18 Lit., "made captive."

19 For read .

20 No verb is found in the lexicons to which can be referred. It may perhaps be Eshtaphel of a verb , cognate with , "to be bent."

21 For read .

22 Or "moderation."

23 Cureton: "dumb." The word has both senses.

24 Or "penitent."

25 So Dr. Payne Smith, who is inclined to take in the sense, "it goes before, it is best, with respect to it." Cureton translates, "it should also proceed to practice," joining with the participle just mentioned; whereas Dr. Smith connects it with , thus: "but that it should be put in practice is best with respect to it."

26 This appears to show that the life of learned seclusion which he has been recommending is one of celibacy-monasticism.

27 Or, "and thou shalt be to me a comfort," as Cureton.

28 That is, "myself."

29 Such appears to be the sense of their obscure passage. The literal rendering is, "We acknowledged of old that we received equal love and honour to the fullest extent from her multitude" (or, from her greatness); "but the time forbade our completing those things which were already accomplished in our mind." What things he refers to (for his words seem to have a particular reference) is not clera. The word rendered "greatness," or "multitude," is in reality two words in pointed MSS. Here it does not appear, except from the sense, which is intended.

30 Lit., "We are putting ourself to the proof to see how far we can stand in wisdom," etc.

31 "This is a very hopeless passage. . . . Perhaps the codex has , `the kingdom of our ruin,0' i.e., the ruined contry in which we used to dwell. For possibly it refers to what he has said before about the ruined greatness of his city, captured by the Romans. I suppose Mara was a Persian."-Dr. Payne Smith.

32 Or, "the time."

1 This piece has much in common with the Discourse to the Greeks (Lo/goj pro=s \Ellhnaj), ascribed by many to Justin, which is contained in vol. i. pp. 271-272 of this series. Two things seem to be evident: (1) That neither of the two pieces is the original composition: for each contains something not found in the other; (2) That the original was in Greek: for the Syriac has in some instances evidently mistranslated the Greek.

2 The Greek u0pomne/mata.

3 Lit., "and in the beginning of his words."

4 Lit. "what is the newness and strangeness of it."

5 The word also means "sin;" and this notion is the more prominent of the two in what follows.

6 It is diffficult to assign any satisfactory meaning to the word , which appears, however, to be the reading of the MS., since Cureton endeavours to justify the rendering given. "Calamities," a sense the word will also bear, seems no easier of explanation. If we could assume the meaning to be "nations" (nationes), a word similar in sound to that found in the text, explaining it of heathen peoples, Gentiles (comp. Tertullian, De Idol., 22, "per deos nationum"), this might seem to meet the difficulty. But there is no trace in this composition of a Latin influence: if a foreign word must be used, we should rather have expected the Greek e!qnh.

7 Il., ii. 177 sq.

8 Lit., "they say."

9 It has been proposed to substitute in the Greek copy lipapou= "dainty," for leprou=. But the Syriac confirms the MS. reading. The term is thought to be expressive of the contempt in which shepherds were held. Se vol. i. p. 271, note 1.

10 In the Greek this is adduced as an evidence of his weakness; "because he was unable to stop his ears by his self-control (fronh/sei)."

11 , the reading of the text, which can only mean "fled," is manifestly incorrect. The Aphel of this verb, , "caused to flee," is suggested by Dr. Payne Smith, who also proposes , "exstirpavit."

12 Or, "your heroes."

13 This is not intended as a translation of , which is literally "conquered." Dr. Payne Smith thinks it just possible that there was in the Greek some derivative of u0perba/llw = "to surpass belief," which the Syrian translator misunderstood.

14 This is conjectured to be the meaning of what would be literally rendered, "et id quod coactum est."

15 Lit., "of how many cnesures is . . . full."

16 Since he could change his form to suit his purpose.

17 That is, "the Daughter" (namely, of Demeter), the name under which Proserpine was worshipped in Attica.

18 Because the beahaviour of which he had to complain was sanctioned by the highest of the gods.

19 For , "was tried," read . The Greek has memi/shto. Cureton: "forgotten."

20 The word is "Balthi."

21 Dr. Payne Smith reads instead of , word which, as Cureton says, is not in the lexicons.

22 The reading of the Greek copy, a0kola/stwj zw=san, is here given. The Syrian adapter, misunderstanding a0kola/stwj, renders: "and is without punishment."

23 Cureton, "break."

24 Lit. "look at."

25 So in the Greek copy. The Syriac, which as "valiant,"appears to have mistaken a!nandroi for a0ndrei=oi.

26 The tradition seesm to be followed which makes Procne to have been changed into a swallow, and her sister (Philomela) into a nightingale.

27 Cureton: "play with a tremulous motion." But the Syriac very well answers to the Greek e0kkalou/menoi pro=j oi0strw/deij kinh/seij, if we take to denote result: q.d., "so as to produce movement."

28 Greek, e0kbakxeuo/menoi.

29 Lit. "bed of falsity." [Compare notes on vol. i. pp. 271, 272.]

30 For previous quotations refer to p. 721, supra.

31 It must not be inferred that I speak as a Syriac scholar. I have laboured unsuccessfully, and late in life, to repair my sad neglect at an earlier period; and I can speak only as a penitent.

32 Dean Payne Smith has assumed the unfinished task of Bernstein.

33 See his Preface to the Testament, published at Hamburg a.d. 1664. He had the type cut at his personal expense, and set up the press and lodged the printers in his own house.

34 See his translation of the Peshito Syriac version, Stanford & Swords (Bishop Hobart's publishers), New York, 1855.