18 Eus. V. C. i. 30, 31.

19 Or Sosipater of Apamea. Cf. Eunap. V. S. (Aedesius).

20 The earlier church historians, except Philost. H. E. ii. 4, are silent as to the cause of his death, while the pagan authorities speak freely, but variously; later Christian writers take their statements from the pagans. Cf. Eutrop. Brev. hist. Rom. x. 6.

21 One of the battles in which Licinius was routed by Constantine, a.d. 314. Eutrop. Brev. hist. Rom. x. 5.

22 Cf. Soc. i. 3, 4, and especially various parts of Eus. V. C.

23 Iliad, viii. 102.

24 gramma dhmosion. The decree is given at full length in Eus. V. C. ii. 24-42; and the other legislative chapters of Bks. ii. and iv. Cf. Eus. H. E. x. 5-7; Soc. 1. 18.

25 Musthriwn, that is to say, the sacraments of the church.

26 Eus. V. C. iv. 18, 19.

27 He probably alludes to the law of Constantine, "de raptu virginum vel viduarum." See Codex Theodos. ix. 24.

28 The Lex Papia Poppaea. For its origin under Augustus, see Tacit. Ann. iii. 25; Eus. V. C. iv. 26.

29 Constantine makes mention of this law in his Epistle to the bishops of Numidia, in Baronius, A. E. a.d. 316; n. lxiv.; Eus. H. E. x. 7; Cod. Theod. i. 27, de episcopali definitione, 1; xvi. 2, de episcopes ecclesus et clericis, 2.

30 Cod. Theod. iv. 7, de manumissionibus inecclesia, 1.

31 For a further account of Hosius, cf. Soc. i. 7, 13; ii. 20, 29, 31; iii. 7.

32 Amphion and Lespus are mentioned as bishops of Cilicia in Athan. Ep. ad Episc. Aeg. et Lib.; another Amphion occurs in Athan. Ap. cant. Arian, 7, as bishop in Nicomedia.

33 Ruf. H. E. i. 4; Soc. i. 8, 11; Theodoret, H. E. i. 7.

34 Ruf. H. E. i. 5; Soc. i. 8, 12. Ruf. gives the first two stories; Soc. copies and gives credit; Soz. appends three more, and gives credit to himself only throughout. Ruf. had already said, "sed et multa alia ejus feruntur gesta mirabilia, quae etiam nunc ore omnium celebrantur."

35 This Triphyllius is mentioned by Hieron. de vir. illust. i. 92, as the author of a commentary on the Song of Solomon, which his biographer had read; and of many other works which had not come into his hands.

36 Berytus in Phoenicia was celebrated for its school of law, in which, among others, Gregory Thaumaturgus is said to have studied. Biographers, imitating Valesius, have imagined that Sozomen studied there.

37 Matt. ix. 6.

38 thj tessarakosthj enstashj. While it was Lent and probably Holy Week. See Tertull. de Pat. 13, and de Fejun. 14.

39 Tit. i. 15.

40 On the origin and growth of the monastic system, see Soc. iv. 23, and cf. Gibbon, Decl. & Fall, ch. 37, and Bingham's Christian Antiq. Bk. vii.; articles in Herz. R. E. Bk. iv.; D. C. A. Vol. ii.; Ad Harnack: Das Mönchthum, seine Ideale und seine Geschichte.

41 The verb filosofein is constantly used by the early Christian historians to signify the practice of asceticism.

42 Valesius would prefer to read "The Platonist."

43 Cf. Eus. H. E. ii. 17, where he attributes to the Christians what is said by Philo concerning the Therapeutae, as these ascetics were called.

44 Cf. Soc. i. 21, and his reference to the life attributed to Athanasius.

45 There were two cities of this name, Heraclea the greater and Heraclea the less.

46 Ruf. H. M. 31; Pall. H. L. 27.

47 Ruf. H. M. 30; Pall. H. L. 12; Soc. iv. 23.

48 Soc. i. 13, who gives his authority as Auxanon, a Novatian.

49 Eus. H. E. vii. 8; Soc. i. 10; iv. 28, &c.

50 Eus. V. C. parts of ii. & iii.; Ruf. H. E. i. 1-6; Soc. i. 5-13; Philost. H. E. i. 3-9.

51 No one else suggests an early connection of Arius with the Melitians.

52 A doubtful and unsupported assertion. All other testimony makes Alexander steadfast and exact in his definition.

53 There are variations in names, offices, numbers in attendance, and course of debate in the early as well as later accounts of the controversy.

54 Soz. only outlines the letter, given completely in Eus. V. C. ii. 64-72; of which Soc. quotes the greater part. i. 7.

55 Eus. V. C. iii. 5; Soc. i. 8.

56 They were called Quartodecimanians. Euseb. H. E. v. 24; Soc. v. 22.