1 'All' oude touto ou gar, k. t. l. This seems to refer to eusebeia "but not by our holiness any more than by our own power." The modern text: Oude touto hmeteron, fhsin ou gar, k. t. l. "Not even this is our own, he says; for not," etc.
2 or, Child, ton paida. Oecumen. seems to have considered this as a lowly title, for he says: "And of Christ he speaks lowly, tw prosqeinai, ton Paida." But to this remark he adds, "For that which in itself is glorified, can receive no addition of glory."-Below kaqwj en tw prooimiw may refer to the prefatory. matter (after the citation from Joel) of the sermon in ch. ii.: see below, in the Recapitulation, whence we might here supply, anwterw elegen, "Ihsoun ton Naz. k. t. l." "As in the opening address [above, he said: `Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God,0' etc.]." Or, "like as in the opening words of this discourse he speaks in lowly manner of themselves." Oecumen. "He still keeps to lowlier matters, both as to themselves, and as to Christ. As to themselves, in saying that not by their own power they wrought the miracle. As to Christ," etc.
3 h deutera etera, A. b.c. (N. om. h) Cat. Namely, the first, "Ye did it ignorantly, as did also your rulers." The second, "It was ordered by the counsel of God:" as below, "And he puts this by way of apology," etc. The Edd. have adopted the absurd innovation, "`Through ignorance ye did it:0' this is one ground of excuse: the second is, `As did also your rulers:0'" E. F. D.
5 Polemoij attested by Cat. and Oec. but A. has ponoij, E. and Edd. kakoij. In the following sentence, Proj gar ton kausoumenon kai paramuqian epizhtounta outoj an armoseien o logoj, B. and Oec. read klausomenon, C. F. D. N. klausoumenon, ("to him that shall weep,") A. kausamenon, Cat. kausoumenon, the true reading. The scribes did not perceive that Chr. is commenting on the word anayucewj, "refrigeration," as implying a condition of burning: hence the alteration, klausomenon, or in the "Doric" form (Aristoph.) klausoumenon. E. and Edd. Dio kai outwj eipen eiswj oti proj ton pasxonta kai paramuq. zhtounta k. t. l. "Wherefore also he speaks thus, knowing that it is to the case of one who is suffering," etc.-In the text here commented upon, opwj an elqwsi kairoi anay., E. V. makes opwj an temporal, "When the times of refreshing," etc. But here and elsewhere in the N. T. Matt. vi. 5; Luke ii. 35; Acts xv. 17; Rom. iii. 4; the correct usage is observed, according to which, opwj an is nearly equivalent to "so (shall);" i. e. "that (opwj) they may come, as in the event of your repentance (an) they certainly shall." And so Chrys. took the passage: Eita to kerdoj epagei #Opwj k. t. l. "Then he adds the gain: So shall the times," etc.
9 Tewj kataskeuazei oti autoi epoihsan to qauma. i. e. "by saying, Why marvel ye? he makes this good at the very outset: You see that a miracle has been wrought, and by us (as the instruments), not by some other man (this is the force of the autoi here). This he will not allow them to doubt for a moment: he forestalls their judgment on the matter: you see that it is done by us, and you are inclined to think it was by our own power or holiness," etc. There is no need to insert the negative, oti ouk autoi: Erasm. and Ben. Lat.
10 Peter sharpens his accusation of them by the following contrasts: (1) This healing at which you wonder is to the glory of Christ, not of us. (2) God has glorified whom you have betrayed and denied. (3) This you did though Pilate himself would have released him. (4) You preferred to kill the holy and just one and let a murderer go free. (5) You sought to put to death the Author of Life. Vv. 12-15.-G. B. S.
11 The meaning of the following passage is plain enough, but the innovator has so altered it as to make it unintelligible. Yet the Edd. adopt his reading (E. D. F.) without notice of the other and genuine reading. "And yet if it was h eij auton pistij that did all, and that (oti) it was eij auton that the man believed, why did (Peter) say, not Dia tou onomatoj, but 'En tw onomati>\/ Because they did not yet," etc.
12 E. has oti ugihj esthken after ouk hdesan instead of after touto hdesan. So Commel. Erasm. Ed. Par. Hence D. F. have it in both places, and so Morel. Ben. All these omit oti before en tw on. "And yet in His name they knew not that he stands whole: but this they knew, that he was lame, (that he stands whole)." Savile alone has retained the genuine reading.
14 There is one extenuating circumstance: they did it in ignorance (Cf. Luk. xxiii. 34; 1 Cor. ii. 8; Acts xiii. 27). This fact forms the transition-point to the presentation of a different side of the death of Jesus. It was their crime, but it was also God's plan. They did it from motives of blindness and hate, but God designed it for their salvation. So that Peter, in effect, says: There is hope for you although you have slain the Lord, for his sacrificial death is the ground of salvation. To this view of the death of Christ he now appeals as basis of hope and a motive to repentance (oun v. 19).-G. B. S.
15 megalhn deiknusi thn boulhn, meaning the determinate counsel of God above spoken of. Above, after kai palin, some other citation is wanting, in illustration of his remark that the prophecies of the Passion are all accompanied with denunciations of punishment.
16 h gar kata agnoian, h kata oikonomian. Edd. omit this interlocution, Sav. notes it in the margin. "Repent ye therefore." Why repent? for either it was through ignorance, or it was predestinated. (Nevertheless, you must repent, to the blotting out of your sins, etc.)
17 touto monon, b.c. N. "this is all:" i. e. no more than this: he does not impute that one great sin to them, in all its heinousness: he only speaks of their sins in general. A. and the other mss. omit these words.
18 The reference is hardly to the resurrection, but to the Parousia. To the hope of this event, always viewed as imminent, all the expressions: "times of refreshing," "times of restitution" and "these days" (vv. 19-24) undoubtedly refer. So Olshansen, Meyer, Alford, Hackett, Gloag, Lechler and most recent critics.-G. B. S.
19 The modern text; "Saying this, he does not declare, Whence, but only adds," etc.-'Akmhn decasqai. Ben. Utique suscipere. Erasm. adhuc accipere. It means, Is this still to take place, that he should say on dei decasqai, as if the event were yet future? And he answer is, "He speaks in reference to former times, i. e. from that point of view. (So Oecumen. in loc. to dei anti tou edei.) And then as to the necessity; this dei is not meant in respect of Christ's Divine Nature (for of that he forbears to speak), but the meaning is, So it is ordered," etc. The report, however, is very defective, especially in what follows. He is commenting upon the words, "Until the time of restitution (or making good) of all that God spake," etc. pantwn wn elalhsen o Qeoj, which expression he compares with what is said of the Prophet like unto Moses, pantwn osa an lalhsn. Christ is that Prophet: and what He spake, the Prophets, obscurely indeed, spake before. He adds, that Peter's mention of the yet future fulfilment of all that the Prophets have spoken is calculated also to alarm the hearers. See the further comment on these verses at the end of the recapitulation.
20 Ou ouden newteron. Meaning perhaps, that as Christ was from the first designed for the Jews, the Gospel is no novelty, as if nothing had been heard of such a Saviour before. E. D. F. wste ouden newteron, which is placed before the citation ton prokex.-Below, A. b.c. N. 'Eplhrwsen a edei paqein\ 'Eplhrwqh a dei genesqai exrhn oudepw, which is manifestly corrupt. We restore it thus: 'Eplhrwsen; #A edei paqein eplhrwqh, a de genesqai exrhn oudepw. The modern text: 'Eplhrwsen a edei paqein\ 'Eplhrwsen, eipen, ouk eplhrwqh deiknuj oti a men exrhn paqein, eplhrwsen a de (deoi add. F. D.) genesqai leipetai eti, oudepw.
21 C. N. Ou gar dh kata Mwsea hn, ei gar paj o mh ak. ecoloqreuqhsetai, muria de eipen ta deiknunta oti ouk esti kata Mwsea. B. omits ou gar . ...hn, inadvertently passing from hn ou gar to the subsequent hn ei gar. A. omits the words muria . ...oti, which disturb the sense of the passage. In the translation we have rejected the second gar. For eipen, Sav. marg. gives eipoi tij an, which we have adopted. The modern text substitutes to, kai, estai for ei gar, and inserts kai alla after muria de.
23 Mh gar wj aperrimmenoi diakeisqe, B. N. oukoun mh gar, A. palin mh gar, C. mh oun, F. D. kai gar, Cat. oukoun mh. E. and Edd., which also add at the end of the sentence, h apobeblhmenoi, where the other mss. have, Palin h anastasij, as comment on anasthsaj.
24 To de, Wj eme oudamou logon an exoi. He had before said. that in the very description of "the Prophet like unto Moses," it is shown that He is more than like Moses: for instance, "Every soul which will not hear," etc. would not apply to Moses. Having finished the description, he now adds, You see that the wj eme nowhere holds as the whole account of the matter: to be raised up (from the dead) and sent to bless, and this by turning every one from his iniquities, is not to be simply such as Moses. The modern text adds, "Unless it be taken in regard of the manner of legislation:" i. e. Christ is like unto Moses considered as Deliverer and Lawgiver, not in any other respect.
25 E. and Edd. "that they shall hear all things which Christ shall say: and this not in a general way, but with a fearful menace" It is a powerful connection, for it shows that for this reason also they ought to obey Him. What means it, "Children of the Prophets," etc.
26 legw dh to mh orgizesqai, as the explanation of eij touto. The other text confuses the meaning by substituting kai to mh org. "Not to swear, and not to be angry, is a great help to this." Which increases the "intricacy" of which Ben. complains in the following passage, where oaths are first said to be the wings of wrath, and then are compared to the wind filling the sails. Here instead of, wsper gar pneuma thj orghj o orkoj, fhsin, esti, (cited as an apothegm), the modern text gives, wsper gar pn. h orgh kai o orkoj esti. "For wrath and swearing is as a wind." The imagery is incongruous: oaths, the wings of wrath: oaths the wind, and wrath (apparently) the sails: but the alterations do not mend the sense.
27 kan gar mh epiorkhte, omnuntej olwj ouk iste. The modern text, kai oute epiorkhsete, oute omosesqe olwj. Ouk iste. Which does not suit the context. "Make it a law with the passionate man, never to swear. ...The whole affair is finished, and you will neither perjure yourselves, nor swear at all." He seems to be speaking of oaths and imprecations, by which a man in the heat of passion binds himself to do or suffer some dreadful thing. "Suppose you do not perjure yourself, yet think of the misery you entail upon yourself: you must either study all sorts of expedients to deliver your soul, or, since that cannot be without perjury, you must spend your life in misery, etc. and curse your wrath."-'Anagkh tini kai desmw, with comma preceding: so Sav. but A. b.c. anagkh nom. preceded by a full stop: "For needs must you, binding yourselves as with a cord," etc: and so the modern text, with other alterations (adopted by Sav.) which are meant to simplify the construction, but do not affect the sense. Below, 'Epeidh gar hkousate, kai to pleon umin katwrqwtai. Ben makes this a sentence by itself, Quia enim audistis, magna pars ret a vobis perfecta est. Savile connects it with the following, fere dh k. t. l. See p. 53, where he alludes to some who laughed at him, perhaps even on the spot.
31 'All' egw ou boulomai, fnsi. "I do not wish [so to insult God].-Then do not oblige the other to do so: [nay, do not suffer him:] just as, should he pretend to name as his surety some person with whom he has no right to take such a liberty, su ouk anexh you would not allow him." That this is the meaning, is shown by what follows: oti ton Qeon ubrisai anexh: "he insults God, and you suffer him to do it."
32 Touj perittouj, kai pantaj emoi agagete. E. and Edd. for touj perittouj kai have touj de mh peiqomenouj. The following passage relates to a practice of swearing by touching, the Sacred Volume on the Holy Table. Against this custom he inveighs in one of his Sermons ad Pop. Antioch. xv. §. 5. (t. ii. 158. E.) "What art thou doing, O man? On the Holy Table, and where Christ lies sacrificed, there sacrificest thou thy brother? .... sacrificest him in the midst of the Church, and that, with the death to come, the death which dieth not? Was the Church made for this, that we should come there to take oaths? No, but that we should pray there. Does the Table stand there, that we should make men swear thereby? No, it stands there that we may lose sins, not that we may bind them. But do thou, if nothing else, at least reverence the very Volume which thou holdest forth to the other to swear by: the very Gospel which thou, taking in thine hands, biddest the other make oath thereby,-open it, read what Christ there saith concerning oaths, and shudder, and desist."-Here, he forbids the sacristans to admit persons for any such purpose. "Let such be brought to me, since I must needs be the person to be troubled with these things, as if you were little children, needing to be taught such a simple matter as this."
33 i. e. to take an oath by_the head of your child. So in the Tract. de Virgin. t. i. 309 D. it is remarked, that "men of rude and dull minds, who do not scruple to swear by God in great matters and small, and break their oath without remorse, would not for a moment think of swearing by the head of their children: although the perjury is more heinous, and the penalty more dreadful, in the former than in the latter case, yet they feel this oath more binding than that."
34 kai xairontaj ekaterouj apopemyw. i. e. "both of them glad (to be rid of the quarrel):" unless it is a threat, in the form of an ironical antiphrasis. In a law-suit one party comes off rejoicing (xairwn): here let both exult-if they can.
36 A. b.c. N. Sav. Ben. 9Odoj epi filosofian eulabeiaj eisagousa: (N. agousa:) palaistra tij esti. E. F. D. omit eulabeiaj, and so Commel. Morel. It would be better transferred (as remarked by Ed. Par.) to the next clause: "a training-school for piety:"
1 It is more likely that kataggelein en tw 'Ihsou thn anastasin k. t. l. means "to declare in (the case of) Jesus the resurrection," i. e. that the reference is specifically to the resurrection of Jesus instead of (as Chrys.) to the resurrection generally.-G. B. S.
2 So A. C. N. Cat. but B. omits ouk. Edd. "They had their hands still reeking with the blood of their former victim and they were not chilled (enarkwn), but again laid them upon others, to fill them with fresh blood. Or perhaps also they feared them as having now become a multitude, and for this reason the captain," etc. But the statement, uko edeisan to plhqj is explained in the Recapitulation: they led Christ to trial immediately, for fear of the multitude; but not so here.
3 C. D. E. F. Ei gar o staurwqeij, fhsi toiauta epgazetai, kai ton xwlon a/esthsen, ou foboumeqa oude toutouj. A. B. N. ergazetai, oude toutouz foboumeqa: ton xwlon anesthse, and so Cat. which however has esthsan. The meaning is obscure, especially the emphatic oude toutouj: but perhaps it may be explained: "He was crucified; they did their worst to Him, to how little purpose! therefore neither need we fear these men, what they can do to us." But the report is otherwise so defective and confused, that perhaps what Chrys. actually said here was meant of the priests: "We were able to crucify the Master, therefore we do not fear these common men, His followers, though, as they say, it is He that does these works, that made the lame man walk."
5 apo tou prooimiou diekwmwdhsen, i. e. "You, the rulers of the people, and elders of Israel,-to make it a crime," etc. For this, which is the reading of the other mss. and the Catena, E. alone has kai diekwdwnise, mallon de autouz kai anemnhsen k. t. l. "And he rung them, nay, rather also reminded them," etc. Diakwdwnizein is a word elsewhere used by St. Chrys., and would suit the passage very well, either as "he put their unsoundness to the proof (like false metal, or cracked earthenware)," or "he sounded an alarm in their ears:" but the other is equally suitable, and better accredited here. Below, 'Epeidh de kai krinomeqa k. t. l.-Cat. epei de. Edd. nun de.
6 #Oran gar mh h ti katorqwsai. Quando enim non est aliquid praeclare agendum. Ben. Nom est corrigendum aliquid, Erasm. But see the comment in the recapitulation. "Where need was to teach, they allege prophecies; where, to show boldness, they affirm peremptorily." katorqwsai, "to carry their point," "to come off in the right;" viz. here, to convince by argument.
8 We have supplied the text, instead of which C. inserts, "What shall we do to these men?" adopted by E. and Edd. Below, after the text 5. 28. E. inserts the latter part of v. 17. "Let us straitly threaten them," etc.
9 All our mss. and Cat. peisqentoj oti anesth, kai touto (A. C. N. toutou, Cat. to) tekm. lab., oti esti Qeoj, except that B. reads oti an esth Qeoj. Hence we read, oti anesth. The repetition of these words may have led to the alteration.
12 The same mss. and Edd. "And that in the Name of Jesus, this man stands before you whole." And below: "And besides, they themselves held, etc. ...: but now they disbelieve and are troubled, taking counsel to do something to them." Again, after "the wickedness of the many:"-"And pray why do they not deliver them up to the Romans? Already they were," etc. All these variations are due to the innovator, who did not perceive that the recapitulation began at the place marked above.
13 The modern text inserts Kai ti dhpote ou paradidoasin autouj 9Rwmaioij; "And why do they not deliver them over to the Romans? Already they were," etc. And after wste mallon eautouj ekakizon, the same adds, upertiqemenoi thn autwn endeiyin: and below, "But concerning these, they neither were bold, nor yet do they take them to Pilate."
14 pwz exei kai to baru ta rhmata; kai en toutoij egumnazonto. i. e. "how their words have the rhetorical quality of to baru-grave and dignified impressiveness. Even in these, i.e. in the use of words," etc.
15 Chrys. rightly remarks upon the great boldness and force of Peter's answer to the Sanhedrin (8-12). The ei anakrinomeqa, k. t. l. (9) is ironical: "If for doing a good deed a man must make answer." Then follow the bold declarations which are almost of the nature of a challenge (10) "Be it known to you all," etc., and the assertion that it was in the name which they despised-the "Nazarene"-that the miracle had been wrought and all this is pointed by the contrast: "Ye crucified" but "God raised" and the charge of opposition to the divine plan in that they had rejected the stone which God had made the head of the corner.-G. B. S.
16 Ou gar ta rhmata monon, kai ta sxhmata edeiknunto to afpontistwj estanai peri toioutwn kpinomenouj. A. C. but the former has edeiknuon, N. edeiknu. Our other mss. have, ou gar toij rhmasi monon edeiknunto afrontistountej p. t. krinomenoi: which is only an attempt to make the passage grammatical. The comment is on the word qewrountez: they beheld the boldness, for not words only, their gestures also, declared it.-Below, thn parrhsian enefainon thn kata tou laou. 'Ey wn efqeggonto eqaumazon iswj. Edd. thn parr. enefainon epi rou laou ey wn efqeggonto. 'Eqaumazon de iswj.
17 af wn elegon; Edd. and Erasm. take this affirmatively: but this can hardly be the Author's meaning; as he has just said that "from the things they uttered, they marvelled" that the speakers should be illiterate and common men. Something perhaps is wanting: e. g. "Not from the matter, but from the dialect, or from the brevity and abruptness of Peter's style, or, from the appearance of the men.-In the mss. the next sentence is, wste epeskhyan an autoij, Extrema auctoritate mandassent iis, Erasm. Acrius in eos egissent, Ben. Here and in what follows we have endeavored to restore the proper order. In the mss. in consequence, as it seems, of a confusion between the two clauses, ou, dunameqa apnhsasqai, and ou dunameqa gar <\=85_mh lalein, the order of the comments is deranged: viz. "So that they would-been with them." "And they recognized-stopped their mouths:" "`Whether it be right-judge ye.0' When the terror-mere bravery. `Whether it be right,0' he says, and, `We cannot deny it.0' So that they would-better to let them go. `Whether it be right-more than unto God.0' Here by God-His Resurrection."
18 The author seems to give two different interpretations of the statement: "They recognized them that they had been with Jesus." (1) They perceived that these were the men whom they had before seen in company with Jesus. (2) They saw that their words and acts betokened association with Jesus. It is evident that the former only is meant in this place.-G. B. S.
19 Kaitoi pantaxou ai arxai deinai kai duskoloi. "If at the beginning you failed, how can you expect to succeed now? for the beginning being always the hardest part of any difficult undertaking, if you could not stop it then, much less afterwards." The modern text unnecessarily alters it to oupw p. ai a. xalepai te kai dusk.
20 Pollw mallon autoij beltion hn autouj afeinai. N. has a colon at autoij, which perhaps is better; then the first clause may be the comment on to kaqolou mh fqeggesqai: "not to speak at all: much more to them. It had been better to dismiss them (at once)." For this sentence E. alone has, Panu ge, touj ouden umaj hgoumenouj kai apeilountaj: "Aye, men who make nothing of you for all your threatening:" which is adopted by Edd.
21 E. and Edd. "That a notable miracle is done, we cannot deny:" and below "Here they say, of God, for, `of Christ.0' Do you see how that is fulfilled which He said unto them, `Behold I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves; fear them not.0' Then once more they confirm," etc. For tou Qeou, A. B. have tou Xristou.
22 The various readings are qsmatwn for dramatwn, and merh for melh. Below, twn de ekelse legomenwn kai khrugmatwn kai rhmatwn memnhtai pantwn. The mod, omits kai khr. The meaning is, "He cannot carry away in his memory the preaching which he hears in Church: but the preachments (proclamations) which he hears in the theatre he remember, every word."
23 A description of the attire of a philosopher. Lucian mentions the long beard and the staff, but as the vestment, the tribwnion or tritum pallium. The ecwmij elsewhere denotes (in opposition to epwmij) a tunic without sleeves, forming part of the dress of old men, and slaves, and also used in comedy. Here it seems to mean a cope, perhaps (Doun. ap. Savil.), the original of the academic hood, caputium.
24 Tertull. de Corona militum. "Ad omnem progressum atque promotum, ad omnen aditum et exitum, ad calceatum, ad lavacra, ad mensas, ad lumina, ad cubilia, ad sedilia, quaecunque nos conversatio exercet, frontem crucis signaculo terimus."
25 uper twn fugadeusantwn auton. When the "intercession" of Moses is spoken of, it is natural to suppose that the reference is to Exod. xxxii. 11 ff. But Sav. and Ben. refer this to Num. xii. 13, perhaps because of eboa (LXX. ebohse). But the addition, "for those who had driven him into banishment," does not suit the latter and less memorable occasion: for Miriam and Aaron did but "speak against Moses," not attempt to banish or expel him. More fully expressed, the meaning may be, "For a people who began by making him a fugitive, Ex. ii. 15, Acts vii. 29, and now had put the finishing stroke to their ingratitude." Comp. Ex. xvii. 4; Num. xiv. 10, Num. xiv. 13, etc.
1 The various readings are: o tou patroj hmwn dia Pneumatoj 9Agiou stomatoj D. paidoj sou, A. N. tou p. hmwn, om. C. o ek stomatoj tou p. hmwn D. kai paidoj sou, B. o dia stom. D. rou paidoj sou, D. F. rou, om. E.
2 'Epi to auto, At the same, as interpreted in a former Homily, vii. §. 2. For the next sentence, E. has Palin entauqa dhlwn to auto legei, oti tou plhqouj, k. t. l. "Here again explaining the `to auto,0'" etc.-It is in allusion to the same expression that he says a little further on, 'Idou kardia kai yuxh.
5 A. b.c. N. twn 'Apostolwn. ora to atufon. !Idwmen loipon anwqen ta eirhmena. Kai twn 'Apostolwn thn filosofian. The clause ora to arufon is to be restored to its place after the second twn 'Apostolwn, as in the modern text, ora twn 'A. to a. kai rhn f.
6 Against the Arians, who from such texts as Matt. xii. 28, inferred the inferiority of the Son, Chrys. says, "Observe, the Father Himself is here said to speak by the Holy Ghost." This is lost in the modern text, which substitutes Swthr for Pathr. The text is given in our mss. with these variations. Comp. note a. A. C. Despota o Qeoj (o Cat.) tou patroj hmwn (o N.) dia Pn. 'A stomatoj D. B. Desp. o Q. twn patrwn hmwn o dia Pn. 'A dia stom. D. E. F. D. Desp. o Q. o dia stom. D. omitting dia Pn. 'A., but recognizing this clause in the comment. "Observe how they say nothing idle, but speak of His power only: or rather, just as Christ said to the Jews, If I by the Spirit of God do speak, so these also say, `By the Holy Ghost.0' Behold, the Saviour also speaks by the Spirit. And hear what it is that they my, `Lord, the God Who by the mouth of David,0'" etc.