178 Gen. xviii. 1, 2.

179 Gen. xix. 27, 28; "and so on" inserted probably not by Justin, buy by some copyist, as is evident from succeeding words.

180 Some, "besides;" but probably as above.

181 Or, "going away, departed."

182 Gen. xviii. 10.

183 Gen. xxi. 9-12.

184 Or, "Messenger." [The "Jehovah-angel" of the Pentateuch, passim.] In the various passages in which Justin assigns the reason for Christ being called angel or messenger, Justin uses also the verb aggeloj, to convey messages, to announce. The similarity between aggeloj and aggellw cannot be retained in English, and therefore the point of Justin's remarks is lost to the English reader.

185 Some supply, "or said."

186 Gen. xix. 23.

187 Or, "We must of necessity think, that besides the one of the two angels who came down to Sodom, and whom the Scripture by Moses calls Lord, God Himself appeared to Abraham."

188 This passage is rather confused: the translation is necessarily free, but, it is believed, correct. Justin's friend wishes to make out that two distinct individuals are called Lord or God in the narrative.

189 Ps. cx. 1.

190 Ps. xlv. 6, 7.

191 [Note again the fidelity of Justin to this principle, and the fact that in no other way could a Jew be persuaded to listen to a Christian. Acts xvii. 11.]

192 Gen. xviii. 13, 14.

193 Gen. xviii. 16, 17.

194 Literally, "is multiplied."

195 Gen. xviii. 20-23.

196 Comp. Note 2, p. 223.

197 Gen. xviii. 33, xix. 1.

198 Gen. xix. 10.

199 Literally, "I have admired thy face."

200 Gen. xix. 16-25.

201 Literally, "hear."

202 Literally, "for this sake." [Note here and elsewhere the primitive rule as to the duty of all men to search the Scriptures.]

203 Or, "speak otherwise."

204 Literally, "in the place of God."

205 Gen. xxxi. 10-13.

206 Some read, "a man."

207 Literally, "the face of God."

208 Gen. xxxii. 22-30.

209 Gen. xxxv. 6-10.

210 Or, "Beersheba."

211 So, LXX. and N.T.; Heb. "Haran."

212 Literally, "was set up."

213 Gen. xxviii. 10-19. [Oulamlouz. Sept. Luz Eng.]

214 Some conjecture "Jacob," others insert "Jacob" after "Isaac." [Gen. xxii. The Jehovah-angel was seen no doubt by Isaac, as well as by his father.]

215 Ex. ii. 23.

216 Ex. iii. 16.

217 Ex. iii. 2-4.

218 Gen. xxxv. 7.

219 Literally, "judgment."

220 Or, "in the beginning, before all creatures." [Justin's reference to Joshua (i. 13-15) deserves special consideration; for he supposes that the true Joshua (Jesus) was the substance, and the true "captain of salvation," of whom this one was but a shadow (Heb. iv. 8, margin), type, and pledge. See cap. lxii.]

221 The act of will or volition is on the part of the Father.

222 Or, "Do we not see," etc.

223 The word logoj, translated "word," means both the thinking power or reason which produces ideas and the expression of these ideas. And Justin passes here from the one meaning to the other. When we utter a thought, the utterance of it does not diminish the power of thought in us, though in one sense the thought has gone away from us.

224 The mss. of Justin read "sleeping," but this is regarded as the mistake of some careless transcriber.

225 Prov. viii. 21 ff.

226 Justin, since he is of opinion that the Word is the beginning of the universe, thinks that by these words, "in the beginning," Moses indicated the Word, like many other writers. Hence also he says in Ap. i. 23, that Moses declares the Word "to be begotten first by God." If this explanation does not satisfy, read, "with regard to Him whom I have pointed out" (Maranus).

227 Gen. i. 26, 28.

228 Gen. iii. 22.

229 Heresy or sect.

230 Or, "among us." Maranus pronounces against this latter reading for the following reasons: (1.) The Jews had their own heresies which supplied many things to the Christian heresies, especially to Menander and Saturninus. (2.) The sect which Justin here refutes was of opinion that God spoke to angels. But those angels, as Menander and Saturninus invented, "exhorted themselves, saying, Let us make," etc. (3.) The expression didaskaloi suits the rabbins well. So Justin frequently calls them. (4.) Those teachers seem for no other cause to have put the words in the angels' mouths than to eradicate the testimony by which they proved divine persons.

231 Josh. v. 13 ad fin., and vi. 1, 2.