33 The history of the word upostasij is of crucial value in the study of the Arian controversy. Its various usages may be classified as (i) Classical; (ii) Scriptural; (iii) Ecclesiastical. The correlative substantive of the verb ufisthmi, I make to stand under, [from upo = sub. under, and isthmi, STA]; it means primarily a standing under. Hence, materially, it means in (i) Classical Greek, sediment, prop. foundation: substances as opposed to their reflexions, substantial nature, as of timber [Theoph. C. P. 5. 16. 4]. So naturally grew the signification of ground of hope, actual existence; and, in the later philosophy, it had come to be employed instead of ousia for the noetic substratum "underlying" the phaenomena. (ii) Scriptural. In the N.T. it is found five times, twice in 2 Cor. and thrice in Heb. (a) 2 Cor. ix 4, and (b) 2 Cor. xi. 17. "Confidence" of boasting. (g) Heb. i. 3, o xarakthr thj upostasewj, A.V. the express image of His "person." R.V., the very image of His "substance." (d) Heb. iii. 14, "Confidence". (e) Heb. xi. 1, A.V. "substance" of things hoped for. R.V. Assurance of things hoped for. (iii) Ecclesiastical. The earlier ecclesiastical use, like the later philosophical, identified it with ousia, and so the Nicene Confession anathematized those who maintained the Son to be of a different substance or essence from the Father (upostasewj h ousiaj). In the version of Hilary of Poictiers (de Synodis, §84; Op. ii. 510) ousia is translated by "substantia," the etymological equivalent of upostasij, except in the phrase quoted, when "substantia aut essentia" represents ousia by its own etymological equivalent "essentia." Thus in a.d. 325 to have contended for treij upostaseij would have been heretical. But as the subtilty of controversy required greater nicety of phrase, it was laid down (Basil the Great, Ep. 38) that while ousia is an universal denoting that which is common to the individuals of a species, upostasij makes an individual that which it is, and constitutes personal existence. Hence mia upostasij became Sabellian, and treij ousiai Arian, while treij upostaseij was orthodox. cf Theod. Dial. i. 7. Eranistes loq. "Is there any distinction between ousia and upostasij?"

Orthodoxus. "In extra-Christian philosophy there is not; for ousia signifies to on, that which is, and upostasij that which subsists. But according to the doctrine ot the Fathers there is the same difference between ousia and upostasij as between the common and the particular; the race, and the species or individual.".. "The Divine ousia (substance) means the Holy Trinity; but the upostasij indicates any proswpon (person) as of the Father, the Son, or of the Holy Ghost. For we who follow the definitions of Fathers assert upostasij, proswpon and idiothj (substantial nature, person, or individuality) to mean the same thing." Vide also Newman's Arians of the Fourth Century, Appendix, Note iv. fourth Edition.

34 "In the beginning was the word." John i. 1.

35 Ecclus. iii. 21.

36 1 Cor. ii. 9.

37 Gen. xv. 5.

38 Ecclus. i. 2.

39 Isai. liii. 8.

40 Matt. xi. 27.

41 Is. xxiv. 16: "My leanness, my leanness, woe unto me." A.V. "Secretum meum mihi." Vulg.

42 Col.i. 15.

43 Heb. i. 2. Vide Alford. proleg. to Ep. to Heb., "Nowhere except in the Alexandrian Church does there seem to have existed any idea that the Epistle was St. Paul's." "At Alexandria the conventional habit of quoting the Epistle as St. Paul's gradually prevailed over critical suspicion and early tradition."

44 Col. i. 16, Col. i. 17.

45 xrhmatizw = (i) to have dealings with; (ii) to deal with an oracle or divine power; (iii) to get a name for dealing, and so to be called. Cf. Matt. ii. 12; Acts xi. 26.

46 Prov. viii. 30.

47 Heb. i. 3. wn apaugasma thj Dochj kai xarakthr thj upostasewj autou.

48 Contrast the advance of the manhood. Luke ii. 52, "proukopte," the word used in the text.

49 2 Cor. vi. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 15.

50 Prov. xxx. 19.

51 1 Cor. x. 4.

52 Rom. viii. 32.

53 Matt. iii. 17.

54 Ps. ii. 7.

55 Ps. cx. 3. Sept. ek gastroj pro 'Ewsforou egennhsa se.

56 The readings vary between gennhsewj, genesewj, and maieusewj (cf. Plat. Theaet. 150 B), which is adopted by Valesius.

57 Gen. vi. 2.

58 Isa. i. 2.

59 The imaginary name for the founder of Ebionism, first started.

by Tertullian. ww$ybi)e

60 Artemas, or Artemon, a philosophizing denier of Christ' divinity, excommunicated by Pope Zephyrinus (a.d. 202-21).

61 Lucianus, the presbyter of Antioch, who became the head of the theological school of that city in which the leaders of the Arian heresy were trained, after the deposition of Paulus refused to hold communion with his tree successors in the patriarchate, Domnus, Timaeus, and Cyril. During the episcopate of the last named he once more entered into communion with the church of Antioch. On the impotance of Lucianus as founder of the Arians, Vide Newman's Arians of the Fourth Century, Chap. I. Sec. i. and cf. the letter of Arius post. Chap. iv.

62 Eusebius of Caesarea, Theodotus of Laodicea, and Paulinus of Tyre. See Arius' letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia, ch. iv.

63 kenwsij, cf. Phil. ii, 7

64 John x. 30.

65 John xiv. 9.

66 Ps. xxxvi. 9.

67 John v. 23.

68 1 John v. 1.

69 Condemned a.d. 261 by Council held at Alexandria.

70 Taught in Rome in a.d. 140, and died in Cyprus in a.d. 160.

71 Isa. liii. 8.

72 h patrikh qeogonia.

73 Matt. xi. 27: observe the slight variation.

74 John xiv. 28.

75 Heb. i. 3

76 1 Cor. xiii. 10.

77 John xiv. 28.

78 John xvi. 33.

79 ek thj Qeotokou Mariaj.

80 Gal. i. 9.

81 1 Tim. vi. 3, 1 Tim. vi. 4.

82 2 Tim. iii. 6.

83 Tomoj. (i) a cut or slice; (ii) a portion of a roll, volume, or "tome."

84 Vide supra.

85 Bp. first Beroea in Syria and then of Antioch, c. 324-331. Beroea, the Helbon of Ezekiel (xxvii. 19) is now Aleppo or Haleb.

86 On the name "Pope," vide Dict. Christ. Ant., s.v. 1st, it was applied to the teachers of convers, 2ndly, to Bishops and Abbots, and was, 3rdly, confined to the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople, and to the Bp. of Rome; 4thly, it was claimed by the Bp. of Rome exclusively.

87 panta kalwn kinei. Cf. Luc. Scyth. ii. The common proverb was panta ecienai kalwn, to let out every reef. Ar. Eq. 756 Eur. Med. 278, &c.

88 ec ouk ontwn estin.

89 ec upokeimenou tinoj. Aristotle, Metaph. vi. 3, 1, defines to upokeimenon as that kaq' ou ta alla legetai. ...maliota de dokei einai ousia to upokeimenon prwton.

90 Arius and Eusebius had been fellow disciples of Lucianus the Priest of Antioch martyred under Maximinus in a.d. 311 or 312. Vide note on page 38.

91 Arius plays on the name Eusebius, eusebhj, pious.

92 From the phrase "o adelfoj sou o en Kaisareia," it has been inferred by some that the two Eusebii were actually brothers. Eusebius of Nicomedia, in the letter of Chapter V., calls the Palestinian despothj; but this alone would not be fatal to the brotherhood, for Seneca (Ep. Mor. 104), calls his brother Gallio dominus. The phrase of Arius is not worth much against the silence of every one else. Vid. Dict. Christ. Biog. Article, Eusebius.

Theodotus, bishop of Laodicea, Syria, (not the Phrgian Laodicea of the Apocalypse), was a Physician of the body was well as of the soul (Euseb. H.E. vii. 32).

Paulinus, bishop first of Tyre, and then of Antioch for six months, died in a.d. 329. (Philost. H.E. iii. 15, cf. Bishop Lightfoot in Dict Christian Biog. Article, Eusebius of Caesarea).

Athanasius, bishop of Anazarbus, an important town of Cilicia Campestris, accused of dangerous Arianism by his great namesake. (Athan. de Synod, 584.)

Gregorius succeeded Eusebius of Nicomedia at Berytus (Beyrout), on the translation of the latter to Nicomedia.

Aetius, Bishop of Lydda, (the Lydda of the Acts, on the plain of Sharon, now Ludd, the city of El-Khudr, who is identified with St. George), died soon after the Arian Synod of Antioch, a.d. 330 (Philost. H.E. iii. 12), and is to be distinguished from the arch-Arian Aetius, Julian's friend, who survived till a.d. 367 (Phil. H.E. ix. 6).

Philognius was raised to the episcopate per saltum, like St. Ambrose (Chrysost. Orat. 71, tom. v. p. 507), he preceded the Arian Paulinus.

Hellanicus was present at Nicaea, but was driven from the See of Tripolis, in Phoenicia, by the Arians (Athan. Hist. Ar. ad Mon. §5).

Macarius is praised by Athanasius (Orat. I. adv. Arian. p. 291). On a possible "passage of arms" between him and Eusebius of Caesarea at Nicaea, vide Stanley, Eastern Church, Lect. V. Cf. post, cap. xvii.

93 hgoumenoj.

94 Prov. viii. 22-26 Sept.

95 Isa. i 2.

96 Deut. xxxii. 18.

97 Job xxxviii. 28.

98 Arius first published his heresy, a.d. 319.