1 Fifth. Sixth.-Vat. [Here is a probable reference to canonical hours, borrowed from apostolic usage (Acts iii. 1), but not reflected in written constitutions in Clement's day.]

2 [Compare Cyprian's Life and Martydom, by Pontius the deacon (sec. 16). This is doubtless a picture of the bishop's cathedra in the days of Pius, but, for the times of the Pauline Hermas, a probably anachronism.]

3 [Ezek. i. 28.]

4 [Ezek. i. 28.]

5 My elders. Perhaps the translation should be: the presbyters. [No doubt; for here also is a refernce to canon law. See Apost. Constitutions (so called), book ii. sec. vii. 57.]

6 [Heb. xi. 30, 37]

7 [Rev. xi. 1.]

8 [Rev. xxi. 16.]

9 [1 Kings vi. 7; 1 Pet. ii. 4-8. The apostle interprets his own name,-shows Christ to be the Rock, himself a stone laid upon the foundation, by which also all believers are made lively stones, like the original Cephas.]

10 Others had been made too short, not in Vat.

11 That... glory. And that they may be made more joyful, and, hearing this, may greatly glorify the Lord.-Vat.

12 [2 Cor. xii. 1-11. The apostle is ashamed to glory in revelations, and this seems to be the reference.]

13 God. Lord.-Vat.

14 I said to you before, that you were cunning, diligently inquiring in regard to the Scriptures.-Vat. You are cunning in regard to the Scriptures.-Lips. In some of the mss.. of the common Latin version, "structures" is read instead of "Scriptures."

15 The Lord. God.-Vat. [1 Pet. iii. 20; Eph. v. 26. Both these texts seem in the author's mind, but perhaps, also Num. xxiv. 6, 7.]

16 The building. When therefore the building of the tower is finished, all.-Vat.

17 Not because you are better. Are you better?-Vat. [See note 8, preceding chapter.]

18 [1 Cor. xv. 6, 18.]

19 [Phil. ii. 2, iii. 16; 1 Thess v. 13.]

20 Are those. They are those who have alreay fallen asleep, and who suffered.-Vat.

21 Cast away. Placed near the tower.-Vat.

22 [Heb. vi. 6-8; xii. 17.]

23 [Heb. x. 25. Barnabas (cap. iv.) reproves the same fault, almost as if directing his words against anchorites, vol. i. p. 139, this series.]

24 [Matt. xiii. 21.]

25 Use... God. Then will they be of use for the building of the Lord.-Vat. [1 Cor. iii. 9-15But, instead of circumscribed, let us read circumcised (with the Latin): with reference to the circumcision of wealth (of trees under the law, Lev. xix. 23), Luke xi. 41. The Greek of Hermas is o#tan perikoph=| au0tw=n o9 plou=toj.]

26 For... stones. For you yourself were also one of these stones.-Vat.

27 [Heb. iii. 12, vi. 8.]

28 The words "draw back" are represented in Greek by the word elsewhere translated "repent;" metanoei=n is thus used for a change of mind, either from evil to good, or good to evil.

29 [Perhaps the earliest reference to the penitential discipline which was developed after the Nicene Council, and to the separation of the Flentes and others from the faithful, in public worship. But compare Irenaeus (vol. i. p. 335, this series), who refers to this discipline; also Apost. Constitutions, book ii. cap. 39. I prefer in this chapter Wake's rendering; and see Bingham, book xviii. cap. 1.]

30 [Greek, r0h=ma not lo/goj. To translate this as if it referred to the Word (St. John i. i) is a great mistake. (Heb. xi. 3). Compare Wake's rendering. It seems a refernece to the audientes, seperated from the faithful, but admitted to hear the Word. See Bingham, and Apost. Constit., as above.]

31 [Salvation is ascribed to faith; and works of faith follow after, being faith in action.]

32 [Girded rather, the loins compressed.]

33 [Their mother is Faith (ut supra), and works of faith are here represented as deriving their value from faith only.]

34 Regulated. They have equal powers, but their powers are connected with each other.-Vat.

35 [Appearently for fasting, and to wait for the appearance of the interpreter, in cap. x.]

36 The Lord. God.-Vat. [See Hos. x. 12.]

37 Or, that ye may be justified and sanctified.

38 I have translated the Vat. Reading here. The Greek seems to mean, "Do not partake of God's creatures alone by way of mere relish." The Pal. Has, "Do not partake of God's creatures alone joylessly, in a way calculated to defeat enjoyment of them."

39 [Jas. v. 1-4.]

40 Those that love the first seats, omitted in Aeth. [Greek, toi=j prohgoume/noij th=j e1kklhsi/aj kai\ toi=j prwtokaqedri/taij. Hermas seems, purposely, colourless as to technical distinctions in the clergy; giving a more primitive cast to his fiction, by this feature. Matt. xxiii. 6; Mark xii. 39; Luke xi. 43, xx. 46.]

41 [Rom. ii. 21; 1 Thess. v. 13.]

42 [Heb. xiii. 17.]

43 Fast. Believe.-Pal.

44 Literally, "stronger," and therefore more injurious to the body.

45 How long. Ye are not senseless.-Vat. [Matt. xvii. 17; Luke xxiv. 25.]

46 [1 Pet. v. 7.]

47 His spirit ... renewed. He is freed from his former sorrows.-Vat.

48 The Lord. God.-Vat.

49 Shape ... beautiful. Her countenance was serene.-Vat.

50 [As Dupin suggest of The Shepherd, generally, one may feel that these "revelations" would be better without the symbolical part.]

1 [This address to "brethren" sustains the form of the primitive prophesyings, in the congregation.]