 20 sq.

21 In Dalmatia, three miles from Diocletian's great palace (Spalatro).

22 The southerns promontory of Greece.

23 Now Cerigo.

24 Matt. xiv. 32.

25 Probably the place which gave its name to one of the mouths of the Nile (Bucolicum).

1 This purpose was never carried into effect. These Lives of the Monks may, be regarded as a contribution towards it, and also the book De Viris Illustribus (translated in Vol. iii. of this series) which was written in the following year, 392.

2 Patronos. Properly defenders or advocates, but passing into the sense of proprietor, as in the Italian padrone.

3 In the year 374.

4 See Letters i. 15, iii. 3.

5 A populous city in Mesopotamia.

6 The desert in which Jerome spent the years 375-80. See Letters ii., v., xiv., xvii.

7 A city of Mesopotamia, formerly the capital of Abgarus' kingdom: at this time a great centre of Syrian Christianity.

1 The Sardinian cloak of skins is contrasted by Cicero (pro Scauro) with the Royal purple:-Quem purpura regalis non commovit, eum Sardorum mastruca mutavit. Jerome's meaning is that Christ came not to win the lowest place on earth, but the highest. The fact that Lucifer was Bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia gives point to the saying.

2 That is, of Jupiter, whose temple was in the Capitol.

3 Ps. lvii. 6.

4 Sacerdotium.

5 Apoc. i. 6.

6 1 Pet. ii. 9.

7 That is diocese. The word diocese was in early times the larger expression, and contained many provinces. See Canon II of Constantinople, Bright's edition, and note.

8 Matt. v. 13.

9 Lev. ix. 7.

10 Tit. i. 7.

11 1 Cor. xi. 28.

12 Matt. vii. 6.

13 Numb. xvi. 26.

14 Hos. ix. 4.

15 Matt. vii. 22.

16 Matt. v. 15.

17 Matt. vi. 23-24.

18 Matt. vi. 23-24.

19 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

20 Levit. xxi. 17.

21 Quoted apparently from memory as giving the general sense of passages in Lev. xxi, Lev. xxii.

22 Quoted apparently from memory as giving the general sense of passages in Lev. xxi, Lev. xxii.

23 Gen. i. 2.

24 John v. 2 sq.

25 xix. 2.

26 Is. xi. 3: Matt. iii. 3.

27 John i. 29.

28 Luke i. 43.

29 Acts ix. 17.

30 Matt. xi. 11.

31 Matt. xi. 10.

32 We venture to read `decebat 0' instead of `dicebat. 0' Otherwise, we may render `Thus (the Scripture) said that, 0' etc.

33 Mark i. 4.

34 Mark i. 5.

35 John iii. 31.

36 Matt. iii. 11.

37 John iii. 30.

38 Acts xix. 1, sqq.

39 Triple immersion, that is, thrice dipping the head while standing in the water, was the all but universal rule of the Church in early times. There is proof of its existence in Africa, Palestine, Egypt, at Antioch and Constantinople, in Cappadocia and Rome. See Basil, On the H. Sp. §66, and Apostolical Canons. Gregory the Great ruled that either form was allowable, the one symbolizing the Unity of the Godhead, the other the Trinity of Persons.

40 This ceremony together with the kiss of peace and white robes probably dated from very early times. In the fourth century some new ceremonies were introduced, such as the use of lights and salt, the unction with oil before baptism in addition to that with chrism which continued to be administered after baptism.

41 At Holy Communion the first prayer of the faithful was said by all kneeling. During the rest of the liturgy all stood. At other times of service the rule was for all to kneel in prayer except on Sundays and between Easter and Whitsuntide.

42 The Arians said He was the creature (made out of nothing) through whom the Father gave being to all other creatures.

43 The Macedonians, who became nearly co-extensive with the Semi-Arians about 360, held that the Spirit not being `very 0' God must be a creature and therefore a Servant of God.

44 Sacerdotium-often used by Jerome in a special sense for the Episcopate. He says of Pammachius and of himself (Letter xlv., 3) that many people thought them digni sacerdotio, meaning the Bishopric of Rome.

45 Acts viii. 26 sq.

46 "The philosophical relations of Arianism have been differently stated. Baur, Newman (The Arians, p. 17), and others, bring it into connection with Aristotle, and Athanasianism with Plato; Petavius, Ritter, and Voigt, on the contrary, derive the Arian idea of God from Platonism and Neo-Platonism. The empirical, rational logical tendency of Arianism is certainly more Aristotelian than Platonic. and so far Baur and Newman are right; but all depends on making either revelation and faith. or philosophy and reason, the starting point and ruling power of theology." Doctor Schaff in Dict. of Chris. Biog.

47 Baptism was at this time, as a rule, administered by the bishop alone.

48 This was, approximately, the Patripassian form of the heresy, according to which the person of the Father who is one with the Son, was incarnate in Christ, and the Father might then be said to have died upon the cross. The personality of the Holy Ghost appears to have been denied. With varying shades of opinion and modes of expression the doctrine was expounded by Praxeas (circ. a.d. 200), Noetius (a.d. 220), Sabellius (a.d. 225), Beryllus and Paul of Samosata (circ. a.d. 250).

49 That is the followers of Lucifer, whose see was in Sardinia.

50 Ps. xii. 1. The Luciferians believed that few or none outside their own sect could be saved.

51 Ps. xxx. 9.

52 Mark iii. 27.

53 Ps. ii. 8.

54 Ps. xviii. 15.

55 Lit. In the sun hath he placed his tabernacle, and there is none who can hide himself from the heat thereof. Ps. xix. 6.

56 Ps. ix. 6. Sept. Vulg. Syr.

57 The allusion is doubtful. It probably refers to some province of Spain (perhaps that of the Ibera or Ebro), in which the views of Lucifer prevailed and which his followers considered almost the sole land of the faithful. The expression, however, is used in a more general sense by Jerome, Letter VI.

58 Luke xviii. 8.

59 Matt. ix. 22.

60 Matt. viii. 10.

61 Matt. viii. 26.

62 Matt. xvii. 20.

63 Matt. ix. 21.

64 Matt. ix. 29.

65 For an account of the "Dated Creed" here referred to, and of the Councils of Seleucia and Ariminum, a.d. 359, see Bright's History of the Church, a.d. 313-451, fourth edition, pp. 93-100.

66 Principium, the equivalent of the Greek 'Arxh, which means beginning, or principle, or power.

67 These two propositions constituted the essence of the teaching of Arius.

68 Usia (ousia) is defined by Cyril of Alexandria as that which has existence in itself, independent of everything else to constitute it. A discussion of both it and its companion term hypostasis may be found in Newman's Arians, Appendix p. 432. Around ousia, or some compound of the word, the great Arian controversy always raged. In asserting that the son was homoousios with the Father, i.e., consubstantial or co-essential, the Church affirmed the Godhead of the Son. But the formula experienced varying fortunes. It was disowned as savouring of heterodoxy by the Council of Antioch (264-269) which was held to decide upon the views of Paulus: was imposed at Nicaea (325): considered inexpedient by the great body of the epis-copate in the next generation: was most cautiously put forward by Athanasius himself (see Stanley's Hist. of Eastern Church, 1883, p. 240): does not occur in the catecheses of S. Cyril of Jerusalem (347): was momentarily abandoned by 400 bishops at Ariminum who were "tricked and worried" into the act. "They had not," says Newman, "yet got it deeply fixed in their minds as a sort of first principle, that to abandon the formula was to betray the faith."

69 The distinguishing principle of the doctrine of Acacius was adherence to Scriptural phraseology. See Bright's Hist., p. 69.

70 The teaching of Aetius and Eunomius, the Anomoeans, who were the extremists of the Arians. See Robertson's Hist. of Chris. Ch., fourth edition, pp. 236-237, etc. The other tenets anathematized are Arian or Semi-Arian.

71 Bishop of Singedunum (Belgrade). "He and Valens, bishop of Mursa (in Pannonia) appear at every Synod and Council from 330 till about 370, as leaders of the Arian party, both in the East and West ...They are described by Athanasius as the disciples of Arius." Dict. of Chris. Biog.

72 Constantius.

73 Julian.

74 In August 362, "All Egypt seemed to assemble in the city (Alexandria), which blazed with lights and rang with acclamations; the air was fragrant with incense burnt in token of joy; men formed a choir to precede the Archbishop; to hear his voice, to catch a glimpse of his face, even to see his shadow, was deemed happiness." Bright, p. 115.

75 Bishop of Poictiers (a.d. 350). Died a.d. 368.

76 Bishop of Vercellae in N. Italy. Died about a.d. 270. Both he and Hilary had been sent into exile by Constantius for their opposition to Arianism.

77 That is, the creed of Ariminum.

78 Said to have been the "most prominent and most distinguished man of the entire movement." Athanasius suggested that he was the teacher rather than the disciple of Arius. He died a.d. 342.

79 Regarded as one of the chief opponents of Athanasius. He and others it is said saved themselves from exile by secretly substituting omoiousioj for omoousioj in the sentence of the Council.

80 Born probably, about a.d. 260. He was made bishop of Caesarea about 313 and lived to be eighty. At the time of the Council he was the most learned man and most famous living writer. He had great influence with Constantine, and was among the most moderate Arians.

81 Eudoxius was deposed from the bishopric of Antioch by the Council of Seleucia, a.d. 359; but the immediate predecessor of Euzoius was Meletius, deposed a.d. 361. Baronius describes him as the worst of all the Arians. Euzoius had been the companion and intimate friend of Arius from an early age. Athanasius (Hist. Arian. p. 858) calls him the "Canaanite."

82 Saints Athanasius, Hilary of Poictiers, and Eusebius of Vercellae.

83 a.d. 328, when Athanasius was consecrated bishop.

84 See introduction.

85 This Hilary was a deacon of Rome, sent by Liberius the bishop with Lucifer and Pancratius to the Emperor Constantius. He joined the Luciferians, and wrote in their interest on the re-baptism of heretics. He appears, however, to have been reconciled before his death.

86 1 Pet. iii. 20.

87 2 Tim. ii. 20.

88 Ecc. xi. 2.

89 Vulg. for tyIgyI#$%#$; l(a

Pss. vi. xii. and 1 Chron. xv. 21. The meaning is probably "in a lower octave," or, "in the bass." According to others, an air, or key in which the psalm was to be sung, or a musical instrument with eight strings.

90 Virg, Georg. i. 154.

91 S. Matt. xiii. 24 sq.

92 Rom. ix. 22, Rom. ix. 23: 2 Tim. ii. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 21.

93 1 John ii. 19.

94 Prov. xiv. 12.

95 Stephen was willing to admit all heretical baptism even that by Marcionites and Ophites; Cyprian would admit none. The Council was held at Carthage a.d. 255, and was followed by two in the next year.

96 Bishop of Rome from May 12, a.d. 254, to Aug. 2, a.d. 257. See note on ch. 25.

97 The words of 1 John iv. 3 would appear to support Jerome's remark.

98 Acts viii. 10. In the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions Simon is the constant opponent of St. Peter.

99 Commonly regarded as the chief among the Egyptian Gnostics. The Basilidian system is described by Irenaeus (101f).

100 Acts vi. 5, Rev. ii. 6, Rev. ii. 15. As to how far Jerome's estimate of the character of Nicolas is correct, the article Nicolas in Smith's Dict. of Bible may be consulted.

101 Jerome here reproduces almost exactly the remark of Pseudo-Tertullian. The Dositheans were probably a Jewish or Samaritan ascetic sect, something akin to the Essenes.

102 The name Pharisee implies separation, but in the sense of dedication to God.

103 Of Antioch. One of the earliest of the Gnostics (second century).

104 The Ophites, whose name is derived from ofij, a serpent, were a sect which lasted from the second century to the sixth. Some of them believed that the serpent of Gen. iii. was either the Divine Wisdom, or the Christ himself, come to enlighten mankind. Their errors may in great measure, like those of the Cainites, be traced to the belief, common to all systems of Gnosticism, that the Creator of the world, who was the God of the Jews, was not the same as the Supreme Being, but was in antagonism to Him. They supposed that the Scriptures were written in the interest of the Demiurge or Creator, and that a false colouring being given to the story, the real worthies were those who are reprobated in the sacred writings.

105 The Cainites regarded as saints, Cain, Korah, Dathan, the Sodomites, and even the traitor Judas.

106 The Sethites are said to have looked upon Seth as the same person as Christ.

107 Carpocrates, another Gnostic, held that our Lord was the son of Joseph and Mary, and was distinguished from other men by nothing except moral superiority. He also taught the indifference of actions in themselves, and maintained that they take their quality from opinion or from legislation; he advocated community of goods and of wives, basing his views on the doctrine of natural rights. See Mosheim, Cent. ii.

108 Cerinthus was a nativ of Judaea, and after having studied at Alexandria established himself as a teacher in his own country. He afterwards removed to Ephesus, and there became prominent. He held that Jesus and the Christ were not the same person; Jesus was, he said, a real man, the son of Joseph and Mary; the Christ was an emanation which descended upon Jesus at his baptism to reveal the Most High, but which forsook him before the Passion. S. John in his Gospel and Epistles combats this error. See Westcott's Introduction to 1 John, p. xxxiv. (second ed.) etc. Cerinthus is said to have been the heretic with whom S. John refused to be under the same roof at the bath. To him as author is also referred the doctrine of the Millennium.

109 The Ebionites were mere humanitarians. Whether Ebion ever existed, or whether the sect took its name from the beggarliness of their doctrine, or their vow of poverty, or the poorness of spirit which they professed, is disputed.

110 Rev. ii. 16.

111 Cyprian's opinion as stated in his reply to the Numidian and Mauritanian bishops (Ep. 71) was that converts must be baptized, unless they had received the regular baptism of the Church before falling into heresy or schism, in which case imposition of hands would suffice. The question was afterwards decided against Cyprian's views by the Council of Aries (a.d. 314), which ordered that if the baptism had been administered in the name of the Trinity, converts should be admitted to the Church by imposition of hands.

112 For Novatus and an account of the dispute between Cyprian and Stephen, see Robertson's "Hist. of Christian Church," fourth ed., vol. i. pp. 120-127.

113 1 Cor. xi. 16.

114 As Deucalion was left alone after the flood, so, Jerome implies, Hilary imagined himself the sole survivor after the flood of Arianism.

115 The advocates on each side could plead immemorial local usage. If imposition of hands was the rule at Rome, synods held at Iconium and at Synnada had established the rule of re-baptism nearly throughout Asia Minor. In Africa the same practice had been sanctioned early in the third century, but it seems to have fallen into disuse long before Cyprian's time.

116 Bishops of Rome-Julius 337-352; Mark Jan. 18-Oct. 7, 336; Sylvester 314-335.

117 Canon 19.

118 Canon 8. The bishop might give him the nominal honour of a bishop.

119 By the "men of the mountain or the plain," Jerome appears to contemptuously designate the Circumcellions who were an extreme section of the Donatists. They roamed about the country in bands of both sexes, and struck terror into the peaceable inhabitants. They were guilty of the grossest excesses, and no Catholic was safe except in the towns. Robertson's "Hist. of the Church," vol. i. fourth ed. pp. 200, 419, and the original authorities there referred to.

1 Ut ait ille. The sentiment, almost in the same words, is found in Tertullian against Hermogenes, ch. 1.

2 i. 18 sq.

3 S. Matt. i. 24, Matt. i. 25.

4 Ps. vi. 5.

5 Deut. xxii. 24, Deut. xxii. 25.

6 Deut. xxii. 23, Deut. xxii. 24.

7 Deut. xx. 7.

8 Is. vii. 14. See Cheyne's Isaiah, and critical note.

9 S. Luke ii. 27.

10 S. Luke ii. 41.

11 ib. ii. 43.

12 ib. i. 34.

13 S. Luke ii. 48.

14 S. Matt. i. 20.

15 Is. xlvi. 4.

16 S. Matt. xxviii. 20.

17 1 Cor. xv. 23 sq.

18 Ps. cxxiii. 2. The songs of the up-goings or ascents (twn anabaOmwn Sept., graduum Vulg.), are the fifteen psalms cxx.-cxxxiv.

19 Ps. cxix. 123.

20 Gen. xxxv. 4, Sept.

21 Deut. xxxiv. 5-6.

22 S. Matt. i. 20.

23 S. Matt. i. 20.

24 S. Luke ii. 10 sq.

25 S. Luke ii. 14.

26 ib. ii. 29.

27 S. Luke ii. 33.

28 The allusion is to the Old Latin, the Versio Itala. The quotations which follow stand differently in Jerome's Vulgate, made subsequently (391-404). The argument is that, since the copies of the Latin version substantially agree in the present case, it is futile to suppose variations in the original.

29 Gen. xxxviii. 26.

30 Lev. xii. 2-3 margin.

31 Jer. v. 8.

32 S. Luke ii. 7.

33 S. Luke ii. 4 sq.

34 Numb. xviii. 15.

35 Numb. xviii. 16.

36 S. Luke ii. 22 sq.

37 Exod. xii. 29.

38 S. Matt. xii. 46.

39 S. John ii. 12.

40 S. John vii. 3, John vii. 4.

41 S. John vii. 5.

42 S. Matt. xiii. 54, Matt. xiii. 55. S. Mark vi. 1-3.

43 Acts i. 14.

44 Gal. ii. 2; Gal. i. 19.

45 1 Cor. ix. 4, 1 Cor. ix. 5.

46 S. Matt. xxvii. 55, Matt. xxvii. 56. For Joses, Jerome has Joseph.

47 S. Marc. xv. 40, Marc. xv. 41. For Joses, Jerome has Joseph.

48 S. Luc. xxiv. 10.

49 S. Mark xv. 47: Mark xvi. 1.

50 S. John xix. 25.

51 Gal. i. 18, Gal. i. 19.

52 Gal. ii. 9.

53 But see Judges vi. 2.

54 The Heb. Negebh signifies South, and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom. If Darom be the right reading, it is, apparently, the same as Dedan (Ezek. xxv. 13, etc).

55 Deut. xv. 12.

56 Deut. xvii. 15.

57 Deut. xxii. 1.

58 Rom. ix. 3, Rom. ix. 4.

59 Gen. xiii. 8, Gen. xiii. 11.

60 Gen. xii. 4.

61 Gen. xiv. 14.

62 Gen. xxix. 11.

63 Gen. xxix. 15.

64 Gen. xxxi. 36, Gen. xxxi. 37.

65 Ps. cxxxiii. 1.

66 Ps. xxii. 22.

67 S. John xx. 17.

68 Is. lxvi. 5.

69 1 Cor. v. 11.

70 Gen. xx. 11.

71 Lev. xviii. 9.

72 S. Matt. xiii. 55: S. Mark vi. 3.

73 That is, Rome.

74 S. Luke i. 18.

75 S. John i. 45.

76 That is, Pettau in Upper Pannonia. See Jerome, De Vir. Ill. 74.

77 Gen. i. 28.

78 Probably a mistranslation of Exod. xxiii. 26.

79 1 Cor. vii. 29.

80 ib. vii. 32, vii. 33.

81 1 Cor. vii. 34.

82 Gen. xviii. 11.

83 Gen. xxi. 12.

84 1 Cor. vii. 34.

85 1 Cor. vii. 25.

86 Matt. xxiv. 19: S. Mark xiii. 17.

1 From this expression and that quoted in the notice above, it would be supposed that Jerome knew Jovinianus and his mode of life. But there is no reason to think that he had this knowledge; and his imputations against his adversary must be taken as the inferences which he draws tom his opinions.

2 Hor. Ars Poet. 139.

3 Pers. Sat. iii. 118.

4 Plautus, Pseudolus, i. 1. 23.

Interpretari alium potesse neminem.

5 The allusion is probably to the Sybilline books.

6 Aen x. 640.

7 The philosopher of Ephesus. Flourished about b.c. 513.

8 Ibi est distinctio. Instead of clearness we have to make a choice between possible meanings.

9 Marcion lived about a.d. 150, and was co-temporary with Polycarp, who is said to have had a personal encounter with him at Rome. Unlike other Gnostics he professed to be purely Christian in his doctrines. He is specially noted for his violent treatment of Scripture: he rejected the whole of the Old Testament, while of the New he acknowledged only the Gospel of S. Luke and ten of S, Paul's Epistles, and from these he expunged whatever he did not approve of. His sect lasted until the sixth century.

10 By birth an Assyrian, and a pupil of Justin Martyr. His followers were called Encratites, or Temperates, from their great austerity. They also bore the names Water-drinkers and Renouncers.

11 Heb. xiii. The Revised Ver. translates "let marriage be, etc." There is no verb in the original, the sentence being probably designed to be a Christian proverb, and capable of serving either as an assertion or as a precept. The revised rendering is preferred by the chief modern commentators.

12 Gen. i. 28.

13 For much interesting information relating to counting on the fingers, and for authorities on the subject, see Mayor's note on Juvenal x. 249.

14 The philosopher of Crotona, in Italy, b.c. 580-510. See some of his sayings in Jerome's Apology, iii. 39-40.

15 The great teacher of the Academy at Athens; lived b.c. 428-389.

16 Surnamed the "Just." He was the opponent of Themistocles. He fought at Marathon (490), and although in exile did good service at Salamis (480). He was now recalled, and after commanding the Athenians at Plataea (479) died, probably in 468, so poor that he did not leave enough to pay for his funeral.

17 Flourished about b.c. 370. A disciple of Socrates, and founder of the Cyrenaic School of Philosophy; he was luxurious in his life, and held pleasure to be the highest good.

18 Epicurus (b.c. 342-270), though a disciple of Aristippus, does not appear to have deserved the odium attached to his name by Jerome and many others. "Pleasure with him was not a mere momentary and transitory sensation, but something lasting and imperishable, consisting in pure and noble enjoyments. that is, in ataracia and aponia, or the freedom from pain and from all influences which disturb the peace of our mind, and thereby our happiness which is the result of it." See Zeller's Socrates and the Socratic Schools (Reichel's translation), second ed., p. 337 sq.

19 The famous Athenian, talented, reckless and unscrupulous; born about b.c. 450, assassinated 404.

20 Gen. ii. 24.

21 Matt. xix. 5.

22 Gen. i. 28; Gen. ix. 1.

23 Gen. ix. 1.

24 Gen. ix. 3.

25 Gen. xxv. 23.

26 Gen. xxx. 1.

27 Gen. xxx. 2.

28 Palo. Rev. Vers. tent-pin.

29 Ps. lxxii. 1.

30 Ps. lxxii. 15.

31 Is. xxxviii. 19. Sept.

32 1 Tim. v. 14.

33 Hebr. xiii. 4. See note on sec. 3.

34 1 Cor. vii. 39.

35 1 Tim. ii. 14.

36 1 Cor. vii. 29.

37 1 Cor. vii. 1 sq.

38 Prov. vi. 27, Prov. vi. 28.

39 Mithras was the God of the Sun among the Persians. His worship was introduced at Rome under the Emperors, and thence spread over the empire.

40 Son of Vulcan, king of Athens, and the first to drive a four-in-hand, Virg. G. iii. 113: "First to the chariot, Ericthonius dared four steeds to join, and o'er the rapid wheels victorious hang."

41 1 Pet. iii. 7.

42 1 Pet. iii. 2, 1 Pet. iii. 3.

43 1 John ii. 6.

44 1 Cor. vii. 7.

45 2 Cor. ii. 7.

46 2 Cor. ii. 10. Margin.

47 Ps. xlv. 9, Ps. xlv. 13, Ps. xlv. 14.

48 1 Peter iii. 7, joined with 1 Peter iv. 10.

49 1 Cor. vii. 8.

50 Tit. i. 12.

51 1 Cor. xv. 33.

52 Acts xvii. 28.

53 1 Cor. vii. 10 sq.

54 2 Cor. vi. 14 sq.

55 1 Cor. vii. 39.

56 Mal. ii. 11, Mal. ii. 12.

57 R. V. "To the man that doeth this, him that waketh and him that answereth."

58 1 Cor. vii. 18 sq.

59 But S. Paul hints at a surgical operation. See Josephus, Antiq. Bk. xii. c. v. sec. 1, where certain apostates from Judaism are said "to have hid their circumcision that even when they were naked [in the gymnasium] they might appear to be Greeks." See also Celsus, Bk. vii. c. xxv.

60 Gal. v. 19.

61 1 Cor. vi. 17.

62 1 Cor. vii. 25, 1 Cor. vii. 26.

63 Ferias nuptiarum. The reference is to 1 Cor. vii. 5.

64 Matt. xix. 10 sq.

65 Jerome uses the Greek word agwnoqethj-President of the Games.

66 S. John vii. 37.

67 Is. lvi. 3.

68 Jer. xxxviii. 7.

69 Acts viii. 27.

70 1 Cor. vii. 26.

71 Matt. xxiv. 19, &c.

72 1 Cor. vii. 27.

73 1 Cor. vii. 30 sqq.

74 See Rev. Ver. Margin.

75 See the treatise on the Perp. Virginity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Rome, 384.

76 Ep. xxii. on the guarding of virginity. Rome, 384.

77 Jerome apparently, here, alludes to some early work of Tertullian not now extant.

78 Jerome often alludes to his relation to Gregory, in the year 381; he was present at the council of Constantinople, of which Gregory was then the bishop.

79 This rendering supposes kai memeristai to be joined to the preceding sentence. The Vulgate has et divisus est, and so also the lthiopic Version.

80 S. John xv. 19.

81 1 Cor. vii. 35.

82 1 Cor. iii. 10.

83 1 Cor. vii. 37, 1 Cor. vii. 38.

84 Ps. xxxvi. 27.

85 Eccles. vii. 16.

86 1 Cor. vii. 39, 1 Cor. vii. 40.

87 1 Tim. v. 11, 1 Tim. v. 15.

88 1 Cor. vii. 40.

89 Rom vii. 2, Rom. vii. 3.

90 1 Tim. v. 14, 1 Tim. v. 15.

91 See 1 Tim. iii. 12. Most ancient writers interpreted S. Paul's words as referring to second marriages after loss of first wife, however happening. And certain Councils decided in the same sense, e.g. Neocaesarea (a.d. 314). Ellicott's Pastoral Ep., fifth ed., p. 41.

92 1 Tim. v. 9. Other authorities, however, suppose the words to refer to an order of widows, and pertinently ask, would the Church thus limit her alms.

93 Cor. vi. 12.

94 Eph. v. 31: Gen. ii.

95 Eph. v. 32.

96 Eph. v. 25: Col. iii. 9-11.

97 1 Thess. iv. 7.

98 Lit. through a virgin. The allusion is, probably, to his baptism by a virgin, i.e., John Baptist.

99 But see Gen. iv. 26.

100 1 Pet. iii. 20.

101 Eph. i. 10.

102 Rev. i. 8; Rev. xxii. 13.

103 Rom. xiv. 21.

104 Gen. xxxi. 46-49, where the heap itself is called Galeed.

105 Gen. xxxii. 25, Gen. xxxii. 28, Gen. xxxii. 31.

106 Gen. xxxv. 16, Gen. xxxv. 20.

107 Gen. xxxviii.

108 Gen. xxxviii. 9.

109 Ex. iv. 24-26.

110 Ex. iii. 5.

111 1 Sam. xxi. 4.

112 Levit. xxi. 13, Levit. xxi. 14.

113 The reference is, probably, to Levit. xxii. 13. But the second marriage is not there prohibited, and in the ideal polity of Ezekiel (xliv. 22) a priest might marry the widow of a priest.

114 Levit. xxi. 3.

115 Deut. xx. 6, Deut. xx. 7, where an indulgence, not a prohibition, is clearly indicated.

116 Ex. xxxviii. 8. Sept. Vulg. "who watched;" Onkelos' Targum "who assembled to pray," and so the Syriac Version. The Hebrew word signifies "to go forth to war," but is applied to the temple service, a sort of militia sacra (Gesenius). Hence Rev. Version, "the serving women which served at the door of the tent of meeting;" and Margin, "the women which assembled to minister." Comp. Numb. iv. 3, Numb. iv. 23, Numb. iv. 30, Numb. iv. 35, Numb. iv. 39; and 1 Sam. ii. 22.

117 Ex. xxxvii.

118 In Jude 5, instead of "the Lord," A. B. read Jesus, and this is accepted by many ancient, authorities. Farrar observes ("Early Days of Christianity," pop. ed., p, 128) "Jesus" is the more difficult, and therefore more probable reading of A. B. It is explained by 1 Cor. x. 4, and the identification of the Messiah with the "Angel of the Lord" (Ex. xiv. 19, Ex. xxiii. 20, &c.) and with the Pillar of Fire in Philo.

119 Josh. iii.

120 Jerome derives Gilgal from yly

to uncover: the accepted derivation is from lyy

121 Ex. iii. 5: Jos. v. 15.

122 Josh. x. 3.

123 Josh. x. 16.

124 S. Luke xvi. 29.

125 Rom. v. 14.

126 Gen. xxxi. 41.

127 Gen. xxxvii. 28.

128 Gen. xxxii. 14.

129 Joshua died at the age of 110 years. Josh. xxiv. 29.

130 Timnath-Serah was the original name of Joshua's inheritance (Josh. xix. 50), but in Judges ii. 9, we find the name changed to Timnath-Heres. Timnath-Serah and the tomb of its illustrious owner were shown in the time of Jerome (Letter cviii. 13). "Paula wondered greatly that he who assigned men their possessions had chosen for himself a rough and rocky spot." Jerome is looking at the inheritance with the eyes of an ardent controversialist when he describes it as "the fairest spot in the land of Judah."

131 Ps. xlviii. 2. The correct rendering of the Hebrew is much disputed.

132 Ps. lxxiii. 2.

133 Josh. xxiv. 28.

134 Deut. xxxiv. 6.

135 Worshipped more especially at Lampsacus on the Helles pont. He was regarded as the promoter of fertility in vegetables and animals.

136 Ps. cxxviii. 3.

137 Gen. vi. 3. R. V. Strive or rule in.

138 Gen. xlix. 17. Samson was of the tribe of Dan.

139 Judg. xi. 30, Judg. xi. 31.

140 1 Tim. iii. 2.

141 Ps. xcix. 6.

142 See 1 Chron. vi. 34-38.

143 Heb. vii. 3. The Greek word in the text ("without genealogy") is unknown to secular writers. and occurs here only in the New Test. It cannot mean without descent (see verse6). Unmarried appears to be a false inference from this supposed meaning. Ignatius also (Ep. ad. Philad.) reckoned Melchizedek among celibates. Rev. Version translates, "without genealogy," i.e., his ancestry was unrecorded. See Farrar's "Early Days of Christianity," pop. ed., p. 221.

144 1 Sam. ii. 22.

145 See, however, 1 Chron. xxii. 8.

146 S. Matt. xviii. 6.

147 S. Matt. v. 22.

148 S. Matt. v. 27.

149 Cant. vi. 8.

150 1 Kings xi. 3.

151 1 Cor. vii. 29.

152 Is. xxxviii. 19.

153 2 Kings xxii. 14.

154 2 Kings xx. 18.

155 Dan. i. 3, Dan. i. 4.

156 Ezek. xiv. 14, Ezek. xiv. 20.

157 Ezek. xviii. 4.

158 Ezek. viii. 1.

159 Ezek. xiv. 14.

160 Apocryphal additions to Daniel.

161 Matt. xix. 27.

162 Luke xviii. 29, Luke xviii. 30.

163 1 Cor. ix. 5. The text has been much tampered with by the advocates or opponents of celibacy. The reading first quoted by Jerome is that of F, a manuscript of the eighth or ninth century, and is found in Tertullian; the other chief readings introduce the Greek equivalent for sister, either in the sing. or plural. The Rev. Version renders, "have we no right to lead about a wife that is a believer" (or sister). Augustine, Tertullian, Theodoret, &c., together with Cornelius-a-Lapide and Estius among the moderns, agree with Jerome in referring the passage to holy women who ministered to the Apostles as they did to the Lord Himself. The third canon of Nicaea is supposed to be directed against the practice encouraged by this interpretation of the Apostle's words.

164 Attributed to Clement by Jerome.

165 Isa. i. 9.

166 S. John xiii. 25.

167 S. John xx. 4.

168 S. John xxi. 7 sq.

169 S. Matt. xvi. 18.

170 S. Matt. xviii. 18: S. John xx. 22, John xx. 23.

171 S. John xiv. 27.

172 S. Matt. xx. 27: S. Luke xxii. 26.

173 See this book in Vol. III. of this series.

174 Is. xl. 3.

175 S. John i. 1.

176 S. John xix. 26, John xix. 27.

177 1 Tim. ii. 13, 1 Tim. ii. 15.

178 1 Tim. ii. 8 sqq.

179 Apparently, Eve's transgression imputed to her descendants.

180 The original admits of the rendering "by means of her child-bearing." But Ellicott and others interpret of the Incarnation.

181 Rev. Version, "sobriety." Sobermindedness or discretion are given by Ellicott (Notes on translation) as alternative renderings. The word cannot mean chastity, but rather "the well-balanced state of mind resulting from habitual self-restraint" in general.

182 Prov. vi. 26?

183 Prov. vii. 27: Prov. ix. 18.

184 Prov. xxi. 19.

185 Often mentioned by Seneca. A saying is reported of him: "Ho, traveller, stop. There is a miracle here: a man and his wife not at strife."

186 Prov. xxi. 9; Prov. xxv. 24.

187 Prov. xxvii. 15.

188 Supereffluas. Prov. iii. 21 Sept., Heb. ii. 1. The Greek word signifies to fall away like flowing water. See Schleusner on pararruomai. In Heb. ii. 1, Rev. V. translates "We drift away:" Vaughan, "We be found to have leaked, or ebbed away."

189 Prov. xxx. 15, Prov. xxx. 16.

190 Eccles. iii. 1, Eccles. iii. 2, sqq.

191 Eccles. vii. 10.

192 R.V. "Good as an inheritance."

193 Eccles. vii. 28, Eccles. vii. 29.

194 Eccles. ix. 8.

195 Cant. i. 10, Cant. i. 11. "laits of gold with studs of silver." R.V.

196 Cant. ii. 1, Cant. ii. 10-12.

197 1 Cor. vii. 29.

198 Cant. ii. 12.

199 Verse 13.

200 2 Cor. ii. 15.

201 Cant. ii. 13, Cant. ii. 14.

202 Ex. xxxiv. 33, Ex. xxxiv. 35: 2 Cor. iii. 7 sq.

203 Is. i. 15.

204 Cant. ii. 16.

205 Cant. iii. 7, Cant. iii. 8.

206 Cant. iv. 6.

207 Eph. v. 27.

208 Cant. iv. 8.

209 Sept. R.V. "Look from the top of Amana."

210 Cant. viii. 5.

211 Ps. cxix. 105.

212 Cant. iv. 9.

213 Cant. iv. 9, Cant. iv. 10.

214 Cant. v. 1.

215 S. Matt. ix. 17.

216 Rom. vii. 6.

217 Zech. viii. 5; Zech. ix. 17, R. V. "How great is his goodness, and how great is his beauty! Corn shall make the young men flourish, and new wine the maids."

218 Ps. xlv. 16, Ps xlv. 17.

219 Cant. iv. 12, Cant. iv. 13.

220 Cant. v. 10.

221 Cant. v. 16.

222 Cant. vii. 1.

223 R. V. "O Prince's daughter!" Sept., also "daughter of Nadab."

224 Is. vii. 14.

225 Delitzsch remarks, "The assertion of Jerome is untenable." See Cheyne, critical note on Is. vii. 14. The word probably denotes a female, married or unmarried, just attaining maturity. But in every other passage, the context shows that the word is used of an unmarried woman.

226 Gen. xxiv. 42 sq.

227 Is. xxxvii. 22.

228 Is. liv. 1.

229 Jerem. ii. 32.

230 Jer. xxxi. 22.

231 Jer. i. 5.

232 Jer. xxxix. 11; Jer. xl. i.

233 Ezek. i. 4.

234 Ezek. xxiv. 18.

235 1 Cor. vii. 25.

236 Acts xv. 28, Acts xv. 29.

237 S. Matt. x. 10: S. Luke x. 5.

238 S. Matt. xix. 21.

239 1 Tim. iii. 2, 1 Tim iii. 4: Tit. i. 6.

240 Sacerdotes: that is, bishops.

241 1 Cor. vii. 7.

242 1 Tim. iii. x.

243 V. supra, c. 27. R. V. "temperate." Ellicott observes, "under any circumstances the derivative translation Vigilant, Auth., though possibly defensible in the verb, is a needless and doubtful extension of the primary meaning."

244 R. V. "orderly." V. above, c. 27.

245 kosmion. R. V. "orderly."

246 Non vinolentum. R.V. "no brawler," i.e., as the Margin explains, "not quarrelsome over wine." The original is not thus a mere synonym for nhfalioj in v. 2.

247 So Chrysostom and Theodoret. The simple meaning appears to suit the context better.

248 1 Sam. ii. and 1 Sam. iv.

249 1 Tim. iii. 11.

250 The Code of Constantine, following the Mosaic law, imposed the penalty of death for adultery. See Gibbon, ch. xliv.

251 S. Matt. xix. 12.

252 1 Cor. vii. 25.

253 "Two rocky islands in the Euxine, that, according to the fable, floated about, dashing against and rebounding from each other, until at length they became fixed on the passage of the Argo between them."

254 Andabatae.

255 Matt. xix. 12.

256 1 Cor. vii. 7.

257 Phil. ii. 6-8.

258 S. John xx. 20.

259 S. John xx. 19.

260 S. Matt. xiv. 28.

261 S. Matt. xxii. 30.

262 2 Cor. v. 17.

263 Rom. vi. 21, Rom. vi. 22.

264 Rom. vii. 4 sq.

265 Rom. vii. 14, Rom. vii. 24, Rom. vii. 25.

266 Rom. viii. 1, Rom. viii. 2.

267 Rom. viii. 5 sq.

268 Rom. viii. 11, Rom. viii. 14.

269 R. V. "mind."

270 Rom. xii. 1-3.

271 See ch. 27.

272 Rom. xiii. 11, Rom. xiii. 12, Rom. xiii. 14.

273 1 Cor. iii. 1, 1 Cor. iii. 2, 1 Cor. iii. 3.

274 That is, under the dominion of the psyche, or principle of life common to man and the beasts, hence, natural. Opposed to the psyche is the pneuma, capable of being influenced by the Spirit of God. A man thus influenced is pneumatikos or spiritual. See also 1 Cor. xv. 44.

275 1 Cor. xv. 47 sq.

276 2 Cor. v. 1 sq.

277 2 Cor. xi. 2.

278 Gal. ii. 16.

279 Gal. iii. 3, Gal. iii. 4.

280 Gal. v. 16, Gal. v. 17.

281 Properly, self-control in the wide sense.

282 Gal. v. 24, Gal. v. 25.

283 Gal. vi. 7, Gal. vi. 8.

284 Eph. ii. 3, Eph. ii. 4.

285 Eph. iv. 22.

286 Eph. vi. 24.

287 Phil. iii. 20, Phil. iii. 21.

288 Phil. iv. 8.

289 Coloss. ii. 11; Coloss. iii. 1 sq.

290 2 Tim. ii. 4.

291 Titus ii. 11, Titus ii. 12.

292 S. John xvi. 12, John xvi. 13.

293 xxi. 9.

294 Matt. xi. 13.

295 The passage is not found in existing copies of Josephus.

296 S. James i. 16-18.

297 R. V. "can be no variation." The word "difference," as used by Jerome, is explained by the context.

298 Rev. i. 5.

299 1 Pet. i. 3-5.

300 Pet. i. 13-16.

301 1 Pet. i. 18, 1 Pet. i. 19.

302 1 Pet. i. 22, 1 Pet. i. 23.

303 In Jerome's rendering `living and abiding, 0' are attributes of God. But in the original the participles may be taken as predicates of either word or God. The R. V. refers them to the former.

304 1 Pet. ii. 9.

305 1 Pet. iv. 1 sq.

306 2 Pet. i. 4.

307 2 Pet. ii. 9 sq.

308 2 Pet. iii. 3.

309 The notorious epicure of the time of Augustus and Tiberius.

310 Paxamus wrote a treatise on cooking, which, Suidas states, was arranged in alphabetical order.

311 1 John ii. 15 sq.

312 1 John iii. 2, 1 John iii. 3.

313 1 John iv. 7. R. V. "that we may have."

314 Jude, 23.

315 xiv. 1 sq.

316 Rev. vii. 5 sq.

317 Apoc. xiv. 3, Apoc. xiv. 4.

318 or they may say.

319 2 Tim. ii. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 21.

320 Virg. Aen i. 317.

321 Virg. Aen. vii. 803: id. xi. 535.

322 Leos was the hero from whom the tribe Leontis derived its name. Once when Athens was suffering from famine or plague, the oracle at Delphi demanded that his daughters should be sacrificed. The father complied. The shrine called Leocorium was erected by the Athenians to their honour.

323 Jerome's memory appears to be at fault. When the Greek fleet was on its way to Troy, it was detained by a calm at Aulis. The seer Calchas advised that Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon should be sacrificed. See Dict. of Ant.

324 According to the law of Numa, the punishment of a Vestal Virgin for violating the vow of chastity was stoning to death. Tarquinius Priscus first enacted that the offender should be buried alive, after being stripped of her badges of office, scourged and attired like a corpse. "From the time of the triumvirs each [Vestal] was preceded by a lictor when she went abroad; consuls and praetors made way for them, and lowered their fasces; even the tribunes of the plebs respected their holy character, and if any one passed under their litter, he was put to death."

325 It is said, however, that Claudia (Quinta) was a Roman matron, not a Vestal Virgin. The soothsayers announced that only a chaste woman could move the vessel referred to. Claudia, who had been accused of incontinency, took hold of the rope, and the vessel forthwith followed her. b.c. 204.

326 Seneca.

327 In the year after the death of Alexander (b.c. 323), Leosthenes defeated Alexander's general Antipater, near Thermopylae. Antipater then threw himself into the town of Lamia (in Phthiotis in Thessaly) which thus gave its name to the war. Leosthenes pressed the siege with great vigour, but was killed by a blow from a stone.

328 Another name for Messana (or Messene,, derived from the Mamertini, a people of Campania, is some of whom were mercenaries in the army of the tyrant Agathocles, and were quartered in the town. At his death (b.c. 282) they rose and gained possession of it.

329 The semi-legendary hero of the second war between Sparta and Messene. He lived about b.c. 270.

330 The spring festival held in honour of Hyacinthus, the beautiful youth accidentally slain by Apollo, and from whose blood was said to have sprung the flower of the same name.

331 He succeeded Plato as president of the Academy (b.c. 347-339). His works are all lost.

332 One of Aristotle's pupils, and author of a number of works, none of which are extant.

333 Diogenes Laërtius (so named from Laërte in Cilicia), who probably lived in the end century after Christ, in the Third Book of his "Lives of the Philosophers" refers to a treatise by Anaxelides on the same subject. It has therefore been conjectured that Jerome may have written Philosophica Historia for philosophiae.

334 Timaeus of Locri, in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher, is said to have been a teacher of Plato. There is an extant work bearing his name; but its genuineness is considered doubtful, and it is in all probability only an abridgment of Plato's dialogue of Timaeus.

335 Damo. Pythagoras is said to have entrusted his writings to her, and to have forbidden her to give them to any one. She strictly observed the command, although she was in extreme poverty, and received many requests to sell them. According to some accounts Pythagoras had another daughter, Myia.

336 Flourished about b.c. 540-510.

337 Clement of Alexandria (died about a.d. 220) in his Stromata (i.e. literally, patchwork) or Miscellanies, Bk. iv., relates the same story and gives the names of the daughters. The Diodorus referred to in the text lived at Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy Sorer (b.c. 323-285), by whom he was said to have been surnamed Cronos or Saturn, on account of his inability to solve at once some dialectic problem when dining with the king, perhaps with a play upon the word chronos (time), or with a sarcastic allusion to Crones as the introducer of the arts of civilized life. The philosopher is said to have taken the disgrace so much to heart, that he wrote a treatise on the problem, and then died in despair. Another account derives his name from his teacher Apollonius Cronus.

338 Born about b.c. 213, died b.c. 129. He was the determined opponent of the Stoics, and maintained that neither our senses nor our understanding gives us a safe criterion of truth.

339 The poetical name of Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor and mother of Romulus and Remus.

340 According to the legend she stabbed herself on the funeral pyre. Jerome ignores the modifications introducedinto the legend by Virgil, who, in defiance of the common chronology, makes Dido a contemporary of Aeneas, and represents her as destroying herself when forsaken by the hero.

341 Hasdrubal and his family, with 900 deserters and desperadoes, retired into the temple of Aesculapius, as if to make a brave defence. But the commandant's heart failed him; and, slipping out alone, be threw himself at the feet of Scipio, and craved for pardon. His wife, standing on the base of the temple, was near enough to witness the sight, and reproaching her husband with cowardice, cast herself with her children into the flames which were now wrapping the Citadel round on all sides. b.c. 146.

342 Son of Nicias the celebrated Athenian general.

343 She succeeded Mausolus and reigned b.c. 352-350.

344 She was the wife of Agron, and assumed the sovereign power on the death of her husband, b.c. 231. War was declared against her by Rome in consequence of her having caused the assassination of an ambassador, and in 228 she obtained peace at the cost of the greater part of her dominions.

345 Cyropaedeia, Book vii.

346 The wife of Candaules, also called Myrsilus. She was exhibited to Gyges, who, after the murder of her husband, married her. Herod. B. i.

347 The story, as is well known, formed the subject of the play by Euripides bearing the heroine's name, which was brought out about b.c. 438.

348 Protesilaus was the first of the Greeks to fall at Troy. According to some accounts he was slain by Hector. When her husband was slain Laodamia begged the gods to allow her to converse with him for only 3 hours. The request having been granted, Hermes led Protesilaus back to the upper world, and when he died a second time, Laodamia died with him.

349 The wife of L. Tarquinius Collatinus, whose rape by Sextus led to the dethronement of Tarquinius Superbus and the establishment of the republic.

350 Over the Carthaginian fleet near Mylae, 260 b.c.

351 One of the assassins of Julius Caesar. Jerome appears to be at fault here. Porcia, the daughter of Cato by his first wife Atilia, before marrying Brutus in 45 b.c., had been married to M. Bibulus and had borne him three children. He died in 48. After the death of Brutus in 42 she put an end to her own life, probably by the fumes of a charcoal fire.

352 Marcia is related to have been ceded by Cato to his friend Hortensius. She continued to live with the latter until his death, when she returned to Cato.

353 It has been conjectured that instead of "Marcia, Cato's younger daughter," a few lines above, we should read Porcia.

354 Probably the daughter of Cato by his second wife Marcia.

355 Jerome, apparently, makes a mistake here. Valeria, sister of the Messalas, married Sulla towards the end of his life. Valeria, the widow of Galerius, after the death of her husband in 311, rejected the proposals of Maximinus. Her consequent sufferings are related by Gibbon in his fourteenth chapter.

356 The Greek philosopher to whom Aristotle bequeathed his library and the originals of his own writings. He died b.c. 287, after being President of the Academy for 35 years. If he were the author of the book here referred to, it is not to be found among his extant writings.

357 Cicero at the beginning of the third book of the De Officiis, makes Cato quote this saying as one frequently in the mouth of Publius Scipio.

358 Phil. i. 23.

359 We hear very little of the two sons of Moses, Getshorn and Eliezer. See Ex. iv. 20, Ex. xviii. 3, 1 Chron. xxiii. 14. Their promotion is nowhere recorded, and Moses appointed a person of another tribe to be his successor.

360 See 1 Sam. viii. 1-4 and ch. 1 Sam. ix.

361 b.c. 46. "What grounds for displeasure she had given him besides her alleged extravagance it is hard to say. His letters to her during the previous year had been short and rather cold." Watson, Select Letters of Cicero. third ed. p. 397.

362 Hirtius was the friend personal and political of Julius Caesar, and during Caesar's absence in Africa he lived principally at his Tusculan estate which adjoined Cicero's villa. Hirtius and Cicero though opposed to each other in politics were on good terms, and the former is said to have received lessons in oratory from the latter.

363 But not long after divorcing Terentia he married Publilia, a young girl of whose property he had the management, in order to relieve himself from pecuniary difficulties. She seems to have received little affection from her husband. Watson, p. 397.

364 This statement is without authority. See Long's Article on Sallust in Smith's Dict. of Classical Biography.

365 Caecilia Metella, the third of Sulla's five wives, had previously been married to M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul b.c. 115. She fell ill during the celebration of Sulla's triumph on account of his victory over Mithridates in 81; and as her recovery was hopeless, Sulla for religious reasons divorced her. She soon afterwards died, and Sulla honoured her memory with a splendid funeral.

366 The famous dictator claimed the name Felix for himself in a speech which he delivered to the people at the close of the celebration of his triumph, because he attributed his success in life to the favour of the gods.

367 But Sulla's youth and manhood were disgraced by the most sensual vices. He was indebted for a considerable portion of his wealth to a courtesan Nicopolis, and his death in b.c. 78 at the age of 60 was hastened by his dissolute mode of life.

368 Pompey, like Sulla, was married five times. Mucia, his third wife, daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, consul b.c. 95, was divorced by Pompey in 62, and afterwards married M. Aemilius Scaurus, son of the consul by Caecilia and thus stepson of Sulla.

369 Born b.c. 234. died b.c. 149. He was the great-grandfather of Cato of Utica.

370 b.c. 382-336.

371 b.c. 385-322.

372 Born about b.c. 480 at Leontini in Sicily. He is said to have lived 105, or even 109 years. He was held in high esteem at Athens, where he had numerous distinguished pupils and imitators.

373 An Athenian tragic poet, celebrated for his wit.

374 See the Andromache.

375 There were two cities of this name, Leptis Magna and Parva, in N. Africa.

376 Or "on another day," that is, than the marriage day implied in the context.

377 Terence Hecyra II. i. 4.

378 Bk I. ch 8. "Candaules addressed Gyges as follows: `Gyges, as I think you do not believe me when I speak of my wife's beauty (for the ears of men are naturally more incredulous than their eyes), you must contrive to see her naked. 0' But he, exclaiming loudly, answered: `Sire, what a snocking proposal do you make, bidding me behold my queen naked! With her clothes a woman puts off her modesty, 0'" etc.

379 Perhaps Terence, Phormio I, iii. 21.

380 For these legends, see Classical Dict.

381 The most distinguished disciple and the intimate friend of Epicurus. His philosophy appears to have been of a more sensual kind than that of his master. He made perfect happiness to consist in having a well-constituted body. He died b.c. 277 in the 53rd year of his age, 7 years before Epicurus.

382 Chrysippus (b.c. 280-207) the Stoic philosopher, born at Soli in Cilicia. He opposed the prevailing scepticism and maintained the possibility of attaining certain knowledge. It was said of him "that if Chrysippus had not existed the Porch (i.e., Stoicism) could not have been." He is reported to have seldom written less than 500 lines a-day, and to have left behind him 705 works.

383 That is Zeus, regarded as presiding over marriages and the tutelary god of races or families.

384 Literally, "Jupiter who causes to stand": hence Jerome's play upon the word. Jupiter Stator was the god regarded as supporting, preserving, etc. Cic., Cat. I. 13, 31-"quem (sc. Jovem) statorem hujus urbis atque imperil vere nominamus."

385 The greater number of manuscripts read Sextus, an alternative name for the same person. Jerome in his version of the Chronicon of Eusebius speaks of "Xystus a Pythagorean philosopher" who flourished at the time of Christ's birth; but there is great difficulty in establishing the identity of the author of the "Sentences." See also the Prolegomena to Rufinus who translated the Sentences of Xystus, in Vol. III. of this Series.

386 See note above, p. 382.

387 Daughter of P. Scipio Africanus, and wife of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, censor b.c. 169. The people erected a statue to her with the inscription "Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi."

388 See note p. 376.

389 Wife of Tarquinius Priscus.

390 Theano was the most celebrated of the female philosophers of the Pythagorean school. According to some authorities she was the wife of Pythagoras.

391 Cleobuline, or Cleobule, was celebrated for her riddles in hexameter verse. One on the subject of the year runs thus-"A father has 12 children, and each of these 30 daughters, on one side white, and on the other side black, and though immortal they all die."

392 Timoclia was a woman of Thebes, whose house at the capture of the city in b.c. 335 was broken into and pillaged by the soldiery. She was herself violated by the commander, whom she afterwards contrived to push into a well.

393 A vestal virgin who proved her innocence of the unchastity imputed to her by setting free a stranded ship with her girdle.

394 The epithet is said to have been given to the goddess at the time when Coriolanus was prevented by the entreaties of the women from destroying Rome.

395 The name for any Korean priest devoted to the service of one particular god. He took his distinguishing title from the deity to whom he ministered, e.g. Flamen Martialis.

396 Comp. Tertullian De Monogamia, last chapter-"Fortunae, inquit, muliebri coronam non imponit, nisi univira ...Pontifex Maximus et Flaminica (the wife of a Flamen) nubunt semel."

397 See Origen, Contra Celsum, Bk. VII. The water hemlock, or cowbane, is the variety referred to.

1 This, according to i. 3, is "cannot be overthrown."

2 1 John iii. 9, 1 John iii. 10.

3 1 John v. 18.

4 1 John v. 21.

5 1 John i. 8 sq.

6 Is. lxv. 5. Quoted from memory. The LXX and Vulg. have like A. V. and Rev., "Come not near me."

7 1 John ii. 1.

8 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

9 Ps. li. 12.

10 1 John ii. 4.

11 1 John xiv. 6.

12 James ii. 26.

13 Jerome is perhaps hinting at the opinions of Jovinianus, that there was no other distinction between men than the grand division into righteous and wicked, and drawing from this the inference that whoever had been truly baptized had nothing further to gain by progress in the Christian life.

14 1 Peter ii. 22.

15 James iii. 2.

16 Job xiv. 4, Job xiv. 5, Sept.

17 Prov. xx. 9.

18 Ps. li. 5.

19 Job ix. 20, Job ix. 30. Sept.

20 1 John ii. 1, 1 John ii. 2.

21 S. John xiii. 10.

22 S. Matt. xvi. 18.

23 S. Luke xxi. 31.

24 S. Matt. vi. 12.

25 1 Cor. ix. 27.

26 2 Cor. xii. 7.

27 2 Cor. xi. 3.

28 2 Cor. ii. 10, 2 Cor. ii. 11.

29 1 Cor. x. 13.

30 1 Cor. x. 12.

31 Gal. v. 7.

32 1 Thess. ii. 18.

33 1 Cor. vii. 5.

34 Gal. v. 16, Gal. v. 17.

35 Eph. vi. 12.

36 Heb. vi. 4 sq.

37 Various dates, ranging between a.d. 126 and a.d. 173, are assigned to the origin of Montanism. In addition to the tenet, that the church has no power to remit sin after baptism (though the power was claimed for the Montanistic prophets) and that some sins exclude for ever from the communion of the saints on earth, although the mercy of God may be extended to them hereafter, Montanus held second marriages to be no better than adultery, proscribed military service and secular life in general, denounced profane learning and amusements of every kind, advocated extreme simplicity of female dress, practised frequent and severe fasting, and inculcated the most rigorous asceticism. The sect produced a great effect on the church and lasted until the sixth century. As is well known, Tertullian in middle life lapsed into Montanism, and he was the most distinguished of its champions. Montanism has been described as an anticipation of the mediaeval system of Rome.

38 The founder of the schism which afterwards bore the name of Novatian was Novatus, a presbyter of Carthage who went to Rome (about a.d. 250) and there co-operated with Novatianus, one of the most distinguished of the clergy of that city. The Novatianists, whose doctrines were near akin in many respects to those of Montanists, assumed the name of Cathari, or Puritans.

39 Heb. vi. 9.

40 James i. 12 sq.

41 Ecclus. xxvii. 5.

42 Ecclus. ii. 1.

43 James i. 22 sq.

44 James ii. 10.

45 Rom. xi. 32.

46 2 Pet. ii. 9.

47 2 Pet. ii. 17, 2 Pet. ii. 18.

48 Prov. xvi. 5. Sept.

49 Apoc. ii. 2 sq.

50 Matt. xi. 13.

51 1 Cor. x. ix.

52 Ps. xxvi. 1, Ps. xxvi. 2.

53 Ps. li. 1.

54 2 Chron. xxxiii. 12, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 13.

55 2 Kings xxiii. 29 sq. 2 Chron. xxxv. 20 sq.

56 Zech. iii. 1 sq.

57 Numb. xx. 13. Ps. cvi. 32.

58 Job v. 17.

59 Job vii. 1.

60 Jerome blends two passages, Is. xiv. 12 (in which the Sept. reading is "that sendest to;" R. V. "didst lay low") and Ezek. xxviii. 13 sq. In the passage from Isaiah the king of Babylon is compared to Lucifer, i.e. the shining one, the morning star, whose movements the Babylonians had been the first to record. See Sayce, Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments, p. 178, and Cheyne's Isaiah. The subject of Ezekiel's prophecy is the Prince of Tyre.

61 Luke x. 18.

62 Job xl. 16, Job xl. 21. R. V. "He lieth under the lotus trees, in the covert of the reed and the fen."

63 Job xli. 34. Sept. R. V. "King over the sons of pride."

64 Job xli. 13 sq. R. V. for the latter part of the verse has "Round about his teeth is terror, his strong scales are his pride." Jerome's words are not found in the existing Septuagint.

65 The Septuagint omits much in this portion of the Book of Job.

66 xli. 27.

67 That is, deriving jumenta from juvo. The derivation, however, is from jungo.

68 Ps. viii. 5 sq.

69 The Italian beccafico.

70 1 Rom. xiv. 20: 1 Tim. iv. 5.

71 1 Tim. iv. 3.

72 Castum. Another reading is Cossum i.e. wood-worms, which were considered a delicacy in Pontus and Phrygia. The reading Castum is supported by Tert., De Iejun. cap. 16: In nostris xerophagiis blasphemias ingerens. Casto Isidis et Cybeles eos adaequas. Compare Arnob. Bk. V., and Jerome's Letter cvii. ad Laetam c. 10, and below c. 7.

73 See note on p. 383.

74 That is, of Side in Pamphylia. He lived in the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Plus, a.d. 117-161. Only two fragments remain of his Greek poem in forty-two books.

75 He appears to be Flavius the Grammarian to whom reference is made in the Book on Illustrious Men, chap. 80:-Firmianus, quiet Lactantius, Arnobii discipulus, sub Diocletiano principe accitus cure Flavio grammatico, cujus de Medicinalibus versu compositi exstant libri, etc.

76 Born a.d. 23. His Historia Naturalis embraces astronomy, meteorology, geography, mineralogy, zoölogy, and botany and comprises according to the author's own account 20,000 matters of importance drawn from 2,000 volumes.

77 A native of Cilicia, who probably lived in the second century of the Christian era. He was a Greek physician and wrote a treatise on Materia Medica, in 5 books, which is still extant.

78 2 Cor. xii. 14.

79 2 Cor. iv. 16.

80 Phil. i. 23.

81 Rom. xiii. 14.

82 Matt. x. 9, Matt. xix. 21: Mark vi. 8.

83 Matt. xix. 21.

84 Cor. xv. 85.

85 1 Cor. vi. 13.

86 That is, the wood-worm just referred to.

87 Pannonia, of which Valens also was a native.

88 This name, which signifies dwellers in caves, was applied by Greek geographers to various peoples, but especially to the uncivilized inhabitants of the west coast of the Red Sea, along the shores of Upper Egypt and Aethiopia. The whole coast was called Troglodytice.

89 In 376 the Goths were driven out of their country by the Huns. They were allowed by Valens to cross the Danube, but war soon broke out and the emperor was defeated with great slaughter on Aug. 9, 378.

90 The Sarmatians dwelt on the N. E. of the Sea of Azov, E. of the river Don.

91 They were located in the S. E. of Germany.

92 The name given to the great confederacy of German peoples who in a.d. 409 traversed Germany and Gaul, and invaded Spain. In 429 they conquered all the Roman dominions in Africa, and in 455 they plundered Rome. Their kingdom was destroyed by Belisarius in 535.

93 A people of Central Asia. Cyrus the Great was slain in an expedition against them.

94 On the Oxus near its entrance into the Caspian Sea.

95 An agricultural people on the W. coast of Pontus.

96 Hyrcania was a province of the Persian Empire, on the S. and S. E. shores of the Caspian or Hyrcanian Sea Jerome draws many of these details from the treatise of Porphyry Peri apoxhj emyuxiwn.

97 Antinous was drowned in the Nile. a.d. 122. The emperor's grief was so great that he enrolled his favourite amongst the gods, caused a temple to be erected to his honour at Mantines, and founded the city of Antinoopolis.

98 Ter. Eunuch. iv. 5, 6.

99 Jer. ix. 21.

100 An Egyptian perfuming powder.

101 Probably an ointment made from the grape of the wild vine.

102 The celebrated Cynic philosopher. He died at Corinth, at the age of nearly 90, b.c. 323.

103 Academia was a piece of land on the Cephisus about three-quarters of a mile from Athens, originally belonging to the hero Academus. Here was a Gymnasium with plane and olive plantations, etc. Plato had a piece of land in the neighbourhood; here he taught, and after him his followers, who were hence called Academici. Cicero called his villa Academia.

104 Flourished about b.c. 320. Though heir to a large fortune he renounced it all, and lived and died as a true Cynic. He was called the "door-opener," because it was his practice to visit every house at Athens and rebuke its inmates.

105 A common form of Gnostic error revived many centuries afterwards by the Anabaptists.

106 1 Tim. v. 6.

107 See Cicero, Repub. Bk. III.

108 Sallust. In Cat. ch. 1.

109 Prov. xx. 1.

110 The most celebrated physician of antiquity. Born about b.c. 460, died about 357.

111 Born at Pergamum a.d. 130, died probably in the year 200. His writings are considered to have had a more extensive influence on medical science than even those of Hippocrates.

112 Fabricius was censor in b.c. 275, and devoted himself to repressing the prevalent taste for luxury. The story of his expelling from the Senate P. Cornelius Rufinus because he possessed ten pounds' weight of silver-plate is well-known.

113 Curius Dentatus, Consul b.c. 200 with P. Cornelius Rufinus to whom allusion has just been made, was no less distinguished for simplicity of life than was Fabricius. He was censor b.c. 272.

114 Ep. Lib. I. ep. 2.

115 Or, "an ante-room to the closet"-Meditatorium. Comp. Tertullian, Treatise on Fasting, ch. 6.

116 The Peripatetic philosopher, geographer, and historian, a disciple of Aristotle and the friend of Theophrastus.

117 Chaeremon was chief librarian of the Alexandrian library. He afterwards became one of Nero's tutors.

118 Wars, Book II., ch. viii. 2 sq.; Antiquities, Bk. xviii I. 2 sq. Josephus nowhere says that the Essenes abstained from flesh and wine, or fasted daily. Philo commends them for so doing. Jerome here, as above, borrows from Porphyry. The "Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem," are here called the "History of the Jewish Captivity."

119 Philo the Jew. His exact date cannot be given; but he was advanced in years when he went to Rome (a.d. 40) on his famous embassy in behalf of his countrymen.

120 Neanthes lived about b.c. 241. He was a voluminous writer, chiefly on historical subjects.

121 There were many physicians of this name.

122 The sun-god of the Persians.

123 Supposed to be the same as the Bardesanes born at Edessa in Mesopotamia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century. Jerome again refers to him in the book on Illustrious Men, c. 33.

124 Xenocrates was born b.c. 396, died b.c. 314.

125 Triptolemus was the legendary inventor of the plough and of agriculture.

126 Poems ascribed to the mythical Orpheus are quoted by Plato. The extant poems which bear his name are forgeries of Christian grammarians and philosophers of the Alexandrine school; but some fragments of the old Orphic poetry are said to be remaining.

127 Antisthenes was the founder of the Cynic philosophy. He was a devoted disciple of Socrates and flourished about b.c. 366.

128 The distinguished Peripatetic philosopher and historian. He lived, probably, about the time of Ptolemy Philopator (b.c. 222-205).

129 Gen. vi. 3, Gen. vi. 5.

130 Gen. viii. 21: Gen. ix. 3.

131 Ex. xvi. 3.

132 Numb. xi. 4-6.

133 Deut. xxxii. 15. "Beloved" (dilectus). Correctly Jeshurun, that is, the Upright, a name of Israel.

134 Deut. viii. 12-14.

135 The curious custom of representing Moses with horns arose from a mistake in the Vulgate rendering. The Hebrew verb lwq@

, to emit rays, is derived from a word which, meaning mostly a horn, has in the dual the signification rays of light. See Hab. iii. 4.

136 Luc. ix. 31.

137 Ex. xvii. 8.

138 Josh. x. 13.

139 1 Sam. xiv. 24. Heb. "entered into the wood." The English version follows the Hebrew. The Sept. hrista (Jerome's prandebat) is perhaps only a repetition of the preceding thought. Another rendering inserts the negative, ouk hrista.

140 1 Sam. xiv. 24.

141 1 Kings xix. 8-11.

142 1 Sam. vii. 7.

143 2 Kings xviii.

144 Gen. xviii. 23 sq.

145 1 Kings xxi. 27-29.

146 1 Sam. i. 15, 1 Sam. i. 17.

147 Dan. i and Dan. ii.

148 Dan. ix. 23. Heb. A man of desires. A. V. greatly beloved.

149 The story is in the apocryphal part of the book of Daniel.

150 Ps. cii. 9.

151 Ps. cix. 24.

152 2 Sam. xii. 13.

153 Lev. x. 9.

154 Amos ii. 12.

155 Jer. xxxv. 18.

156 S. Luke ii. 36.

157 S. Jerome is in accord with the Vulgate, Peshito, and certain manuscripts, but the R. V. omits S. Matt. xvii. 21 (Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting) and in S. Mark ix. 29 omits the words respecting fasting. S. Luke does not refer to our Lord's supposed remark.

158 Acts x. 4.

159 2 Cor. xi. 27.

160 1 Tim. v. 23.

161 1 Tim. iv. 3.

162 Prov. xvi. 26. Sept.

163 S. Matt. xi. 12.

164 Rom. xiv. 3.

165 1 Rom. xiv. 14 sq.

166 Rom. xiv. 2.

167 Rom. xiv. 5 sq.

168 S. Matt. v. 6.

169 S. John iv. 32.

170 S. Matt. v. 34. (Rather, not to be anxious about it.)

171 S. Luke xxiv. 42: S. John xxi. 13.

172 S. Luke xv. 19-31.

173 S. Matt. xvi. 17, Matt. xvi. 18.

174 See above.

175 S. Mark v. 43: S. Luke viii. 55. Our Lord is not related to have given the command in the case of the son of the widow of Nain, or in that of Lazarus.

176 S. John xii. 2.

177 Acts x. 10. In our version "the housetop."

178 S. John iv. 6.

179 Isa. lviii. 5 sq.

180 xvi. 29.

181 Numb. xi. 34. Tertullian also speaks of the graves remaining.

182 1 Kings xiii. 24.

183 Joel i. 14: Joel ii. 15. Jerome agrees with the Sept. Qerapeia. The Heb. root signifies to close or bind; hence the meaning healing. But others translate Qerapeia by worship, or service. The correct rendering appears to be a solemn assembly as in A. V.

184 S. Matt. xxv. 34.

185 S. Matt. xxv. 41.

186 S. John viii. 44.

187 S. Matt. xix. 29: S Mark x. 29, Mark x. 30: S. Luke xviii. 29, Luke xviii. 30.

188 S. John vi. 56.

189 S. John xiv. 23.

190 S. John xiv. 2.

191 1 Cor. iii. 16: 1 Cor. vi. 19.

192 S. John xvii. 20-23.

193 In Cyprus, where Zeno the founder of the Stoic school was born.

194 i.e., Jovinianus. Jerome for the moment addresses the reader.

195 Persius I. 128, Conington's translation.

196 Ezek. xxxiv. 17, Ezek. xxxiv. 20, Ezek. xxxiv. 21.

197 Ezek. xxxiv. 31.

198 Rom. xii. 3 sq.

199 Rom. xiv. 5.

200 1 Cor. iii. 6 sq.

201 1 Cor. iii. 10 sq.

202 1 Cor. iv. 1, 1 Cor. iv. 2.

203 1 Cor. ix. 13 sq.

204 1 Cor. xii. 4.

205 1 Cor. xii. 12.

206 1 Cor. xii. 28 sq.

207 1 Cor. xiii. 8, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 1 Cor. xiii. 10.

208 1 Cor. xiii. 18: 1 Cor. xiv. 1.

209 1 Cor. xiv. 5.

210 1 Cor. xiv. 18.

211 1 Cor. xv. 9, 1 Cor. xv. 10.

212 1 Cor. xv. 22.

213 1 Cor. xv. 39.

214 Job ix. 9: Job xxxviii. 32.

215 2 Cor. v. 10.

216 2 Cor. ix. 6.

217 Eph. iii. 10.

218 Eph. iv. 7.

219 Ps. lxxiii. 17.

220 See Acts xxvii. 23 and the context.

221 Gen. xix. 18-21.

222 1 Sam. xxx. 1 sq.

223 S. Luke xiii. 4.

224 1 Cor. xi. 27.

225 Mal. iv. 2.

226 S. Matt. xxv. 13.

227 S. John xix. 6.

228 Wisd. vi. 7.

229 Ex. xxi. 2.

230 Lev. xxv. 13.

231 S. Matt. xix. 29: S. Mark x. 30: S. Luke xviii. 30. In S. Matthew some authorities agree with S. Luke in reading "manifold."

232 Matt. xi. 11.

233 S. Luke xvii. 5.

234 Matt. xiv. 31.

235 Jer. xxxi. 31.

236 Jer. xxxi. 33, Jer. xxxi. 34.

237 S. Matt. v. 19.

238 S. Luke xiv. 9.

239 S. John xiv. 2, John xiv. 3.

240 S. Matt. xx. 23.

241 S. John xiv. 3.

242 Ps. lxxiii. 26.

243 Ez. xliv. 10.

244 1 Cor. vi. 19.

245 Correctly, a portion of two, i.e., the portion of a first-born. Deut. xxi. 17.

246 S. Luke vii., S. Matt. xxvi., S. Mark xiv., S. John xii.

247 S. John xvii. 20, John xvii. 21.

248 2 Pet. i. 4.

249 S. John xvii. 23.

250 S. John i. 12, John i. 13.

251 S. John vi. 57 sq.

252 1 John iv. 13, 1 John iv. 15.

253 Gal. iv. 19.

254 1 Cor. xii. 22-24.

255 S. Luke xi. 34.

256 1 John v. 16.

257 Jer. vii. 16.

258 Rom. v. 14.

259 Wisd. i. 11.

260 Ps. cxvi. 11. Rom. iii. 4.

261 Ps. li. 4.

262 Ezek. xvi. 62, Ezek. xvi. 63.

263 Ezek. xxxvi. 31, Ezek. xxxvi. 32.

264 Letter XXI.

265 S. Matt. xx. 26.

266 S. Luke vii. 47.

267 S. Matt. xxv. 15 sq.

268 Phil. iii. 13.

269 Josh. ix. 27.

270 2 Sam. xxi. 1.

271 S. Luke xii. 47, Luke xii. 48.

272 Ps. cxix. in our arrangement of the Psalter. The psalm isdivided into twenty-two portions, which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The following fifteen psalms are called in our Authorized Version, Songs of Degrees (Vulgate, graduum, steps). For the origin of the title, Wordsworth, or Neal and Littledale on Ps. cxx. may be consulted.

273 Ps. cxxxiv. 1.

274 Numb. xxxiv. 15; Josh. xiv. 3.

275 Numb. xviii 20.

276 Lev. xvi. 2; Heb. ix. 7.

277 Ex. xxviii. etc.

278 Numb. vii. 5.

279 Aristippus though the disciple of Socrates, taught that pleasure was the highest good.

280 Ps. cxx. 5.

281 Is. lxiii. 3.

282 S. John xix. 6, John xix. 15.

283 Jovinianus's doctrine is said to have influenced some who had taken a vow of virginity, to marry.

284 Virgil Aen. iv. 172.

285 Pythagoras asserted that he had once been the Trojan Euphorbus.

286 Is. iii. 16.

287 Jer. li. 6; Jer. vi. 14.

288 Jer. vii. 4; Ps. xiv. 4, Ps. liii. 4.

289 Jer. xxviii. 13.

290 That is, coelebs from coelum.

291 Jer. v. 8.

292 That is, Jove.

1 Is. xiii. 21, Is. xiii. 22, and Is. xxxiv. 14-16.

2 Is. xix. 21. Sept.

3 Quintilian, the rhetorician, was born at Calagurris, in Spain, but not the same as the birthplace of Vigilantius.

4 Combining the cheating tavern-keeper with the heretic.

5 Jerem. v. 8.

6 Ps. xxxii. 9.

7 Ibid.

8 Letter CXVII.

9 From convenio, to come together.

10 Acts xiv. 11.

11 Acts x. 26.

12 Matt. xxii. 32.

13 Apoc. xiv. 4.

14 Another reading is, "Shut up in the altar."

15 Apoc. vi. 10.

16 Ex. xxxii. 30 sqq.

17 Acts vii. 59, Acts vii. 60.

18 Acts xxvii. 37.

19 ix. 4.

20 John xi. 11.

21 1 Thess. iv. 13.

22 vii. 35 sq. The passage occurs in the Ethiopic and Arabic versions, not in the Latin. It was probably rejected in later times for dogmatic reasons.

23 The chief of the Egyptian Gnostics.

24 Rom. x. 2.

25 Matt. xxvi. 8; Mark xiv. 4.

26 Rom. xiv. 5. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. R. V.

27 Matt. xxv. 1.

28 Luke xii. 35.

29 John v. 35.

30 Ps. cxix. 105.

31 i.e. antidote to the scorpion's bite.

32 Letter CIX.

33 Acts xxiv. 17, Acts xxiv. 18.

34 Ps. i. 2.

35 Deut. xviii. 2 sq.

36 2 Cor. viii. 14.

37 Gal. vi. 10.

38 Luke xvi. 9.

39 Ps. xli. 9.

40 Matt. xix. 21.

41 Matt. xx. 16: Matt. xxii. 14.

42 He seems to mean that monks spoke of young ladies as Mothers of the Convents, so as to be able to frequent their society without reproach.

1 Rom. viii. 26.

2 Novatus the Carthaginian was the chief ally of Novatian, who, about the middle of the third century, founded the sect of the Cathari, or pure. The allusion is to the severity with which they treated the lapsed.

3 Maximilla and Priscilla, who forsook their husbands and followed him, professing to be inspired prophetesses. Circ. a.d. 150. Montanus, like Novatian, refused to re-admit the lapsed.

4 That is, John.

5 2 Cor. iii. 18.

6 In Jerome's text, "limped in both its feet." It seemed better to give the accepted meaning.

7 1 Kings xviii. 21.

8 Ps. xviii. 45.

9 Prov. x. 9.

10 That is, Epiphanius. See Jerome, Letter LI. c. 6. Epiphanius prays that God would free John anti Rufinus and all their flock from all heresies.

11 The doctrine that the Son is of "one substance with the Father." More correctly of one essence, etc.

12 The meaning is that, where error is widespread, the Church authorities are forced to wink at speciously expressed error in the pastors.

13 1 Pet. iii. 15.

14 John complained of the ordination of Paulinianus, Jerome's brother, to the priesthood by Epiphanius, for the monastery of Bethlehem.

15 Matt. vi. 23.

16 Origen's great speculative work "On First Principles."

17 Ps. cxix. 67.

18 Ps. cxvi. 7.

19 Ps. cxlii. 7.

20 Acts ii. 40.

21 Vettius Agorius Pr`textatus, one of the most virtuous of the heathen. Jerome writes of him to Marcella (Letter XXIII. 2): "I wish you to know that the consul designate is now in Tartarus."

22 Gal. i. 8.

23 Ps. cxxxix. 21, Ps. cxxxix. 22.

24 Deut. xxxiii. 9.

25 Matt. x. 37.

26 Ps. viii. 3.

27 1 Cor. xiii. 9.

28 Eunomius held that the Son "resembles the Father in nothing but his working," and similar doctrines.

29 Of Sebaste, in the Lesser Armenia. Epiphanius described him as an Arian. He asserted that Bishops and Presbyters were equal.

30 This probably relates to Rufinus, whose name was mentioned by Epiphanius in his letter to John.

31 Col. i. 26.

32 Rom. xi. 33.

33 Ps. liii. 8.

34 Paulinianus.

35 Acts xxiii. 5; Ex. xxii. 28.

36 A celebrated orator of Athens, many of whose orations are extant. B. 458, d. 378 b.c.

37 This story is from the 4th Declamation of Seneca.

38 Literally "devours his wrongs."

39 Ps. xxxiii. 6.

40 Ps. civ. 4.

41 Jude 6.

42 Eph. i. 21.

43 Rom. vii. 24.

44 The names of the officers of the Roman Legion (some of them of doubtful meaning), viz., tribunes, primicerius, senator, duce-narius, centenarius, biarchus, circitor, eques, have been rendered approximately by these English equivalents.

45 That is, apparently, with a play upon the word, Men of Mud.

46 Cor. ii. 14.

47 1 Cor. i. 25.

48 John v. 17.

49 That is, Zechariah xii. i.

50 Ps. xxxiii. 15.

51 Col. i. 18.

52 Jussione. Another reading, "Eâdem ratione et visione," might be rendered, "In the same condition and the same appearance."

53 1 Cor. xv. 44.

54 Luke xx. 35, Luke xx. 36.

55 Matt. xxiv. 24.

56 1 Cor. xv. 58.

57 That is, the reason of the seed.

58 1 Cor. xv. 35, 1 Cor. xv. 37.

59 1 Cor. xv. 42, 1 Cor. xv. 44.

60 Phil. iii. 21.

61 1 Cor. xv. 53.

62 Ps. xlv. 13.

63 Cant. i. 4.

64 Col i. 21, Col. i. 22.

65 Col. ii. 11.

66 1 Cor. xv. 44; Matt. xxii. 30; Luke xx. 35.

67 Luke xxiv. 39.

68 John xx. 27.

69 Gen. vi. 3.

70 Gal. i. 16.

71 Rom. viii. 9.

72 1 Cor. xv. 53.

73 Matt. xvii. 2.

74 Ps. x. 9.

75 Acts ii. 31.

76 Is. xl. 5.

77 xxxvii. 1 sqq.

78 Job xix. 23 sqq.

79 Besides medulla and seminarium Jerome has qnteriwnh = inward part, or pith.

80 Luke i. 35.

81 Ecc. ix. 8.

82 Matt. xxii. 13.

83 Luke xii. 7.

84 John v. 25.

85 Sept. "The dew which comes from thee is healing to them."

86 Is. xxvi. 20.

87 Dan. xii 2.

88 Is. lxvi. 24.

89 Rom. vi. 4.

90 Rom. viii. 11.

91 Acts vii. 55.

92 Ex. iv. 6.

93 xviii. 3, xviii. 4. Sept.

94 Luke x. 34.

95 Matt. xxvii. 52.

96 lxiii. 1 sq.

97 Gen. xlix. 11.

98 John xvi. 33.

99 Ps. xlv. (?).

100 Cant. viii. 5.

101 Cant. v. 10.

102 Apoc. xiv. 4.

103 John vi. 39.

104 Luke xv. 3 sq.

105 John xix. 6.

106 Luke xxiii. 28.

107 Acts i. 11.

108 Ib. 3.

109 1 Cor. ii. 9.

110 John xxi. 9.

111 Mark v.

112 John xii.

113 Luke xxiv. 16.

114 John xx.

115 John xxi. 7.

116 Ib. 12.

117 Born at Cyrene about b.c. 213. He maintained that we can be sure of nothing, neither through the senses, nor through the understanding.

118 Acts xii.

119 One of the Argonauts.

120 Matt. xiv. 28.

121 Rom. vi. 4.

122 1 Cor. xv. 50.

123 Ib.

124 Ib. 54.

125 Ib. 55.

126 1 Sam. ii. 25.

127 Laudat faciem, ad personam principum trahit. Literally, He praises the face (i.e. the person of Theophilus) and draws him on to act the part of (only fit for) princes.

128 Canon 6 says that the old customs are to hold good, that all Egypt is to be subject to the authority of the bishop of Alexandria, just as the custom holds at Rome; and similarly that at Antioch, and in the other churches the authority of the churches should be preserved to them. Canon 7 says: "Since custom and ancient tradition has prevailed to cause honour to be given to the bishop of Aelia (Jerusalem), let him have the proper results of this honour; saving, however, the proper authority due to the metropolis" (that is, Caesarea).

129 This relates to Paulinianus, who was ordained by Epiphanius, and was then living with him in Cyprus.

130 Theophilus, whose sympathies had suddenly changed, turned violently against Isidore, who had previously been his confidential friend, accused him of Origenism, and, on his taking refuge with Chrysostom at Constantinople, pursued both him and Chrysostom with unrelenting animosity.

131 Reading portantes errorem. Another reading is, "Through the error of the bearer."

132 John, to whom the letters were really written.

133 Isidore was closely associated with the three brothers known as the Long Monks from their great size, and seems to have shared the appellation with them.

134 i.e. Jerome and his friends. This was Isidore's report, incorporated probably into John's letter.

135 Numb. xxxv. 30; Deut. xvii. 6; 2 Cor. xiii. 1.

136 Dating probably from Jerome's coming to Palestine. See Prefatory Note.

137 Jerome was ordained at Antioch, Vincentius at Constantinople.

138 That is, Jerome argues, Epiphanius, who ordained him.

139 This perhaps means, "No virtue has gone out of you-you have conferred nothing upon me."

140 Lydda.

141 The allusion is believed to be to the Prefect Rufinus, who was at the head of the government under the young Arcadius, and whose intrigues with Alaric with a view to obtain the empire for himself led to his death in the end of 395.-Comp. Letter LXXXII. 10.

142 See Letter LI., which begins as John says, though Jerome denies it.

1 Letter CXXXIII.

2 Apaqeia.

3 Priscillian was Spaniard, who began to propagate his views, which were a various heresies, about the year mixture of 370. See Robertson, p. 295 sq., and Note on Jerome, Letter CXXXIII.

4 Evagrius Iberita. The name is taken either from a town named Ibera or Ibora in Pontus, or from the province of Iberia. Jerome, in the letter to which he refers, styles Evagrius Hyperborita, but this is thought to be an error for Hyborita. It has been suggested that Jerome was playing on the word Iberita. He was born in 345. He wrote, amongst many other works, a treatise Peri apaqeiaj (On Impassibility), and no doubt Jerome refers to this a few lines above. He was a zealous champion of Origen. See also Jerome, Letter CXXXIII. and note.

5 The Massalians or Euchites derived their name from their habit of continual prayer. The words are etymological equivalents (Massalians, from )l@c

to pray). The perversity lay in the misinterpretation of such texts as Luke xviii. 1, and 1 Thess. v. 17.

6 He was a Roman lawyer. His treatise was written about a.d. See Jerome's treatise against him in this volume.

7 See introduction to Jerome's treatise against Jovinianus in this volume.

8 See Rufinus' works, especially the Prolegomena, and Jerome's controversy with him in vol. iii. of this series.

9 That is, Eusebius of Caesarea (a.d. 267-338), who was called Pamphilus from his friendship with Pamphilus the martyr.

10 Suffered martyrdom a.d. 309. He erected a library at Caesarea of 30,000 volumes. See Rufinus' Preface to his Apology in this series, vol. iii., with introductory note.

11 See Rufinus on the adulteration of the works of Origen, in this series, vol. iii. p. 421.

12 Palladius, bishop of Hellenopolis, the biographer and trusted friend of Chrysostom, was born about 367. He visited Bethlehem about 387 and formed a very unfavourable opinion of Jerome. He highly commended Rufinus. According to Epiphanius, as well as Jerome, he was tainted with Origenism. Tillemont, however, thinks that another Palladius may be referred to in these passages. His accounts of Jerome and Rufinus are given in his "Historia Lausiaca," c. 78 and 118.

13 Jerome was accused of envy or ill-will by Palladius. "Tanta fuit ejus invidia ut ab ea obrueretur virtus doctrinae. Cum ergo multis diebus cum eo versatus esset sanctus Posidonius, dicit mihi in aurem, "Ingenua quidem Paula, quae ejus curam gerit, praemorietur, liberata ab ejus invidia. Ut autem arbitror, propter hunc virum non habitabit vir sanctus in his locis, sed ejus pervadet invidia usque ad proprium fratrem."-Pallad. Hist. Laus., §78, cf. §82.

14 2 Thess. ii. 7.

15 Jer. iii. 10.

1 See S. Aug. De Sp. et Lit., c. i.

2 Ps. cxxvii. 1.

3 Pumice terere.

4 Rom. ix. 16.

5 Reading quod super artes est.

6 That is, Diodorous, surnamed Cronus who lived at Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy Sorer (b.c. 323-285). He was the teacher of Philo. For his discussions On the Possible, Zeller's "Socrates and the Socratic Schools," Reichel's translation, pp. 272, 273, and authorities there cited, may he consulted.

7 Died b.c. 207, aged 73. He was the first to base the Stoic doctrine on something like systematic reasoning.

8 S. Matt. xix. 24.

9 S. Matt. xix. 21.

10 Job i. 1.

11 This appears to be an inaccurate quotation made from memory.

12 S. Luke i. 5 sqq.

13 Job xvi. 21. Vulg. R. V. Margin-"That one might plead for a man with God as a son of man pleadeth for his neighbour."

14 Job xxxi. 35.

15 Job ix. 20, Job ix. 30, Job ix. 31.

16 S. Luke i. 18.

17 Ib. 20.

18 Eccles. vii. 21.

19 2 Chron vi. 36.

20 Ps. xix. 12, Ps. xix. 13.

21 Ps. cxliii. 2.

22 1 John v. 18, 1 John v. 19.

23 1 John i. 8.

24 1 John i. 9.

25 Prov. xviii. 17, Vulg. nearly.

26 Is. xliii. 26, Sept.

27 Rom. xi. 32.

28 Jer. xxiii. 28.

29 Deut xviii. 13.

30 S. Matt. v. 48.

31 Ps. xli. 7.

32 Rom. iii. 23, Rom. iii. 24. So R. V. Margin-"To be propitiatory."

33 Cic. Lib. iv. Acad. Quaest.

34 Phil. iii. 12-16.

35 From sxeptomai, to keep watch.

36 Prov. i. 3, Sept.*

37 Ps. cxix. 18.

38 The reading is much disputed.

39 Ps. cxliii. 2.

40 Malach. iii. 6.

41 2 Cor. iii. 10.

42 Ib. 11.

43 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 1 Cor. xiii. 10.

44 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

45 cxxxix. 6.

46 Ps. lxxiii. 16, Ps. lxxiii. 17.

47 Ibid. 22, 23.

48 Jer. x. 14.

49 1 Cor. i. 25.

50 2 Tim. iv. 7, 2 Tim. iv. 8.

51 1 Cor. xii. 21, 1 Cor. xii. 29, 1 Cor. xii. 11.

52 Rom. ix. 21.

53 S. Luke i. 48 sq.

54 Lam. iv. 6.

55 Ezek xvi. 55.

56 Gen. xxxviii. 26.

57 1 Cor. xv. 28.

58 Ps. lxii. 2.

59 S. John xxi. 15-17.

60 James ii. 10.

61 Ps. civ. 24.

62 According to some, Plato: more probably, Origen, the word arxaioj being an allusion to the title of his chief work, Peri 'Arxwn.

63 1 Cor. xii. 4, 1 Cor. xii. 5.

64 That is, mean.

65 1 Tim. iii. 2 sq.

66 Titus i. 5 sq.

67 Ps. ci. 6.

68 1 Sam. ii. 24.

69 1 Pet. ii. 22.

70 S. John xiv. 30.

71 Phil. ii. 6 sq.

72 Verse 24.

73 Literally, wash a brick (that has not been burnt). Hence (1) labour in vain, or (2) make bad worse. The latter appears to be the meaning here.

74 Virg. Georg., iv.

75 Rom. xvi. 18.

76 Gal. iv. 16.

77 Prov. xx. 24.

78 Jer. x. 23.

79 S. John xx. 11.

80 1 Cor. iv. 7.

81 S. John vi. 38.

82 S. Luke xxii. 42.

83 S. Matt. vi. 10.

84 Ps. civ. 35.

85 Is. i. 28.

86 Ps. xxxii. 10.

87 Heb. xii. 6.

88 Verse 5. Sept.

89 S. John v. 28, John v. 29.

90 Rom. ii. 12.

91 The reference is to the stature of Pelagius.

92 The sense of this passage is much disputed. St. Jerome was, possibly, speaking of persons who upon the whole are sincere and not merely covenanted Christians.

93 Jerome seems here to speak in his own person and to address Pelagius directly.

94 Cornuta fronte. Literally, "with horned brow." The allusion is to the rays of light which beamed from the face of Moses, the Hebrew word bearing both meanings, ray and horn. Hence the portraiture of him with horns.

95 Deut. xxii. 4.

96 Rom. xii. 20.

97 S. Matt. iii. 2.

98 iv. 17.

99 iv. 23.

100 x. 7.

101 A Christian of Carthage who, together with Cyprian, sent relief to the bishops and martyrs in the Mines of Sigus, in Numidia, and elsewhere (a.d. 257).

102 Job xiv. 4.

103 Ps. li. 5.

104 1 John i. 8.

105 Ps. xix. 12, Ps. xix. 13.

106 S. Matt. v. 28.

107 Numb. xxxv. 6.

108 Ezek. xviii. 23.

109 iii. 21.

110 Eccles. vii. 16.

111 Rom. xi. 33, Rom. xi. 34.

112 2 Tim. ii. 23.

113 Eccles. vii. 24, Eccles. vii. 25.

114 Rom. ix. 20.

131 * The printed text of the Eerdman's reprint is damaged or unreadable here.

1 There was an early and widespread belief, afterwards confirmed by a decree of the Council of Ephesus, that the birth of Christ was by miracle, not y a true and proper parturition.

2 Eph. vi. 12.

3 Gal. v. 19

4 1 Pet. iv. 8.

5 Luke vii. 47.

6 Vulgate, Rev. V. I will remember the years, etc. Marg.-The right hand of the Most High doth change.

7 LXX. A.V. Pestilence.

8 The words of the Lamentations refer to Zedekiah.

9 Zech. ix. 16, Sept. Correctly, they (God's people) shall be as the stones of a crown lifting themselves up (or glittering) upon His land.

10 Is. iii. 12.

11 v. 21.

12 vi. 5.

13 That is, according to Jerome's rendering of the Hebrew. R. V. has "I am undone." For the Sept. rendering see below.

14 Ps. xxxii. 4.

15 Is. xxiv. 21.

16 Job xxv. 5.

17 Job iv. 18.

18 Mundans: not in the Vulgate nor in A. V.

19 Ezek. xxxii. 17.

20 Ibid. xliv. 15, 16.

21 This is the sense of the Vulgate, but not the exact words.

22 1 Cor. iv. 4.

23 1 Sam. xvi. 7.

24 Rom. iii. 23.

25 Gal. iii. 22.

1 Prov. x. 19.

2 By a Synod under Siricius in a.d. 390.

3 The allusion is to the African Synod, held a.d. 412, at which Celestius was condemned and excommunicated.

4 Ps. cxxvii. 1.

5 1 Cor. ix. 24.

6 v. 12.

7 John v. 14.

8 1 Cor. iii. 16, 1 Cor. iii. 17.

9 2 Chron. xv. 2.

10 The words are those of S. Barnabas. Possibly in Jerome's copy the passage may have been attributed to Ignatius.

11 Ps. xvi. 4. Sept. and Ps. xvi. 4. Vulgate.

12 Acts xiii. 32; Ps. lxxxviii. 21.

13 2 Tim. iv. 13.

14 Acts xxiii. 2 sq.

15 S. John xviii. 23.

16 2 Tim. iv. 14.

17 S. John vi. 70.

18 Rom. ii. 4, Rom. ii. 5.

19 iii. 4.

20 Jerem. xviii. 7, Jerem. xviii. 8.

21 Jonah iv. 10, Jonah iv. 11.

22 1 Cor. xi. 6.

23 Gen. xxviii. 20 sq.

24 Gen. xxxii. 2.

25 Gen. xxxii. 31. L. R. V. Penuel. Comp. Mt. xix. 4.

26 Ib. 30. The words are Jacob's, but they are attributed to Moses as author.

27 Gen. xxxix. 23.

28 Gen. xlvi. 3, Gen. xlvi. 4.

29 Ex. xi. and Ex. xii.

30 Prov. iii. 5, Prov. iii. 6.

31 Ps. v. 8.

32 Prov. xvi. 3.

33 2 Cor. ii. 16.

34 2 Cor. iii. 4-6.

35 2 Cor. iv. 7.

36 2 Cor. x. 17, 2 Cor. x. 18.

37 2 Cor. xii. 11.

38 S. Luke v. 8.

39 S. John xv. 5.

40 S. John vi. 44.

41 Esther vi. i.

42 Ps. lxxxix. 48.

43 Ezek. xviii. 4.

44 S. Matt. viii. 25.

45 S. Matt. v. 8.

46 Ps. cxix. 1.

47 Gen. xvii. 1, Gen. xvii. 2.

48 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 1 Cor. xiii. 10.

49 S. Matt. vii. 11.

50 Gen. xvii. 1 sq.

51 Ex. xxxiii. 20.

52 1 Tim. i. 17, 1 Tim. vi. 16.

53 i. 18.

54 1 Cor. iv. 8.

55 Cant. iv. 7.

56 Phil. ii. 15.

57 1 John iii. 2.

58 See S. Aug. De Gest. Pelag. §16. The widow was Juliana, mother to Demetrias (to whom Jerome addressed his Letter CXXX. "On the keeping of Virginity"). Pelagius' letter to Demetrias is found in Jerome's works (Ed. Vall.), vol. xi. col. 15.

59 The whole passage, as quoted by Augustine, runs as follows: "May piety find with thee a place which it has never found elsewhere. May truth, which no one now knows, be thy household friend; and the law of God, which is despised by almost all men, be honoured by thee alone." "How happy, how blessed art thou, if that justice which we are to believe exists only in heaven is found with thee alone upon earth." Then follow the words quoted above.

60 S. Luke xviii. 11.

61 Prov. xiii. 8.

62 Is. xiv. 13, Is. xiv. 14. Spoken of the King of Babylon.

63 Ps. xxxviii. 7. Vulg.

64 Ibid. 5.

65 Ps. cxliii. 2.

66 Ibid. 4.

67 Ps. cxvi. 11.

68 Rom. iii. 4.

69 Is. vi. 5.

70 Ps. cxx. 3. Vulg.

71 James iii. 2.

72 Ps. xxii. 2; Sept. and Ps. xxii. 2 Vulgate. S. Matt xxvii. 46, R. V., "and from the words of my roaring."

73 S. Luke xxiii. 46.

74 S. Luke xxiii, 34.

75 S. Matt. xi. 25.

76 Ps. xxi. 1.

77 S. Luke xviii. 13.

78 Is. iii. 12.

79 The grandfather of the Triumvir, born b.c. 142, died in the civil conflict excited by Marius, b.c. 87.

80 Tit. iii. 10.

81 Rom. v 14.

82 Cyp. Ep. 64 (al. 59). S. Augustine preaching at Carthage on June 27, 413, quoted the same letter, which was a Synodical letter of a.d. 253. See Bright's Anti-Pelagian Treatises, Introduction, p. xxi.

83 Marcellinus was the lay imperial commissioner appointed to superintend the discussion between the Catholics and Donatists at the Council of Carthage, a.d. 411. In 413 Heraclian, governor of Africa, revolted against Honorius, the Emperor, and invaded Italy. The enterprise failed, and on his return to Africa the promoter of it was put to death. The Donatists, called by Jerome "heretics," are supposed to have accused Marcellinus of taking part in the rebellion. He was executed in 414.

84 "On the Deserts and Remission of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants," in three books, the earliest of S. Augustine's Anti-Pelagian treatises. It was composed in reply to a letter from his friend Marcellinus, who was harassed by Pelagianising disputants. See S. Aug. "De Gest. Pel." §25.

85 S. John iii. 3.

86 The "De Spiritu et Littera." Marcellinus found a difficulty in Augustine's view of the question of sinlessness. See Bright's Anti-Pelagian Treatises, Introduction, p. xix.

87 Whether he who was made Bishop of Arles, in 429, is disputed. The treatise was the "De Natura et Gratia," written early in 415.

88 Sat. i. 10.

89 Or, better positions have been occupied.

90 Origen held the pre-existence of souls, endowed with free will, and supposed their condition in this world to be the result of their conduct in their previous state of probation.

1 Vincentius appears to have attached himself to Jerome at Constantinople and remained with him till the end of the century. (Jerome, Against John of Jerusalem, 41; Apol., iii. 22; Letter LXXXVIII.) Nothing is known of Gallienus.

2 Flourished b.c. 270.

3 That is, Horace.

4 Sublimia debent ingredi.-Quint, 9, 4 fin.

5 Nothing is known of these men. It is very improbable that this Valerianus was the bishop of Apuleia, who must, however, have been known to Jerome.

6 Terence's rival, to whom he makes allusions in the Prologi to the Eunuchus, Heoutontimoroumenos and Phormio.

7 Repetundarum. Properly an action to compel one who has left office to restore public money which he had embezzled.

8 Hor. Odes II., x. 19, 20.

9 Virgil, Ec., vi. 10.

10 Ipsa testimonia. This is what he calls in other places Hebraica veritas. Jerome was right in the main in correcting the LXX, and other Greek versions by the Hebrew. He was not aware (as has been since made clear) that there are various readings in the Hebrew itself, and that these may sometimes be corrected by the LXX., which was made from older mss.

11 That is, by the obeli (_), to show what has been left out, and the asterisk (*), to show what has been inserted.

12 That is, from the copies of the LXX. commonly used in the fourth century.

13 Larger Commentaries.

14 Daughter of Paula. See Letter XXXIX.

1 Made pope 366, died 384. Jerome had been his secretary at the Council held at Rome in 382, and continued is literary services till the pope's death, in 385.

2 That is, after being translated from Hebrew into Greek, and from Greek into Latin.

3 Aquila belonged to the second century, but whether to the first half, or to the early part of the second half, cannot be determined. He was a Jewish proselyte, of Sinope in Pontus, and is supposed to have translated the books of the Old Testament into Greek in order to assist the Hellenistic Jews in their controversies with Christians. Jerome's estimate of him varied from time to time. In his commentary on Hos. ii., Is. xlix., and Letter XXVIII., etc., he treats him as worthy of credit. On the other hand, in the letter to Pammachius. De Opt. Gen. Interp. (LVII. 11), he describes him as contentiosus; but in Letter XXXVI. 12, he denies that he is such. In the preface to Job he speaks of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion as "Judaising heretics, who by their deceitful translation have concealed many mysteries of salvation." The second edition of Aquila's version, which was extremely literal, was highly esteemed by the Jews, and was called by them the Hebrew verity. See Davidson's "Biblical Criticism," p. 215, etc.

4 Symmachus was the author of the third Greek version. He is said to have been a Samaritan by birth. The date of his version cannot be accurately fixed; but, apparently, it appeared after Theodotion's. "He does not adhere to the text so closely as to render it verbatim into Greek; but chooses to express the same in perspicuous and intelligible language."-Davidson.

5 Theodotion, the author of the second Greek version, was a native of Ephesus. His version is thought to have been made before 160. "The mode of translation adopted by him holds an intermediate place between the scrupulous literality of Aquila and the free interpretation of Symmachus," and his work was more highly valued by Christians than that of either Aquila or Symmachus. Daniel was read in his version in the churches (Pref. to Joshua).

6 Lucian in Syria and Hesychius in Egypt attempted their recensions about the middle of the third century, the time when Origen also began to labour in the same direction. Lucian's recension, also called the Constantinopolitan, and to which the Slavonian and Gothic versions belong, spread over Asia Minor and Thrace. See the Preface to the Chronicles. It was decreed by a council held under Pope Gelasius, a.d. 494, that "the Gospels which Lucian and Hesychius falsified are apocryphal."

1 That is, the square character which was of Assyrian origin. As to how far the tradition is true, see Davidson's "Biblical Criticisms" (1854), p. 22, and the authorities there referred to.

2 iii. 39. All the males from a month old and upwards are said to have been twenty-two thousand.

3 These are the alphabetical Psalms which, being mainly didactic, were written acrostically to assist the memory. Others partially acrostic are ix., x., xxv., xxxiv., to make the alphabet complete in xxxvii. (

in verse 28 must be supposed to be represented by Mlr(l

, and t

in verse 39 by xyh#&tr

4 More correctly Torah.

5 The laws or instructions of Ezra. By many of the Jews Ezra was regarded as the author of the Twelve Prophets.

6 Jerome has in the text the Greek equivalent paraleipomenwn.

7 That is, Ezra and Nehemiah.

8 Paula and Eustochium.

9 Ps. xxxix. 2 sq.

10 esxhmatismenoj.

11 A small fish well known to the ancients, but apparently not identified with any species known to us.

12 Job iii. 3.

13 xlii. 6.

14 Reading studiosum me magis quam malevolum probet. Substituting se for me, according to some manuscripts, we must translate "and thus show that he is actuated more by a love of learning than by malice."

15 x. 11.

16 To split. The word has no sort of etymological connection with sxinoj. Susanna, 54, 55, 58, 59. When the first elder says the crime was committed under a mastich tree (schinos), Daniel answers, "God shall cut thee in two" (schisei).

17 The mastich tree.

18 To saw.

19 The holm-oak.

20 In the LXX. the story of Bel and the Dragon bears a special heading as "part of the prophecy of Habakkuk."-Westcott. The angel is said to have carried Habakkuk with a dish of food in his hand for Daniel from Judaea to Babylon.

21 Cor. xii. 2.

22 The bitter enemy of the Christian faith. Born at Tyre 223. Died at Rome about 304.

23 Bishop of Patara in Lycia, and afterwards of Tyre. Suffered martydom 302 or 303.

1 See Preface to Ezra (Vulgate).

1 Interpres.

2 That is, the allegorical or mystical sense.

3 Alieno stomacho.

4 Didymus, the blind teacher of Alexandria.

5 He became bishop of Laodicea about 362. About 376 his followers became a sect, and about the same time he set up bishops of his own at Antioch and elsewhere.

6 Probably from Batanea, the ancient Bashan, where Porphyry is said to have been born.

7 "The patriarch (of the Montanists) resided at Pepuza, a small town or village in Phrygia, to which the sectaries gave the mystical name of Jerusalem, as believing that it would be the seat of the Millennial Kingdom, which was the chief subject of their hopes. Hence they derived the names of Pepuzians and Cataphrygians."-Robertson, Ch. Hist., vol. i. p. 76.

8 The Ophites, who took their name from ofij, a serpent, supposed the serpent of Genesis iii. to have been either the Divine Wisdom or the Christ Himself, come to set men free from the ignorance in which the Demiurge wished to keep them. The sect began in the second century and lasted until the sixth.

9 The Ben. editor prefers the form Tascodrogi, and states that it is the Phrygian or Galatian equivalent for Passaloryncitae. The sect is said to have been so called from their habit of putting the finger to the nose when praying.

10 Heretics who made offerings of bread and cheese (arto-turoj. Arto-tyros).-Aug. de Haeres, No. 28.

11 The people who lived between the Moselle and the Forest of Ardennes in and about the modern Treves.

12 The Athenaeum was the name specially given to a school founded by the Emperor Hadrian at Rome, about a.d. 133, for the promotion of literary and scientific studies. The word denoted in general any place consecrated to the goddess Athena.

13 Angulis. So. Cic. Rep. i. 2.

14 Pelagius.

15 That is. Rufinus. See Preface to Book xii. of Isaiah, where Ruffnus is called Grunnius Corocotta Porcellus, and Preface to Book iv. of Jeremiah.

16 Scotorum pultibus praegravatus. The words have been translated "made fat with Scotch flummery" (Stillingfleet). Another rendering is, "having his belly filled and his head bedulled with Scotch porridge" (Wall on Infant Baptism, pt. i.c. 19, §3). Some think the words refer to Celestius, Pelagius' Supporter.

17 The letter to Pammachius (Jer. Letter XLVIII.) in defence of the book against Jovinianus.

18 Jovinian was condemned in a Synod at Rome about 390. Thirty years had thus passed since the events occurred to which Jerome refers. See Preface to the treatise against Jovinian.

19 Under whose care Eustochium had been trained.

20 By the Goths under Alaric. The city was taken in a.d. 410.

21 Ps. xxxix. 3, Ps. xxxix. 4.

22 Ecclus. xxii. 6.

23 Rufinus who died a.d. 410, in Sicily, on his way to the Holy Land from Aquileia and Rome, whence he had been driven by the troubles in Italy.

24 The giants who bore those names. See Hor. III. od. 4.

25 These four and Habakkuk are mentioned in the De Vir. Ill. (a.d. 492), and were written about that date, Jonah three years after, but Obadiah probably not till 403. The rest are fixed to the Sixth Consulate of Arcadius, 406.

26 But see Preface to Jonah, which is addressed to Chromatius.

27 The year a.d. 406.

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