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On revising these two Books, which he addressed to the Count Valerius, Augustine placed them immediately after his reply to the discourse of the Arians, which was affixed to the Proceedings with Emeritus.123 Now these proceedings are stated to have taken place on the 20th of September, in the year of our Lord 418.124 There can be no doubt, then, that these subjoined books-or, at any rate, the former of them-were written either at the close of the year 418, or in the beginning of the year 419. For, concerning this first book, Augustine says himself: "This book of mine, however, which he [Julianus] says he answered in four books, I wrote after the condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestius. This," he adds, "I have deemed it right to mention, because he declares that my words had been used by the enemies of the truth to bring it into odium. Let no one, therefore, suppose that it was owing to this book of mine that condemnation had been passed on the new heretics who are enemies of the grace of Christ."125 From these words one may see at once that this first book was published about the same time as the condemnation of the Pelagians in the year 418.

Soon after its publication it began to be assailed by the Pelagians, who observed that its perusal was producing in the minds of the catholics much odium against their heresy. One of them, Julianus,126 influenced with a warm desire of furthering the heretical movement, attacked the first book of Augustine's treatise in four books of his own. Out of these, sundry extracts were culled by some interested person, and forwarded to Count Valerius. Valerius despatched them from Ravenna to Rome, to Alypius,127 in order that he, on returning to Africa, might hand them to Augustine for the purpose of an early refutation, together with a letter in which Valerius thanked Augustine for the previous work which he also mentioned. Augustine saw at once that these extracts had been taken out of the work of Julianus; and, although he preferred reserving his answer to the selections till he had received the entire work from which they were culled, he still thought that he was bound to avoid all delay in satisfying the Count Valerius. Without loss of time, therefore, he drew up in answer his second book, with the same title as before, On Marriage and Concupiscence, which, as we think, must be assigned to the year 420, since the holy doctor wrote it immediately after the expression of thanks for the first book; for it is clearly improbable that Valerius should have waited two years or more to make the acknowledgment of his gratitude.

Moreover, the Valerius whom Augustine dignifies with the title of Illustrious as well as Count, was much employed in public life-not, to be sure, in the forum, but in the field; and from this circumstance we find it difficult to accede to the opinion that supposes him to have been the same person with the Valerius who was Count of the Private Estate in the year 425, Consul in 432, and lastly Master of the Offices under Theodosius the younger in the year 434. These appointments, indeed, had no connection with military service, nor had the prefects of Theodosius anything in common with those of Honorius.

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