55 Prov. viii. 22.

56 De Eccl. Theol. III. 2.

57 1 Pet. ii. 13.

58 Amos iv. 12, Amos iv. 13 (LXX).

59 Eccl. i. 9.

60 Acts ii. 2, Acts ii. 4.

61 Amos iv. 13.

62 Psalms ii. 10 (LXX).

63 Eph. ii. 15.

64 Eph. iv. 24.

65 2 Cor. v. 17.

66 This separation was only temporary and must be distinguished from the great schism, which grew slowly and culminated with the adoption of the expression `filioque0' into the Apostles' Creed by the Western church in the eleventh century. On the various degrees of unity and communion recognized in the ancient church, see Bingham, Eccl. Antiq. Bk. XVI. 1.

67 Tisoukij.

68 Athan. Apol. c. Arian, 51.

69 komitaton = Lat. comitatus; by analogy of the New Test. words khnsoj koustwdia, spekoulatwr, &c., and frequently in Byzantine Greek kombineuma soufragion, &c.

70 Athan. Apol. c. Arian. 52.

71 1 Cor. ii. 9.

72 Athan. Apol. c. Arian. 54.

73 Athan. Apol. c. Arian. 55.

74 tou kreitonoj; cf. I. 7, and note.

75 The bishop of Jerusalem was under the jurisdiction of the metropolitan bishop of Caesarea, and according to later usage and canon, had no right to call a synod without the permission of the metropolitan. Evidently usage had not yet become fixed into uniformity in this respect.

76 Cf. Athan, Apol. c. Arian. 57.

77 Cf. Apost. Cann. XXXV. `Let not a bishop dare to ordain beyond his limits, in cities and places not subject to him.0' It follows, therefore, that the whole of Egypt was not under the bishop of Alexandria; otherwise no such charge as is here mentioned could have been made against Athanasius. That these ordinations were made in Egypt is evident from the mention of Pelusium, which Athanasius had already passed through.

78 I. 38.

79 The same account is given by Eunap. X. 9, and by Zosimus, II. 40.

80 Ch. 5, above.

81 Magnentius was governor of the provinces of Rhoetia, and assassinated Constans, as above. Cf. Zosimus, II. 43.

82 This whole affair is treated extensively in Zosimus, II. 43-48.

83 350 a.d.

84 Cf. Apost. Cann. XXII. and XXIII.; according to these any cleric was to be deposed if found guilty of such a crime. The Council of Nicaea also passed a canon on the subject which is as follows: `If a man has been mutilated by physicians during sickness, or by barbarians, he may remain among the clergy; but if a man in good health has mutilated himself, he must resign his post after the matter has been proved among the clergy, and in future no one who has thus acted should be ordained. But as it is evident that what has just been said only concerns those who have thus acted with intention, and have dared to mutilate themselves, those who have been made eunuchs by barbarians or by their masters will be allowed, conformably to the canon, to remain among the clergy, if in other respects they are worthy.0' Canon I. See Hefele, Hist. of the Councils, Vol. I. p. 375, 376.

85 Athan. Apol. de Fuga, 6.

86 Tessarakosth, lit. = `forty days' fast,0' formed by mistaken analogy to penthkost.

87 Suspending, i.e., all violence during the period of festivity attending the observance of Easter.

88 Houses are often sealed by state and municipal officials in the East, even at the present time, when their contents are to be confiscated, or for any other reason an inventory is to be made by the authorities. The sealing consists in fastening and securing the locks and bolts and attaching the impression of the official seal to some sealing-wax which is put over them. In this case the object of the sealing was apparently the confiscation of the contents.

89 The modern El-Onah or El-Kharjeh, situated west of the Nile, seven days' journey from Thebes, contains several small streams, and abounds in vegetation, including palm-trees, orange and citron groves, olive orchards, &c. See Smith, Dict. of Geogr.

90 Sozomen (IV. 4) calls him Oueteraniwn; cf. also Zosimus, II. 44, on the way in which he was elevated and soon afterwards reduced.

91 See I. 1, and note on the name of Eusebius Pamphilus; cf. Smith and Cheetham, Dict. of Christ. Ant. Names.

92 Similar to the appearance mentioned in I. 2. See note on that passage.

93 A disciple of Marcellus (see ch. 18). See Hilar. de Synod. 61, Cave on Photinus.

94 The bishops here mentioned, according to Valesius, took part not in this council, but in another held at the same place nine years later, under the consuls Eusebius and Hypatius.

95 351 a.d. So also Sozomen, IV. 6.

96 The Ludi circenses, consisting of five games, leaping, wrestling, boxing, racing, and hurling,-called in Greek pentaqlon,-with scenic representations and spectacles of wild beasts at the amphitheatre; with these the consuls entertained the people at their entrance on the consulate. Alluded to by Tacitus (Ann. I. 2) and Juvenal (Sat. X. 1). Cf. Smith, Dict. of Greek and Rom. Antiq.