22 Ex. xx. 13, 14.

23 Or, "corrupt boys," as in the version of Apostolic Constitutions.

24 Ex. xx. 15.

25 Comp. Ex. xxi. 22, 23. The Codex reads gennhqe/nta, which Schaff renders "the new-born child." Bryennios substitutes gennhqe/n, which is accepted by most editors, and rendered as above.

26 Ex. xx. 17.

27 Matt. v. 34.

28 Ex. xx. 16.

29 Rendered "nor shalt thou be mindful of injuries" in version of Apostolic Constitutions.

30 So Barnabas, xix.

31 Verse 5, except the first clause, occurs only here.

32 Latter half of verse 6 in Barnabas, xix.

33 Lev. xix. 17; Apostolic Constitutions.

34 Or, "soul." The last part of the clause is found in Barnabas; but "and concerning some...pray, and some" has no parallel. An interesting verse in its literary history.

35 About one-half of the matter of this chapter is to be found, in well-nigh the same order, scattered through Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 6-8. The precepts are aimed at minor sins, and require no particular comment. This chapter has the largest number of Greek words not found in the New Testament.

36 The address "my child" does not occur in the parallel passages.

37 Matt. v. 5.

38 Isa. lxvi. 2, 5; Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 8.

39 Comp.Luke xviii. 14.

40 Ecclus. ii. 4. So Bryennios. Comp. last part of Apostolic Constitutions vii. 8.

41 This chapter, with the exception of a few clauses and words, is found in Apostolic Constitutions. vii. 9-17. There are verbal variations, but the order is exact. In Barnabas not so much of the matter is found. There is, however, even greater verbal agreement in many cases, though the order is quite different. Two important clauses (verses 8, 14) find an exact parallel only in Barnabas. One phrase is peculiar to the Teaching; see ver. 14.

42 Comp. Heb. xiii. 7. In Apostolic Constitutions there is a transposition of words.

43 Schaff: "The Lordship is spoken of." Apostolic Constitutions, "where the doctrine concerning God is," etc.

44 Or, "acquiesce in" (Apostolic Constitutions).

45 Some read poqh/seij, "make," as in Apostolic Constitutions and Barnabas, instead of poqh/soij, Codex.

46 Comp. Ecclus. i. 28. The verse occurs in Barnabas; and in Apostolic Constitutions "in thy prayer" is inserted, which is probably the sense here.

47 Ecclus. iv. 31. The Greek word suspw=n occurs here and in Barnabas, but not in Apostolic Constitutions.

48 Apostolic Constitutions adds, in explanation, Prov. xvi. 6.

49 Comp. Acts iv. 32; Rom. xv. 27. The latter half of the verse is in Barnabas (not in Apostolic Constitutions), but with the substitution of "incorruptible" and "corruptible."

50 Comp. Eph. vi. 4.

51 Comp. Eph. vi. 9; Col. iv. 1.

52 Codex reads "our;" editors correct to "your."

53 Comp. Eph. vi. 5; Col. iii. 22.

54 Deut. xii. 32.

55 "In the congregation;" i.e., assembly of believers. This phrase is omitted in both Barnabas and Apostolic Constitutions. Comp. Jas. v. 16.

56 Or, "to thy place of prayer" (Schaff).

57 So Barnabas; but Apostolic Constitutions, "in the day of thy bitterness."

58 So Apostolic Constitutions; but Barnabas, "the way of light." See note on chap. i. 1.

59 This chapter finds nearly exact parallels in Barnabas, xx., and Apostolic Constitutions. vii. 18, but with curious variations.

60 Barnabas has "darkness" but afterwards "way of eternal death."

61 Not in Apostolic Constitutions, and no exact parallel in Barnabas.

62 Of the twenty-two sins named in this verse, Barnabas gives fourteen, in differing order, and in the singular; Apostolic Constitutions gives all but one (uyoj, "loftiness" "haughtiness"), in the same order, and with the same change from plural to singular.

63 This verse appears almost word for word in Barnabas, with two additional clauses.

64 The Apostolic Constitutions give a parallel from this point; verbally exact from the phrase, "not for that which is good."

65 The word panqamarthtoi occurs only here, and in the parallel passage in Barnabas (rendered in this edition "who are in every respect transgressors," vol. i. p. 149), and in Apostolic Constitutions (rendered "full of sin"). A similar term occurs in the recently recovered portion of 2 Clement, xviii., where Bishop Lightfoot renders, as above, "an utter sinner."

66 Found verbatim in Apostolic Constitutions, not in Barnabas: with the latter there is no further parallel, except a few phrases in chap. xvi. 2, 3 (which see).

67 Of this chapter, two phrases and one entire clause are found in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 19-21.

68 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 4 (Greek); Revised Version, "lead you astray:'" Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 19.

69 Or, "the whole yoke." Those who accept the Jewish-Christian authorship refer this to the ceremonial law. It seems quite as likely to mean ascetic regulations. Of these there are many traces, even in the New-Testament churches.

70 Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 20, begins with a similar phrase, but is explicitly against asceticism in this respect. The precepts here do not indicate any such spirit as that opposed by Paul.

71 Comp. Acts xv. 20, 29; 1 Cor. viii. 4, etc., x. 18, etc. (Rom. xiv. 20 refers to ascetic abstinence.) This prohibition had a necessary permanence; comp. Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 21.

72 Comp. the same phrase in 2 Clement, iii. This chapter closes the first part of the Teaching, that supposed to be intended for catechumens. The absence of doctrinal statement does not necessarily prove the existence of a circle of Gentile Christians where the Pauline theology was unknown. If such a circle existed, emphasizing the ethical side of Christianity to the exclusion of its doctrinal basis, it disappeared very soon. From the nature of the case, that kind of Christianity is intellectually weak and necessarily short-lived.

73 Verse 1 is found, well-nigh entire, in Apostolic Constitutions vii. 22, but besides this only a few words of verses 2 and 4. The chapter has naturally called out much discussion as to the mode of baptism.

74 [Elucidation I.]

75 Matt. xxviii. 19.

76 Probably running water.

77 The previous verses point to immersion; this permits pouring in certain cases, which indicates that this mode was not unknown. The trine application of the water, and its being poured on the head, are both significant.

78 The fasting of the baptized is enjoined in Apostolic Constitutions, but that of the baptizer (and others) is peculiar to this document.

79 The entire chapter is found almost verbatim in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 23, 24.

80 Comp. Matt. vi. 16.

81 The reasons for fasting on Wednesday and Friday are given in Apostolic Constitutions (the days of betrayal and of burial). Monday and Thursday were the Jewish fast-days. The word "Preparation" (day before the Jewish sabbath) occurs in Matt. xxvii. 62, etc., and for some time retained a place in Christian literature.

82 Matt. vi. 5, 9-13. This form of the Lord's Prayer is evidently cited from Matthew, not from Luke. The textual variations are slight. The citation is of importance as proving that the writer used this Gospel, and that the liturgical use of the Lord's Prayer was common.

83 On this phrase, comp. Revised Version, Matt. vi. 11; Luke xi. 3 (text, margin, and American appendix).

84 The variation in the form of the doxology confirms the judgment of textual criticism, which omits it in Matt. vi. 13. All early liturgical literature tends in the same direction; comp. Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 24.

85 This is in accordance with Jewish usage. Dan. vi. 10; Ps. lv. 17. Comp. Acts iii. 1, x. 9.

86 The eucharistic prayers of this and the following chapter are only partially reproduced in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 25, 26; that of verse 2 has no parallel.

87 This is a variation from the order of the New Testament and of all liturgies: probably this led to its omission in Apostolic Constitutions. The word "for" may be substituted for "concerning" here and in verse 3. [Possibly a response for recipients.]

88 Peculiar to this passage, but derived from a common scriptural figure and from the paschal formula. Comp. especially John xv. 1; Matt. xxvi. 29; Mark xiv. 25.

89 The word kla/sma is found in the accounts of the feeding of the multitude (Matt. xiv. 20, xv. 37, and parallels); it was naturally applied to the broken bread of the Eucharist.

90 This reference to "hills," or "mountains," is used as an argument against the Egyptian origin of the Teaching.

91 This part of the verse is found in Apostolic Constitutions. Schaff properly calls attention to the distinction here made between "Thy Church" and "Thy kingdom."

92 Matt. vii. 6.

93 This post-communion thanksgiving is found in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 26, but with many omissions, alterations, and additions. Still, the correspondence in thought and language is very remarkable. Schaff cites a similar prayer at the Passover (after the Hallel cup).

94 "After the participation" (Apostolic Constitutions) points to a distinct Eucharistic service. Here the Lord's Supper is evidently connected with the Agape [a noteworthy suggestion]; comp. 1 Cor. xi. 20-22, 33. This is an evidence of early date; comp. Justin Martyr, Apol. i. chaps. 64-66, where the Lord's Supper is shown to be distinct (Ante-Nicene Fathers, i. pp. 185, 186).

95 This last clause has no parallel in Apostolic Constitutions, and points to an earlier and more spiritual conception of the Eucharist. Verse 4 also is peculiar to this passage.

96 The above rendering follows Bryennios; that of Harnack (formerly accepted by Hall and Napier) is: "Gather it, sanctified, from the four winds, into Thy kingdom," etc. The phrase "from the four winds" recalls Matt. xxiv. 31.

97 This is peculiar; but comp. 1 Cor. vii. 31 for the last clause.