99 Originally named Antigonea, after its founder; then Nicaea after the Queen of Lysimachus; now Isnik.

100 Sylvester.

101 Vitus and Vincentius.

102 Cf. Gal. vi. 17. The "stigmata" here meant are the marks of persecution.

103 i.e. The Filoqeoj istoria, "Religious History," a work containing the lives of celebrated ascetics, composed before the Ecclesiastical History. For Dr. Newman's explanation of its apparent credulity, Vide Hist. Sketches, iii. 314, and compare his Apologia pro Vita sua, on his own acceptance of the marvellous, Appendix, p. 57.

104 On the circumstances and scene of the opening of the Council consult Stanley's Eastern Church, Lecture IV.

105 Menophantus was one of the disciples of Lucianus (Philos. H.E. ii. 14). He accepted the Nicene decision, but was excommunicated by the Sardican Fathers. Cf. Book II. Chap. 6.

Patrophilus, bishop of Scythopolis, the Bethshan of Scripture, was an ardent and persistent Arian. Theodoret mentions his share in the deposition of Eustathius (I. 20). Theognis was sentenced to banishment on account of the Arian sympathies he displayed at Nicaea, but escaped by a feigned acceptance.

Narcissus of Irenopolis a town of Cilicia Secunda, took an active part in the Arian movement: Athanasius says that he was thrice degraded by different synods, and is the worst of the Eusebians (Ath. Ap. de fuga, sec. 28).

Marmarica is not a town, but a district. It lay west of Egypt, about the modern Barca.

There were two cities in Egypt named Ptolemais, one in Upper Egypt below Abydos; one a port of the Red Sea.

After the time of Constantine, Cilicia was divided into threedistricts; Cilicia Prima, with Tarsus for chief town; Secunda, with Anazarbus; Tertia, with Seleuceia.

106 Prov. viii. 22, lxx. Kurioj ektise me arxhn odwn autou eij erga autou.

107 At this point, according to Valesius, a quotation from the homily of Eustathius on the above text from Proverbs viii. 22, begins. On Eustathius, see notes on Chapters III, and XX.

108 Is. viii. 9, lxx. ean gar palin isxushte palin htthqhsesqe.

109 'Ec ouk ontwn.

110 Ktisma kai poihma.

111 Pote ote ouk hn.

112 1 Joh. v. 20.

113 Heb. i. 3. Cf. p. 37, note xxvii.

114 2 Cor. viii. 6.

115 2 Cor. v. 17, 2 Cor. v. 18.

116 Herm. Pastor. Vis. v. Mand. i.

117 aparallaktoj cf. James i. 17, Par' w ouk eni parallagh.

118 Cor. xi. 7.

119 2 Cor. iv. 11. aei gar hmeij oi zwntej. The aei of St. Paul qualifies not "oi zwntej" but the paradidomeqa which follows, "For we who live are ever being delivered to death."

120 Exod. xii. 41, "The Hosts of the Lord," A.V. echlqe pasa h dunamij Kurion, Sept.

121 Joel ii. 25, "My great army," A.V.

122 "The Lord of hosts is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge," Ps. xlvi. 7.

123 Heb. ii. 11.

124 Ps. xxvi. 9.

125 Joh. x. 30.

126 Alexandria. The allusion, according to Valesius, is to Dionysius, Bishop Rome, 259-269, and to Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria. The Letter of Athanasius to the Africans was written, according to Baronius, in 369. So triwn may suit the chronology better than triakonta.

127 Ath. Ep. ad Afros 5 and 6.

128 Isai. xxix. 13.

129 Meletius (Meletioj), Bishop of Lycopolis, in Upper Egypt, was accused of apostasy. During the Patriarch Peter's withdrawal under persecution he intruded into the see of Alexandria. He was deposed in 306.

130 Jovian.

131 "politeusamenon." Cf. Phil. i. 27, and Phil. iii. 20, and Acts xxiii. 1.

132 Matt. xxviii. 19.

133 paqh, paqoj.

134 paqh, paqoj.

135 upostasewj and ousiaj.

136 upostasewj and ousiaj.

137 The genuineness of the following sentence is doubted. It is not found in Socrates or in Epiphanius. But it is not unreasonably held by Valesius that Socrates, who seems to have undertaken to clear the character of Eusebius of all heretical taint, purposely suppressed the passage as inconsistent with orthodoxy. Soc. i. 8. Dr. Newman writes of this passage, "It is remarkable as shewing his (Constantine's) utter ignorance of doctrines which were never intended for discussion among the unbaptized heathen, or the secularized Christian, that, in spite of bold avowal of the orthodox faith in detail" (i.e. in his letter to Arius), "yet shortly after he explained to Eusebius one of the Nicene declarations in a sense which even Arius would scarcely have allowed, expressed as it is almost after the manner of Paulus. "Arians," 3rd ed., p. 256.

138 Here it has been proposed to read for agennhtwj, without generation, which does not admit of an orthodox interpretation, aeigennhtwj, i.e. by eternal generation.

139 anwqen. Cf. St. Luke i. 3. Plat. Phil. 44 D. &c.

140 Euseb. Vit. Constant. lib. iii. c. 13.