148 Cf. Theodoret, H. E. II. 20.

149 Cf. Theodoret, H. E. II. 16.

150 Hilar, Fragm. 8; Hefele, Hist. of Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 257.

151 From this place it plainly appears, as Valesius remarks, that the authority of the see of Constantinople was acknowledged, even before the council of Constantinople. throughout the region of the Hellespont and Bithvnia, which conclusion is also confirmed by the acts of Eudoxius, bishop of Constantinople, who made Eunomius bishop of Cyzicus. Two causes co-operated to secure this authority, viz. (1) the official establishment of the city as the capital of the empire by Constantine, and (2) the transference to it of Eusebius of Nicomedia, a most vigorous and aggressive bishop, who missed no opportunity for enlarging and consolidating the power of his see.

152 See above, ch. 16.

153 I. 13.

154 According to Valesius it appears incredible that the Catholics should have done what Socrates says they did. `For there is nothing more contrary to ecclesiastical discipline than to communicate with heretics either in the sacraments or in prayer.0' Hence `Socrates was probably imposed upon by the aged Auxano, who fixed upon all the Catholics what was perhaps done by some few Christians who were less cautious.0' But Socrates' own attitude towards the Novatians (cf. Introd. p. x.) shows that the difference between them and the Catholics (oi thj ekklhsiaj) was not universally regarded as an absolute schism forbidding communication even during such times of trial as these described here, which might certainly have drawn together parties already as near to one another as the Novatians and Catholics.

155 See below, ch. 42.

156 358 a.d.

157 In this calamity Cecropius, the bishop of Nicomedia, perished, and the splendid cathedral of the city was ruined; both of which misfortunes were attributed by the heathen to the wrath of their gods. See Sozom. IV. 16.

158 Traxeia, on account of the neighboring steep mountains. This Seleucia was the capital of Isauria.

159 359 a.d. See, on this double council of Ariminum and Seleucia, Hefele, Hist. of the Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 346-371.

160 Cf Athan. de Synodd. 12.

161 See chaps. 8 and 10.

162 Athanas. (de Synodd. 29) gives the following portion of this creed apparently as the only declaration made by the council.

163 Col. i. 15.

164 See Chrysostom, Homilies 9 and 27, on Acts, and Hom. 1, on 2 Tim., for the belief of the ancient Church in the descent of the Holy Spirit on the ordained in and through ordination.

165 He was the only one, inasmuch as the General Synod of Constantinople (381 a.d.) expressly forbade all appeals from the ecclesiastical to the civil courts, attaching severe penalties to the violation of its canon on this subject. Cf. Canon 6 of Council of Constantinople. Hefele, Hist. of the Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 364.

166 On the distinction between the prefect and proconsul and the different functions of each, see Smith, Diction. of Greek and Roman Ant. The statement of Socrates here that Constantius first put Constantinople under a prefect is borne out by Athanasius' mention of Donatus as proconsul of Europe, with Constantinople as chief city.

167 The General Synod of Chalcedon, 451 a.d., in its seventh canon forbade, under pain of anathema, the mixing of the clerical office with political and worldly matters.

168 The taceij here mentioned were classes of officials appointed under a sort of military law, to serve for a given length of time as agents of the presidents and governors of provinces. Cf. Justin. Cod. 12, tit. 52-59.

169 Cf. chap. 37.

170 Athanas. de Synodd. 30.

171 John xv. 26.

172 Chap. 10.

173 Chap. 18.

174 Chap. 19.

175 Chaps. 30, 37.

176 Chap. 41.

177 Cf. Apost. Canon, XXV.

178 Cf. Tertull. de Idol. IX.: Post evangelium nusquam invenies aug sophistas, aut Chaldaeos, aut Incantatores, aut Conjectores, aug magos, nisi plane punitos. See also Bingham, Eccl. Antiq. XVI. 5.

179 On the prescribed dress of the clergy, and the puhishment of those who did not constantly adopt it, see Bingham, Eccl. Antiq. VI. 4. 15.

180 1 Tim. iv. 3. Cf. Euseb. H. E. IV. 29, on the earliest forms of expression against marriage in the Christian Church; also Apost. Canon, LI. and Augustine, Haerr. XXV., XL., XLVI. See Bingham, Eccl. Antiq. XXII. 1.

181 On Synod of Gangra, see Hefele, Hist. of the Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 325-339. Almost all the canons of the synod seem to be addressed against the teachings of Eustathius. The fourth canon is expressly on the celibacy of the clergy, as follows: `If any one maintains that, when a married priest offer the sacrifice, no one should take part in the service, let him be anathema.0'

182 This was evidently the second consecration of the earlier church of St. Sophia (cf. I. 16, II. 6); the first consecration was celebrated in 326 a.d. Later, the structure was destroyed in a fire, in connection with a popular uprising; and the great church of St. Sophia, at present a Mohammedan mosque, was erected by Justinian, with Isidore of Miletus and Anthimius of Trailes as architects.

183 360 a.d.

184 The name has been written `Melitius0' thus far, but is found as `Meletius0' from this point, and through Bk. III. Cf. Euseb. H. E. VII. 32.

185 parashmoj; just as a counterfeit coin has the appearance of the genuine, and is meant to deceive those who do not investigate its genuineness, so the term `homoioousios0' (omoioousioj), the author implies, was meant to deceive the popular ear by its likeness to the genuine `homoousios.0'

186 See Theodoret, H. E. II. 6.

187 Pneumatomaxoi, lit. `active enemies of the Spirit.0'

188 I. 4.

189 361 a.d.

190 'Anomoioi, because they held that the essence of the Son was `dissimilar,0' Anomoioj, to that of the Father.

191 'Ecoukontioi, from the phrase ec ouk ontwn = `from [things] not existing,0' because they asserted that the Son was made ex nikilo. The term might be put roughly in some such form as `Fromnothingians.0'

192 1 Cor. xi. 12.

193 Written `Errenius0' in the Allat. *ms.;

194 Cf. Sozom. VI. 25; Schaff, Hist. of the Christ. Ch., Vol. III. p. 708 seq.; Walch, Ketzerhistorie, III. p. 119-229.

195 III. 16.

196 361 a.d.