14 Cf. V. 3, 12 and 23.

15 407 a.d.

16 Cf. V. 23, note 2.

17 The special views of Plato which are here alluded to are probably those found in the Timaeus. Cf. Jowett, The Dialogues of Plato translated into English, Vol. II. p. 451 et seq.

18 Cf. VI. 13.

19 412 a.d. This chapter is out of chronological sequence, as appears from the fact that Alaric took Rome in 410 a.d. See chap. 10 below.

20 The words included in brackets are not found in the Greek; they were probably inserted into the English translation as necessary to explain the context.

21 Cf. chap. 11.

22 Cf. VI. 15.

23 A caste of priests who exercised great influence in Persia mentioned both in the Old and the New Testament. Cf. Smith, Dict. of the Bible, art. Magi.

24 420 a.d.

25 Chap. 18 below.

26 404 a.d.

27 414 a.d.

28 385 a.d.

29 On Alaric's career, see Zosimus, V. 5, 6; 28-51 and V. 1-13. Cf. also parallel accounts in Sozomen, IX. 4, 6-9; and Philostorgius, XII. 2, 3; and Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chap. 31.

30 This incident is also given by Procopius of Caesarea in Hist. Vandal. I. p. 8.

31 418 a.d.

32 Cf. V. 10.

33 upatikoj = consularis, consul honorarius; the title was, during the period of the republic, given to ex-consuls, but later it became a common custom, especially under the emperors, for the governors of the imperial provinces to be called consuls, and the title consularis became the established designation of those-intrusted with the administration of imperial provinces. See Smith, Dict. of Greek and Rom. Antiq.

34 Bikarioj transliterated from the Lat. vicarius, of which the Eng. `lieutenant0' is an exact equivalent.

35 Cf. V. 21.

36 Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. II. 16.

37 The loaves which were offered by the faithful as a sacrifice were called `loaves of benediction,0' and were used partly for the Eucharist and partly as food by the bishop and clergy.

38 As to how the ancient Church looked upon theatrical shows, see Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XVI. 11. 15, and passages there referred to.

39 iatrikwn logwn sofisthj, also called by other writers of the period iatrosofisthj; see Sophocles, Greek Lex. of the Rom. and Byzant. Periods.

40 As a mode of abjuration, see VI. 11, note 5. In this case the sacred volume takes the place of the child.

41 Qaumasioj, `wonderful,0' `admirable.0'

42 The original here has apesbese, `quenched,0' `extinguished,0' but the context demands the very opposite meaning, unless indeed the outrage on Hypatia was considered the last in the series of occasions of quarrel between Orestes and Cyril, after which the difference gradually died out.

43 The following incident has been popularized by Charles Kingsley in his well-known novel of Hypatia, which has, however, the accessory aim of antagonizing the over-estimation of early Christianity by Dr. Pusey and his followers. The original sources for the history of Hypatia, besides the present chapter, are the letters of her pupil Synesius, and Philostorgius, VIII. 9. Cf. also Wernsdoff, de Hypatia, philosopha Alex. diss. 4, Viteb. 1748.

44 ostrakoij, lit. `oystershells,0' but the word was also applied to brick tiles used on the roofs of houses.

45 The responsibility of Cyril in this affair has been variously estimated by different historians. Walch, Gibbon, and Milman incline to hold him guilty. J.C. Robertson ascribes him indirect responsibility, asserting that the perpetrators of the crime `were mostly officers of his church, and had unquestionably drawn encouragement from his earlier proceedings.0' Hist. of the Christ. Ch. Vol. I. p. 401. W. Bright says, `Cyril was no party to this hideous deed, but it was the work of men whose passions he had originally called out. Had there been no onslaught on the synagogues, there would doubtless have been no murder of Hypatia.0' Hist. of the Church from 313 to 451, pp. 274, 275. See also Schaff, Hist. of the Christ. Ch. Vol. III. p. 943.

46 415 a.d.

47 419 a.d.

48 On Evagrius, see IV. 23. On the passage in his works alluded, see Evagrius, Ecclesiastical History, IV. 35, 36.

49 The repetition of baptism, except in cases in which there was doubt as to the validity of a first baptism, was considered a sacrilege. See Smith and Cheetham, Dict. of Christ. Antiq. art. Iteration Baptism.

50 Cf. I. 8.

51 Having reigned between 399 and 420 a.d. Cf. Clinton, Fasti Romani, year 420.

52 There had been peace between the Persian and the Roman powers since 381. Cf. Pagi, Ant. 420, note 14.

53 Mentioned in Theophanes' Chronographia, p. 74.

54 Much, of course, depends, in estimating the rate of speed here recorded, on the exact distance between Constantinople and the rather indefinite limits of the Persian empire. But even if the minimum of 500 miles be taken as a basis, the speed seems almost incredible.

55 A Persian body-guard called 'Aqanatoi, `Immortals,0' existed during the period of the invasion of Greece by the Persians (cf. Herodotus, VII. 31). The organization and discipline of the later body must have been, of course, very different.