97 There were three councils held at Sirmium: one in 351, as already indicated in note 3, ch. 29; another in 357, in which Hosius and Potamius composed their blasphemy; and one in 359. It was in this last council that that creed was drawn up which was recited in Ariminum. The confusion of Socrates on this point has been alluded; to in the Introd.

98 Athan. de Synod. 27.

99 Eph. iii. 15.

100 Isa. xliv. 6.

101 John i. 14.

102 Gen. i. 26.

103 Gen. xix. 24: `Then the Lord ...rained brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.0'

104 Athanasius reads epi Sodoma, not eiz swma. If this be the true reading, we should translate `came down to Sodom,0' &c.

105 Ps. cix. 1 (LXX).

106 John xiv. 16, John xiv. 26.

107 1 Cor. xi. 3.

108 Paul of Samosata, see I. 36, note 3.

109 Athan. de Synod. 28, and Hilar. de Synod. calls this creed `The blasphemy composed at Sirmium by Hosius and Potamius.0'

110 John xx. 17.

111 Rom. iii. 29, Rom. iii. 30.

112 Of the same substance.

113 Of similar substance.

114 Isa. liii. 5.

115 John xiv. 28.

116 kaqolikon, `universally accepted.0'

117 Matt. xxviii. 19.

118 `Epiphamus relates that Photinus, after he had been condemned and deposed in the synod of Sirmium, went to Constantius, and requested that be might dispute concerning the faith before judges nominated by him; and that Constantius enjoined Basilius, bishop of Ancyra, to undertake a disputation with Photinus, and gave leave that Thalassiuss, Datianus, Cerealis, and Taurus should be arbiters0' (Valesius).

119 So in the Allat. ms., with the variant reading in other mss. Miltoseleukoj.

120 353 a.d.; but the date is given differently in Idatius' Fasti.

121 354 a.d.

122 355 a.d.

123 See III. 1.

124 So rightly in the Allat. ms.; the variant Gallian is inconsistent with the context.

125 I. 26.

126 Diogenes Laertius, Proem. XI (16), says: `Philosophers were generally divided into two classes,-the dogmatics, who spoke of things as they might be comprehended; and the ephectics, who refused to define anything, and disputed so as to make the understanding of them impossible.0' The word `ephectic0' is derived from the verb epexw, `to hold back,0' and was used by the philosophers to whom it is applied as a title because they claimed to hold back their judgment, being unable to reach a conclusion. Cf. also the name `skeptic,0' from skeptomai. See Zeller, Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics, p. 525.

127 IV. 7.

128 So also Sozomen, IV. 9; but the number appears exorbitant. Valesius conjectures that the texts of Socrates and Sozomen are corrupted, and that we must read thirty instead of three hundred. The smaller number agrees exactly, with the list given in the epistle of this council to Eusebius of Vercellae; in this list thirty bishops are named as agreeing to the condemnation of Athanasius, Marcellus, and Photinus. Cf. Baronius, Annal. year 355.

129 Sozomen (IV. 9) agrees here also with Socrates; but Athanasius, in Epist. ad Solitar., and after him Baronius and Valesius, make Milan and not Alba, the metropolis of Italy, and Dionysius bishop of Milan, and not of Alba.

130 Cf. Sozomen, III. 19; IV. 15-19; Theodoret, H. E. II. 18-21; Rufin. II. 21; Philostorgius, IV. 10. Also Hefele, Hist. of the Ck. Councils, Vol. II. p. 246-271.

131 Ch. 39.

132 According to Theodoret (H. E. II. 19) Aëtius was promoted to the diaconate under Leontius at Antioch; but Leontius, on being censured by Flavian and Diodorus for ordaining one who was notorious for his blasphemous utterances, divested him of his diaconate Hence, later, Eudoxius attempted to restore him, as is here said.

133 Athan. de Synod. 8; but Athanasius does not say that this creed was translated from Latin, as he does whenever he produces any document put into Greek from Latin; whence it appears, according to Valesius, that this is the form drawn up in Greek by Marcus of Arethusa, and submitted to the third Sirmium council in 359, but read at Ariminum as here said (cr. ch. 30, and note). The argument is not considered conclusive by Reading as far as it regards the original language of tile creed; that it was written by Marcus of Arethusa, however, seems to be proved.

134 The title of the emperor in Athanasius' version is `The most pious and victorious emperor Constantius Augustus, eternal Augustus,0' &c., which agrees with the representations of the ancients on the vainglory of Constantius. Cf. Amm. Marcellin. Rerum Gestarum, XVI. 10, 2, 3 (ed. Eyssenhardt).

135 359 a.d.

136 Job xxxviii. 17 (LXX).

137 John xiv. 16; John xvi. 14.

138 Athan. de Synod. 8.

139 This appeal to antiquity, as the test of truth, is very common with the earlier Fathers; cf. Eusebius' treatment of the Scriptures of the New Testament, H. E. III. 3, 24, 25, et al.

140 Isa. i. 2; Hos. i. 1.

141 Jer. i. 2.

142 Luke ii. 1.

143 Athan, de Synod, 10. The Latin original which Hilar. Fragm. 8, was adopted by Valesius in this place, and subsequently also by the English translators. We have followed the Greek of Socrates, giving the most important differences in the following four notes; viz. 15, 16, 17, and 18. How these variations originated it is impossible to tell with assurance; but it is not improbable that they may represent two drafts, of which one was originally tentative.

144 The Latin original here contains the following paragraph not reproduced by Socrates: `These matters having been strictly investigated and the creed drawn up in the presence of Constantine, who after being baptized, departed to God's rest in the faith of it, we regard as an abomination any infringement thereon, or any attempt to invalidate the authority of so many saints, confessors, and successors of the martyrs, who assisted at that council, and themselves preserved inviolate all the determinations of the ancient writers of the catholic church: whose faith has remained unto these times in which your piety has received from God the Father, through Jesus Christ our God and Lord, the power of ruling the world.0'

145 The Latin original omits the following paragraph, ending with the words `over our portion of the world.0'

146 The Latin original in Hilar. omits the name of Auxentius.

147 Instead of the Greek words here translated, `fill the believing with distrust and the unbelieving with cruelty,0' the Latin original reads `verum etiam infideles ad credulitatem vetantur accedere.0'