38 Multo magis is the reading of the mss.; but multo minus-"much less"-seems preferable.

39 Liable to fall, perishable.

40 According to St. Paul, man consists of three parts-body, soul and spirit. Lactantius appears to use the word soul in the same sense in which the Scriptures speak of spirit. [Vol. i. p. 532.]

41 Tenuis, as applied to the soul, opposed to solidus, applied to the body.

42 There is a memorable story related by ecclesiastical historians, about a very clever disputant, whose sophistries could not be answered by his fellow-disputants, but who was completely silenced by the simple answers of a Christian otherwise unknown. When questioned about his sudden silence, the sophist replied that others exchanged words for words, but that this simple Christian fought with virtue.

43 There seems to be a reference to a passage of Terence, in which the poet represents it as the property of man to err. [Or to Cicero, rather: Cujusvis hominis est errare, etc. Philipp. xii. 2.]

44 Cicero, De Officiis, ii. 2.

45 Ars denotes study, method, or system. The word is applied both to theoretical knowledge and practical skill.

46 A proverbial expression, denoting an accidental occurrence.

47 Book v. 6.

48 Book v. 51.

49 Ch. ii.

50 The allusion is to the punishment of parricides, who were sewed into a bag with an ape, a serpent, and a cock, and thus thrown into the sea.

51 If any one has approached her as a learner.

52 Marcus Antonius, who was consul with C. Caesar in the year when Caesar was assassinated. It was against Antonius that Cicero wrote those speeches full of invectives, which, in imitation of Demosthenes, he named Philippics.

53 This point is discussed by Cicero in his Academic questions.

54 [Advice which he took to heart as a swinish debauchee.]

55 Than-that no one knows anything.

56 Sallust as a writer abounds in denunciations of vice. But see book ii. cap. 13, note 4, p. 62, supra.]

57 Indicium sui professos putes; others read judicium, "you would think that they were passing sentence on themselves."

58 Tituli, "titles."

59 Augustine in many places expresses his opinion that the Cynics were so called from their immodesty. Others suppose that the name was given to them on account of their snarling propensity.

60 [See p. 83, note 2, and p. 84, 1.]

61 Lactantius must be understood as speaking of that kind of philosophy which teaches errors and deceits, as St. Paul speaks, Col. ii. 8: "Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit."

62 Lucretius, v. 336.

63 Persius, Sat., vi 38.

64 [The force of the poet's satire is in this petty merchandise.]

65 [See Plato's remark upon what he calls this disease, De Leg., x., finely expounded in Plato cont. Atheos (note ix. p. 114) by Tayler Lewis.]

66 There is another reading, "adversus parentes impio," "to the son whose conduct to his parents is unnatural."

67 Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, ii. 1101, Munro.

68 [This age is favoured with a reproduction of these absurdities; and what has happened in consequence before, will be repeated now.]

69 See Lucretius, book ii.

70 [See vol. ii. p. 465, the whole of 14th chapter.]

71 Lucretius, iii. 1056.

72 The reading of the text, which appears to be the true one, is "quo nos etiamnum sumus." There is another reading, "quo et nos jam non sumus." This latter reading would be in accordance with the sentiment of Epicurus, which is totally opposed to the view taken by Lactantius.

73 [For his pious talk, however, see T. Lewis, Plato, etc., p. 258.]

74 [These operations of the unbelieving mind have appeared in our day in the Communisme of Paris. They already threaten the American Republic, the mass of the population being undisciplined in moral principle, and our lawgivers as well.]

75 Cleanthes was a Stoic philosopher, who used to draw water by night for his support, that he might devote himself to the study of philosophy by day. He ended his life by refusing to take food.

76 Chrysippus was a disciple of Zeno, and, after Cleanthes, the chief of the Stoic sect. According to some accounts, he died front an excessive draught of wine; according to others, from excessive laughter.

77 Zeno, the chief of the Stoic sect. He is said to have died from suffocation.

78 Empedocles was a philosopher and poet. There are various accounts of his death; that mentioned in the text is usually received.

79 There are various accounts respecting the death of Democritus.