7 i.e. since we have been redeemed. See on Rom. ix. 11.

8 The Author's view of ina pleonash cannot be exegetically justified. Paul teaches that it was the purpose of the dispensation of law which came in between Adam and Christ to make transgression abound (cf. Gal. iii. 9). The meaning is not that its purpose in coming in alongside (pareishlqen) of this reign of sin was to increase sin; but to make sin appear as such, to exhibit it as transgression and to reveal it in its true character to the consciousness of men. Only through the law could sin appear as transgression and thus be apprehended by men in the clearest manner as contrary to God's will (cf. iv. 15 and v. 13).-G. B. S.

9 In all this there is a design to obviate Manichaean notions concerning matter, and the opinion resulting from them, that we must be content to live in sin as unavoidable.

10 i. e. baptized, St. Cyr. Cat. Intr. §1. p. 1, O. T.

11 Or "still," ei kai alhqhj.

12 St. Gr. Naz. Jamb. xx; 271, p. 228 (in Ed. Ben. xxiv. 277, p. 508). B. What? have I not the cleansing laver yet? A. You have, but mind! B. Mind what? A. Not for your habits, but for past transgressions. B. Nay, but for habits! What? A. Only if thou be first at work to cleanse them. See Tert. de Paen. §6, 7, and the beginning of the next Homily.

13 Mar. faneitai, 4 mss. fainomenh.

14 diatmew. ap. Hipp. p. 505. 10. Liddell & Scott, sub. v. or to cut through, from diatemnw.

15 This passage is one among many which show how the fides formata was that which the Fathers contemplated.

16 See Macarius on the Keeping of the Heart, c. 1. translated in Penn's Institutes of Christian Perfection, p. 2.

1 Better: "United with him by the likeness" or "united with the likeness." See, note *, p. 409.-G.B.S.

2 The construction here is harsh, and seems to require "in the likeness of."

3 The word likeness in our version is in italics as an addition, and unless it is understood, the construction is scarcely grammatical; but this interpretation favors the reading questioned in the last note. Perhaps also St. Chrysostom may have taken the words thus, "If we have been in likeness planted together with His Death," which would be a parallel construction.

4 The word sumfeutoi should be rendered "united with" (as in R V.)-literally "grown together," from sun-fuw, not "planted together" (A. V.) as if from sun-feuteuw. The Dat. tw omoiwmati may be taken as instrumental after sum. gegon. (R. V., Weiss), or (I think better), after sun in composition (Thayer's Lex., Meyer), because there is no indirect object expressed and on the former view one must be supplied (as autw, or xristw). We must supply in the apodosis, sumfeutoi tw omoiwmati. The omoiwma here means that which corresponds to the death and resurrection of Christ, i. e. our moral death to sin and resurrection to a holy life (vid. vv. 2, 4), or (dropping the figure) the cessation of the old life and the beginning of the new. If the former occurs, the latter also must take place and thus the objection that if sin makes grace abound we should continue in sin, contradicts the very idea of the Christian life which is that of freedom from sin and continuance in holiness. The interp. of Chrys. is somewhat confused, apparently by not clearly apprehending the fact that Paul is dealing with an analogy to the death and resurrection of Christ.-G. B. S.

5 Verse 6 urges the same thought under the specific figure of the crucifixion of the body. The use of this figure almost necessitates the use of the word body to carry it out. As the one is figurative, so is the other. By swma thj amartiaj is not meant "the body which is sin-or sinful," but the body which is under the sway of sin. In the moral process of the new life the body so far 'as ruled by sin-as being the seat of evil passions and desires-is destroyed in this character. Paul could hardly have employed this figure had he not regarded the body as the special manifestation-point of sin.-G. B. S.

6 The necessity spoken of is clearly, from the context, that of obligation.

7 filoneikian, his determination to take the highest ground, and give up no single point.

8 Or "by sin."

9 opla is most usually arms, secondarily any instruments.

10 aleifei. anoints. Hannibal, before his victory on the Trebia, sent oil round to his battalions to refresh their limbs. Ignibus ante tentoria factis, oleoque per manipulos, ut mollirent artus, misso, et cibo per otium capto, etc. Liv. xxi. 55.

11 The Argument of the vv. 15-23 is briefly this: Does the principle that we are not under the (Mosaic) law lead to lawlessness and sin? No! for, although we are freed from the Mosaic law as such, we are still under the law of righteousness (cf. 1 Cor. ix. 21 "Not being without law to God, but under law to Christ). We are free from the law and free from sin, but are bondsmen to righteousness. See esp. 18. "And being made free from sin, ye became servants of righteousness."-G. B. S.

12 Tit. ii. 12; 1 Tim. i. 10; are instances of a similar use of the term "doctrine." Compare Eph. iv. 19-24, from which context the phrase, "Even as Truth is in Jesus," appears to be used nearly in the same sense.

13 So 4 mss. Sav. and 3 mss. omit "not," but the sense requires it.

14 So Field from one Ms. Vulg. "of our very being,"-ousiaj for osiaj.

15 Or "the pillar" and so in the next line kiwn and kiona for kuwn and kuna.

1 The ground for Paul's speaking "after the manner of men because of the infirmity of their flesh" can hardly be, as Chrys. suggests, because he would only demand for the service of the gospel an earnestness equal to that which they had formerly displayed in sin. The reference to the infirmity of their flesh gives the reason for his manner of speech in illustrating the character of the Christian life, rather than a ground for the moderatehess of his demand. His meaning might be thus expressed: "I am carrying the figure of bondage to its utmost length in applying it to righteousness because I wish to make it clear to you that we are not in a lawless condition, but are still under authority; hence I use the strongest language and press it almost beyond its proper limits in calling our relation to God and righteousness a servitude."-G. B. S.

2 Verse 23 is a confirmation of what he had said in 21, 22 about death and life. They are the results of the two courses spoken of. The servant of sin receives death as his wages. It follows on the principle of desert. Not so, however, on the other side. Respecting eternal life there can be no thought of wages or deserts. There all is grace, And thus Paul closes this refutation of objections by triumphantly maintaining the praise of God's grace in Christ, as he had closed the argument constructed upon the parallel between Adam and Christ (v. 21).-G. B. S.