1 'Enteuqen. If St. Chrys. is rightly reported, he means the second Epistle, which he proceeds to quote from. But that Epistle was plainly not written apo 'Efesou. Perhaps what he said was to this effect: "At this point I suppose it was-viz. after the mission of Timothy and Erastus-that he wrote (his first Epistle) to the Corinthians from Ephesus: and in the second Epistle he alludes to the great trial which ensued in the matter of Demetrius. He had promised to come to Corinth sooner, and excuses himself on the score of the delay." But ta kata Dhmhtrion dihgoumenoj can hardly be meant of St. Paul: it should be ainittomenoj.
2 The use of h odoj without further definition, to represent the Christian religion, is peculiar to the Acts (ix. 2; Acts xix. 9, Acts xix. 23, Acts xxiv. 22). Kuriou or swthriaj would express the omitted defining idea.-G. B. S.
3 #Oraj thn eudokimhsin; This seems to refer to v. 17-20. "But see how successes and trials here, as all along, alternate. Then the Jews contradicted: (v. 9) then miracles, twofold, (11-12 and 13-19): now again (after that eudokimhsij), danger."-Here the mss. and Edd. give v. 24-27, which we have distributed to their proper places.
4 These silver "temple" (/aouj) were shrines, small models of the temple containing images of the goddess, which pilgrims to the temple purchased and carried away and probably used in their homes as objects of domestic worship.-G. B. S.
5 Kai ora koinwnouj ontaj autouj: eita ton kindunon epesthsen (so Cat. C. -san, A. B. epethsen). Mod. text, "But being themselves partners of the craft, he takes them as partners also of the riot. Then also he exaggerated (huchsen) the danger, adding. This our craft is in danger of coming into contempt. For this is pretty nearly what he declares by this, that from this art," etc.
6 oti kaqairwn (Cat. ote ekaqhroun) autwn ta sebasmata, ekei stemmata kai taurouj proseferon: entauqa fhsin oti kinduneuei k. t. l. These seem to be only rough notes or hints of what Chrys. said. The first words kaq. autwn ta seb. look like a reference to Acts xvii. 23, anaqewrwn ta sebasmata umwn: "thus at Athens, surveying the objects of their worship, and finding an Altar, etc. he thence takes occasion to preach the Unknown God. At Lystra, they brought garlands and oxen, and the Apostles thereupon, etc. Therefore these men here might well say, Our craft is in danger. For it was true, as was said on another occasion (at Jerusalem), Ye have filled, etc.: and, They that have turned the world, etc. Nay, of Christ also the Jews said the same, The world is going after Him."
7 Dia rauta met' ecetasewj dei poiein, Mod. text adds panta. This sentence, om. by A., seems to be out of place, and to belong rather to v. 36. We have transposed the text v. 28, 29, which in mss. and Edd. is given after wj pasi prokeisqai.
9 IIrobalonto 'Ioudaioi oikonomikwj de (supplied by Cat.) outoj ouk efqegcato. Mod. text "The Jews thrust him forward, as Providence ordered it, that they might not have (it in their power) to gainsay afterwards. This man is thrust forward, and speaks: and hear what (he says)."
10 Old text: 9Ieron eteron outwj ekeleito-meaning, as we take it, the Palladium of Troy, which was also called "the Diopetes," to IIalladion to Diopetej kaloumenon, Clem. Alex. Protrept. iv. 47.-htoi to ostrakon authj fhsin. Something more is needed, therefore we supply h to agalma authj fhsin. But ieron in this sense is not usual. #Ostrakon, whatever it mean, cannot he the image of Diana, which was known to be of wood. The passage seems to be corrupt, and one might conjecture that ieron eteron relates to "another Temple" of Diana built after the first which was burned by Herostratos, and that the name of this man is latent in the unintelligible htoitoostrakon, and that Chrysostom's remark is this, that together with that former Temple perished the original Diopetes: so that to speak of that image as still in being was a lie (touto yeudoj)-Mod. text "But a different ieron was thus called diopetej: either then the idol of Diana they called Diopetes, wj ek tou Dioj to ostrakon ekei nopeptwkoj, and not made by man: or a different agalma was thus called among them."-Isidore of Pelus. in the Catena: "Some say that it is spoken of the image of Diana, i.e. `(a worshipper) of the great Diana and of her diopetej agalma:0' some that the Palladium also (is here named as diop.), i. e. the image of Minerva, which they worshipped along with Diana." Ammonius ibid., "the naoj tou Dioj: or the strogguloeidej"-meaning the ostrakonj-"or rather, which is the true explanation, this image of Diana: or the Palladium, which they thought came from Jupiter, and was not the work of men." Oecum. gives the same variety of explanations, from the Catena. The words touto yeudoj, which in the mss. follow the text v. 36, 37, are better referred to the Diopetes, as in our translation.-Mod. text ara to pan yeudoj: and then, "these things however he says to the people, in order that those also," etc. omitting de preserved by the old text.
11 This Diapetes, the image which was supposed to have fallen down from Jupiter or heaven (Dioj-piptw), was the image of Diana which was in the great temple at Ephesus. This was the superstitious belief of the people as is clear from the many instances in classic mythology in which statues are famed to have fallen from heaven. This image was of wood and was probably found there by the Greeks when they colonized Ionia.-G. B. S.
12 i. e. In this, he prophesies (see above on this verse): but in his purpose of going to Jerusalem from Achaia, he was disappointed, for he had to return through Macedonia: h proeileto, i. e. this is the meaning of eqeto en pneumati. Mod. text om. ouketi egxronisaj, and adds: "for this is the meaning of eqeto, and such is the force of the expression." Then: "But why he sends away T. and E., the writer does not say: but it seems to me that of this also he says, 'En pneumati. Wherefore when," etc.-The meaning is: "He sends them away on this occasion, as he did at Athens: viz. because he could no longer forbear, therefore he thought it good to be left alone."
15 ekkausai. Erasm. ut et confutaret totum et furorem populi extingueret. Ben. subverteret. ...extingueret. But ekkausai will not bear this sense, nor does the context suggest it. Alexander's object, it is represented, was to overthrow the preaching, and kindle the rage of the people yet more.-Cat. and Svy. marg. elkusai.
17 Mod. text "But, Our city, paying court to them: qerapeuwn autou":" for which the old text has. But, Your city. 'Eqerapeusen authn. Which may mean, Thus he, the town clerk, paid homage to the city, by speaking of its honors. But qerapeuete authn in the preceding sentence requires the sense given in the translation.
19 ou dunhsomeqa old text, here and above, as in the Alexandrine ms. of the N. T. (received by Griesbach) but here with thj sustr. t. transposed. (If the negative be retained, it is better to read teri thj j. t. as in the leading authorities of the text: so that this clause is epexegetical to tepi ou: for which, namely, for this concourse.)
22 C., 'All' ei boulei palin pollouj ecetaswmen topouj: B., 'Alla palin ei boulei eterouj ecet. topouj. Mod. text 'All' ei b., palin eterwj ecet. touj autouj topouj. In the Translation we adopt eterwj and omit topouj.
23 The text is corrupt: kai fricei touj topouj-perhaps it should be touj ekei topouj-entauqa orwn: kaqaper, gar entauqa en desmwthriw tugxanwn outw kakei pro thj krisewj pro thj melloushj hmeraj, sc. fricei. i. e. "just as here, being shut up in prison he looks forward with dread to the coming trial, so will he in that world," etc. Mod. text quite misrepresenting the sense: "For, as he that is here shut up in prison is gentle towards all, so those also before the Judgment, before the coming Day, will be more gentle," etc.
and B. and are now discarded in the leading critical editions. The residence of Timothy is not given, as being well known. It was probably Lystra (Acts xvi. 1).-G. B. S.
2 St. Chrysostom's reading of v. 4 is peculiar, but does not appear in the vv. 11. of N. T. perhaps because the Edd. of Chrys. conform it to the usual text, which is Qessal. de, 'Ar. kai Sek. kai Taij Derbaioj kai Timoqeoj, i. e. two Thessalonians, and beside them Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, etc. But in the preceding chapter, v. 29, a Gaius was mentioned along with Aristarchus, and both as Macedonians. Hence it seems St. Chrys. read it with a stop after Gaioj, of Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus and Gaius. In his remark, be seems to be giving a reason for striking out kai before Timoqeoj: viz. "How does he call Timothy a Thessalonian, (as a negligent reader might suppose to be the case, viz., Of Thess. Ar. and Sec. and Gaius Derbaeus and Timothy?) He does not say this, but, of Thessalonians he mentions three, and then, of Derbe, Timothy, cf. xvi. x., whereas Gaius was not of Derbe, but of Macedonia, xix. 29." The note of Oecumen. on the passage shows that Derbaioj was supposed by some to be a proper name: "Of the rest, he tells us what countries they were of: for Timothy he is content with the name, his personal character was distinction enough, and besides he has already told us where T. came from: viz. xvi. 1. But if Derbaioj here is a noun of nation and not a proper name, perhaps he has here also mentioned his country."
3 Penthkosth, meaning the whole of the seven weeks. The scope of the remark is, Being met for celebration of the Holy Eucharist, which followed the Sermon, and the discourse being lengthened out until midnight, they were fasting all the time (for the Eucharist was taken fasting, see Hom. xxvii. in 1 Cor.): so that, though it was during the weeks after Easter, when there was no fast, and not only so, but the Lord's Day moreover, here was a fast protracted till midnight.
4 That the religious observance of Sunday is here alluded to has been generally assumed. Taken in connection with 1 Cor. xvi. 2 and Rev. i. 10, the passage renders it highly probable that at this time (about a.d. 57) the first day of the week was regularly observed by the Christians in memory of the Lord's resurrection, although it is certain that the Jewish Christians still observed the Jewish Sabbath.-G. B. S.
6 The narrative requires the interpretation of Chrys. that this was a case of restoration to life, not merely of revival from suspended animation (as Olshausen, Ewald, DeWette). This is established by the fact that Eutychus is said to have seen taken up nekroj, not wj nekroj. Moreover to hrqh /ekroj (v. 9) is opposed hgagon zwnta (v. 12). He was dead; they brought him alive. It is true that the apostle says: "His life (soul) is in him," but this is said after he had fallen upon and embraced him, or this may have been said from the standpoint of his confidence of a miraculous restoration, as Jesus said of Jairus' daughter: "The damsel is not dead, but sleepeth," meaning that from his standpoint and in view of his power she still lived, although she was in reality dead.-G. B. S.
8 paideuwn te autouj xwrizesqai autou: but mod. text ama kai paideuwn autouj mhde xwrizesqai autou. After this, old text hair anhxqhmen, fhsin, eij thn Qason evidently confusing this clause of v. 13, with the first of v. 14, then, eita parexontai (for parerx.) thn nhson, followed by v. 15, 16. Mod. tent, v. 15 followed by "See, how Paul being urgent, they put to sea, and lose no time, but parerxontai taj nhsouj," and v. 16.
9 kai touj exqrouj elein (F. eleein) boulouenoj, wishing by this means to overcome (for their good) even those who hated him. Then, ama kai ton logon kaqiei. Mod. text ama espeude ton logon kaqeinai. Mr. Field remarks on Hom. in 1 Cor. p. 553 B. where we have parainesin kaqihsi, that the much more usual expression is, eij ti kaqeinai, and adds: "semel tantum ap. Nostrum reperimus logon kaqeinai, viz. t. ix. p. 236. E."-our passage.
10 all' omwj kateixe ton poqon kai ta ekei katorqoun. The infinitive requires boulomenoj or the like: i.e. "though desirous to get to Jerusalem, he restrained his desire, and made a stay at Troas of seven days, wishing, etc.:" but B. gives the same sense by reading katorqwn, Cat. katwrqon. Mod. text outwj eixe ton poqon kai ta ekei katorqoun.
11 Proj auton ton kairon, arxhn o logoj labwn pareteinen wj endeiknumenoj peinhn: kai ouk hn akairon: ou gar prohgoumenwj eij didaskalian kaqhken. This is evidently mutilated; the verb to o logoj is wanting: wj endeik. peinhn, either "making a display of," or, "pleading as excuse the being hungry," is unintelligible; so is ouk hn ak. Mod. text attempts to make sense by reading: "At the very time w enedeiknuto peinhn, kai ouk hn akairon, arxhn o logoj labwn paretaqh, wste ou prohg."
13 Touto oikonomia legetai eij akrothta kai eij uyoj. "This"-the blameless life and therewith ougkatabasij described in 2 Cor. vi. 3 ff-"is what one may indeed call Oikonomia-managing or dispensing things for the good of others, so that they shall have what is best for them in the best manner, without shocking their prejudices. Oikon., in the moral sense of the word, implies sugkatabasoij, letting one's self down to the level of others for their good. (Hence below, kai ta thj oikonomiaj, kai (ta) tou alhptou biou.) "Talk of `economy0'-here you have it at its very top and summit, in a degree not to be surpassed." Instead of uyoj the context seems to require "the lowest depth." Hence mod. text to eij akrothta einai kai uyouj arethj, kai tapeinofrosunhj sugkatabasewj. Kai akoue pwj o uperbainwn... "the being at the summit both of loftiness of virtue and of lowliness of condescension." In the next sentence St. Paul is described as o uperbainwn ta paraggelmata tou Xristou, namely, the precept "that they which preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel," 1 Cor. ix. 14.
14 Edd. kalwj ge: ou gar touj misqouj apelabon: as if it meant, "And well that it is so: for I have not received my wages-therefore the reward is yet to come: not as it is with those who apexousi ton misqon autwn in this life, Matt. vi. 2 ff." If this were the meaning, the sentence would be out of place; it should be, "He said nothing of the kind, but would rather have repressed such thoughts with the consideration, It is well: for I have not received my wages-they are yet to come." But in fact here as elsewhere the Edd. overlook the ironical interrogation ou gar. Read kalwj ge (ou gar\) touj misqouj ap elabon (or kalouj ge).
16 This clause is evidently misplaced, and moreover requires to be completed. The meaning may be: "So in the highest of all God's saving acts, the mission of the Son; for he that receiveth Him receiveth the Father."
2 Something more ought to follow, but the report is imperfect Mod. text "Others again there are who are not such as these, but who in the case of both characters preserve according to the occasion both the lowly and the high bearing: which thing indeed above all is characteristic of humility. Since then he is about to teach them such things, lest he should seem to be arrogant," etc.
4 Old text dia te ta erga, dia te ton Uion agnoein: kai pistin thn eij ton K. 'I. as if all this were said in explanation of the preceding Oude gar 'Ioudaioi hdesan auton. But dia te ta erga explains the clause thn eij ton Qeon metanoian, which requires to be inserted as in the Translation. Mod. text "both because they were ignorant of the Son, and because of their works, and their not having faith in the Lord Jesus."
5 Chrys. understands "bound in the spirit" to mean constrained by the Holy Spirit (so Theophylact, Beza, Calvin, Wordsworth et al.). The fact that the Holy Spirit is mentioned in the next verse (23) in such a way as to be distinguished apparently from "the spirit" here mentioned, has led most critics to believe that "the spirit" was Paul's own spirit (so Meyer, Lechler, Lange, DeWette, Ewald, Alford, Hackett, Gloag). Dedemenoj should not be taken as meaning bound with chains in prospect, i. e., as seen in his spirit in advance (as Bengel, Conybeare and Howson), but rather constrained, inwardly constrained.-G. B. S.
7 Diplh h paramuqia. The meaning is, "It was his face that they would see no more: he chooses that expression by way of softening matters, implying that in spirit he would be present: and again, all ye, not they only, so that the grief was not peculiar to them:" but this being rather obscure, A. substitutes aqumia, and mod. text Diplh h luph, i. e. "the dejection (or, the sorrow) was twofold, both the being to see his face no more, and the, All of them."
8 Neither of the two ideas which Chrys. draws from v. 25-(a) that though absent in body, he would be present with them in spirit; (b) that the "all" addressed refers to the whole company-comes naturally from the text. The apostle states his firm conviction that he shall not again visit Ephesus. Whether he ever did so or not, we do not know. The probabilities in the case would depend upon the question of a release from his Roman imprisonment. He hoped for such a release and intended to visit Colossae (Philem. 22). On the supposition of such a release and on the consequent supposition of the Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles, a visit after this time to Ephesus becomes very probable. especially since we find the apostle (2 Tim. iv. 13, 2 Tim. iv. 20) at Troas and Miletus.-G.B.S.
10 It is an interesting fact that in this passage where the reading vacillates between Kuriou and qeou, whale the report of the Homily has given us qeou, the citation of the N. T. text favors the reading Kuriou. The great majority of mss. read tou Kuriou: )
and B. have tou qeou (the usual Pauline formula). Many critics hold that Kur. was changed to q. in accordance with Pauline usage in the Epistles. The idea of the "blood of God" is against the reading qeou. Modern critics are nearly equally divided. Alford, Westcott and Hort, read qeou; Meyer, Tischendorf, Kuriou; to us the latter seems decidedly preferable.-G. B. S.
13 #Estai xrhstoj kai megaj anhr. The second epithet, being evidently unsuitable, mod. text xrhstoj anhr kai praoj genhsetai. But perhaps x. a. kai. m. belongs to the next sentence, as an exclamation on v. 22. "A good and great man!" and for malassetai: estai we may read malaxqhsetai.
14 Old text: ina mh kataxwsh autwn thn dianoian, followed by the latter part of v. 27. Tou anaggeilai umin k. t. l. But the connection may also be, "I have not shrunk-of course in due order and proportion" (or something: of that kind) "that he may not overwhelm their minds, from declaring," etc. It might seem, however, from the comment which follows, viz thn peri tou parontoj pragmatoj, that Chrys. is here proposing an interpretation of v. 27 different from what was implied in the first exposition, p. 269, and from that of v. 20: i. e. "painful as it is, I have not shrunk from announcing to you all the counsel of God, to wit, as touching the present matter, my separation from you, so that ye shall see my face no more." But this being very unsatisfactory, it is better to take the connection thus: Nor does he now shrink from declaring to them the whole counsel of God concerning the coming events, and their duty and responsibility therein. (We have therefore placed the mark of an hiatus before this clause.)-Mod. text substitutes, "But what is this (that he adds), `Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things.0' What then," etc.
15 The text is evidently confused or defective here. Mod. text "For that none may fancy it plea enouah for his justification, that he is a disciple while yet he does not yield, therefore having said, I take you to record, he adds, for I have not shunned," etc.
16 St. Chrysostom succeeded Nectarius in the Archbishopric of Constantinople, 26th Feb. Coss. Honorius iv. and Eutychianus a.d. 398. Socrat. vi. 2.-From the following passage :t appears that these Homm. though begun after Easter, perhaps of a.d. 400, extended over a considerable period of time, not being preached every day.-Below, mod, text spoils the sense by altering pikrotera into koufotera.
17 Mod. text inserts a fhsin, and makes the sentence interrogative. "And does this, you will say, profit them nothing nor shield them, that they watch for our souls? But then they watch as they that must give an account: and to some indeed this seems to be terrible." The meaning in general seems to be: "If they perish, yet surely you can comfort yourself with the thought, that you at least are pure from their blood. No, this thought avails nothing to ward off (that sorrow). "Because they watch," etc.-this seems a fearful thing. But if you be lost, it is not the thought of my accountability that gives me most concern-it is the thought of your perishing. Oh! that I might in the last day find you saved though not through me, yea, though I myself thereafter were called to account as not having done my part by you!"
18 9Eterwqen men oudamoqen, apo de twn genomenwn) meaning perhaps, "From what has been done by us in our ministry: we will endeavor to persuade you by reminding you of all our care and pains for our salvation:") ta kaq' umaj panta apolusomeqa. 'Apoluesqai (egklhmata), is frequent in Chrys., often confused with apoduesqai. See Mr. Field's Index and Annotat. in Hom. Matth.
1 The phrase "which is able" (tw dunamenw) may be connected with the word "God," or with "the word of His grace." As standing nearer the latter, this would be the natural construction. So our author has taken it, understanding by "the word of His grace" rather the grace itself than the doctrine concerning it. Most critics have preferred to connect the phrase with tw qew on the ground that it is more appropriate to ascribe the giving of an inheritance among the sanctified directly to God than to His word. (So DeWette, Meyer, Alford, Gloag).-G. B. S.
2 By "the weak" Chrys. evidently understands the physically weak, the sick and poor (see the Recapitulation) and we think correctly as opposed to the "weak in faith." The apostle counsels labor in order to liberality toward the needy. So Olshausen, DeWette, Hackett, Gloag, Alford, vs. Neander, Tholuck, Lechler, Meyer.-G. B. S.
4 Ouk ara en Korinqw touto eirgasanto monon oi diafqeirontej touj maqhtaj k. t. l. One would have expected eirgasato monon, kai oux wj oi d. But the connection, not fully expressed, may be this : "So different from those "grievous wolves not sparing the flock," the false teachers who would make a gain of them! So then" etc.
6 By Syria he seems here to mean the northern parts, about Antioch. "They left Cyprus on the left, but nearer to it than the opposite coast of Syria, because he did not wish to come near that either." Mod. text "This is not said idly, but to show that he did not think fit even to come near it (Cyprus), they sailing straight for Syria." What follows required transposition : the derangement, 2, 1 : 3, 5, 7 : 4, 6, 8.
8 Hom. x. in Matt. E. "But why, you may ask, did he (the Baptist) use a girdle also with his garment? This was a custom with the ancients, before this present soft and dissolute fashion of ours came in. Thus Peter appears girdled, and Paul likewise: as it says, 'The man that owneth this girdle."
9 The meaning of the latter part of v. 16 (agontej par w cenisqwmen Mnaswni tini Kupriw k. t. l.) according to Chrys., is that the disciples from Caesarea conducted Paul to the house of Mnason at Jerusalem where he was to lodge, not (as our Eng. vss.), that they brought with them Mnason on their journey from Caesarea to Jerusalem. The former seems the preferable view as there is nothing in the context to intimate that Mnason was at this time in Caesarea and his residence was evidently Jerusalem. The construction of attraction is also equally well resolved in this way.-G. B. S.