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1 "Augustineus praesertim in `Civitate Dei 0' virtutem Christianae sapientiae, qua parte necessitudinem habet cum republica, tanto in lumine collocavit, ut non tam pro Christianis sui temporis dixisse caussam quam de criminibus falsis perpetuum triumphum egisse videatur." I quote from the Paris edition of the Acta Leonis Papae XIII., 1886, p. 284.

2 An older translation appeared under the title: Of the citie of God, with the learned comments of Jo. Lodovicus Vives, Englished first by J. H., and now in this second edition compared with the Latin original, and in very many places corrected and amended, London, 1620. The Oxford Library of the Fathers does not include the City of God nor Christian Doctrine. In French there are, it seems, no less than eight independent translations of the Civitas Dei, the best by Ernile Saisset, with introduction and notes, Paris, 1855, 4 vols. gr. in 18. Moreau's translation includes the Latin original, Paris, 1846 and 1854, in 3 vols. The Latin text alone is found in the 7th vol. of the Benedictine edition (1685). A handy (stereotyped) edition was published by C. Tauchnitz, Lipsiae, 1825, in 2 vols.; another by Jos. Strange, Coloniae, 1850, in 2 vols.

3 "De Dortrina Christiana libri quatuor", included in the third vol. (1680) of the Benedictine edition at the head of the exegetical works. A separate edition uas published by Car. Herm. Bruder, ed. stereotype, Lips. (Tauchnitz), 1838. A German translation (Vier Bucher uber die christliche Lehre) by Remigius Storf was published at Kempten, 1877, in Thalhofer's "Bibliothek der Kirchenvater."

1 A.D. 410.

2 Retractations, ii. 43.

3 Letters, 132-8.

4 See some admirable remarks on this subject in the useful work of Beugnot, Histoire de la Destruction du Paganisme, ii. 83 et sqq.

5 As Waterland (iv. 760) does call it, adding that it is "his most learned, most correct, and most elaborate work."

6 For proof, see the Benedictine Preface.

7 "Hitherto the Apologies had been framed to meet particular exigencies: they were either brief and pregnant statements of the Christian doctrines; refutations of prevalent calumnies; invectives against the follies and crimes of Paganism; or confutations of anti-Christian works like those of Celsus, Porphyry, or Julian, closely following their course of argument, and rarely expanding into general and comprehensive views of the great conflict."-Milman, History of Christianity, iii. c. 10. We are not acquainted with any more complete preface to the City of God than is contained in the two or three pages which Milman has devoted to this subject.

8 See the interesting remarks of Lactantius, Instit. vii. 25.

9 "Haeet vox et singulyus intercipiunt verba dictantis. Capitur urbs quae totum cepit orbem."-Jerome, iv. 783..

10 See below, iv. 7.

11 This is well brought out by Merivale, Conversion of the Roman Empire, p. 145, etc.

12 Ozanam, History of Civilisation in the Fifth Century (Eng. trans.), ii. 160.

13 Abstracts of the work at greater or less length are given by Dupin, Bindemann, Böhringer, Poujoulat, Ozanam, and others.

14 His words are: "Plus on examine la Cité de Dieu, plus on reste convaincu que cet ouvrage dût exercea tres-peu d' in ifluence sur l'esprit des paiens" (ii. 122.); and this though he thinks one cannot but be struck with the grandeur of the ideas it contains.

15 History of Ecclesiastical Writers, i. 406.

16 Huetiana, p. 24.

17 Flottes, Etudes sur S. Augustine (Paris, 1861), pp. 154-6, one of the most accurate and interesting even of French monographs on theological writers.

18 These editions will be found detailed in the second volume of Schoenemann's Bibliotheca Pat.

19 His words (in Ep. vi.) are quite worth quoting: "Cura rogo te, ut excudantur aliquot centena exemplarium istius operis a reliquo Agustini corpore separata; nam multi erunt studiosi oui Augustineum totum emere vel nollient, vel non poterunt, quia non egebunt, seu quia tantum pecuniae non habebunt. Scio enim fere a deditis studis istis elegantioribus praeter hoc Augustinei opus nullum fere aliud legi ejusdem autoris."

20 The fullest and fairest discussion of the very simple yet never settled question of Augustine's learning will be found in Nourrisson's Philosophie de S. Augustine, ii. 92-100. [Comp. the first vol. of this Nicene Library, p. 9.-P. S.]

21 Erasmi Epistoloe xx. 2.

22 A large part of it has been translated in Saisset's Pantheism (Clark, Edinburgh).

23 By J. H., published in 1610, and again in 1620, with Vives' commentary.

24 As the letters of Vives are not in every library, we give his comico-pathetic account of the result of his Augustineian labors on his health: "Ex quo Augustineum perfeci, nunquam valui ex sententia; proximâ vero hebdomade et hac, fracto corpore cuncto, et nervis lassitudine quadam et debilitate dejectis, in caput decem turres incumbere mihi videntur incidendo pondere, ac mole intolerabili; isti sunt fructus studiorum, et merces pulcherrimi laboris; quid labor et benefacta juvant?"

1 [Augustine uses the term civitas Dei (po/lij u=eou=) of the church universal as a commonwealth and community founded and governed by God. It is applied in the Bible to Jerusalem or the church of the Old Covenant (Ps. xl. 6, 4; xlviii. 1, 8; lxxxvii. 3), and to the heavenly Jerusalem or the church perfect (Heb. xi. 10, 16; xii. 22; Rev. iii. 12; xxi. 2; xxii, 14, 19). Augustine comprehends under the term the whole Kingdom of God under the Jewish and Christian dispensation both in its militant and triumphant state, and contrasts it with the perishing kingdoms of this world. His work treats of both, but he calls it, a meliore, The City of God.-P. S.]

2 [Marcellinus was a friend of Augustine, and urged him to write this work. He was commissioned by the Emperior Honorius to convene a conference of Catholic and schismatic Donatist bishops in the summer of 411, and conceded the victory to the Catholics; but on account of his rigor in executing the laws against the Donatists, he fell a victim to their revenge, and was honored by a place among the martyrs. See the Letters of Augustine, 133, 136, 138, 139, 143, 151, the notes in this ed., vol. I., 470 and 505, and the Translator's Preface -P. S.]

3 Ps. xciv. 15, rendered otherwise in Eng. ver. [In the Revised Vers.: "Judgment shall return unto righteousness." In Old Testament quotations, Augustine, being ignorant of Hebrew, had to rely on the imperfect Latin version of his day, and was at first even opposed to the revision of Jerome.-P. S.]

4 Jas. iv. 6 and I Pet. v. 5.

5 Virgil, Aeneid, vi. 854. [Parcere subjectis et debellare superbes.-P. S.]

6 [Aug. refers to the sacking of the city of Rome by the West-Gothic King Alaric, 410. He was the most humane of the barbaric invaders and conquerors of Rome, and had embraced Arian Christianity (probably from the teaching of Ulphilas, the Arian bishop and translator of the Bible). He spared the Catholic Christians.-For particulars see Gibbon's Decline and Fall, and Millman's Latin Christianity.-P. S.]

7 The Benedictines remind us that Alexander and Xenophon, at least on some occasions, did so.

8 Virgil, Aeneid, ii. 501-2. The renderings of Virgil are from Conington.

9 Ibid.. ii. 166.

10 Ibid.

11 Horace, Ep. I. ii. 69.

12 Aeneid, i. 71.

13 Ibid, ii. 319.

14 Ibid. 293.

15 Non numina bona, sed omina mala.

16 Virgil, Aeneid. ii. 761.

17 Though levis was the word usually employed to signify the inconstancy of the Greeks, it is evidently here used, in opposition to immanis of the following clause, to indicate that the Greeks were more civilized than the barbarians, and not relentless, but, as we say, easily moved.

18 De Conj. Cat. c. 51.

19 Sallust, Cat. Conj. ix.

20 Ps. lxxxix. 32.

21 Matt. v. 45.

22 Rom. ii. 4.

23 So Cyprian (Contra Demetrianum) says: Parnam de adversis mundi ille sentif, cui ei loetitia et gioria omnis in mundo est.

24 Ezek. xxxiii. 6.

25 Compare with this chapter the first homily of Chrysostom to the people of Antioch.

26 Rom. viii. 28.

27 1 Pet. iii. 4.

28 l Tim, vi. 6-10.

29 Job i. 21.

30 1 Tim. vi. 17-19.

31 Matt. vi. 19-21.

32 Paulinus was a native of Bordeaux, and both by inheritance and marriage acquired great wealth, which, after his conversion in his thirty-sixth year, he distributed to the poor. He became bishop of Nola in A.D. 409, being then in his fifty-sixth year. Nola was taken by Alaric shortly after the sack of Rome.

33 Much of a kindred nature might be gathered from the Stoics. Antoninus says (ii. 14): "Though thou shouldest be going to live 3000 years, and as many times 10,000 years, still remember that no man loses any other life than this which he now lives, nor lives any other than this which he now loses. The longest and the shortest are thus brought to the same."

34 Augustine expresses himself more fully on this subject in his tract, De cura pro moutuis gerenda.

35 Matt. x. 28.

36 Luke xii. 4.

37 Ps. lxxix. 2, 3.

38 Ps. cxvi. 15.

39 Diogenes especially, and his followers. See also Seneca, De Tranq. c. 14, and Epist. 92; and in Cicero's Tusc. Disp. i. 43, the answer of Theodorus, the Cyrenian philosopher, to Lysimachus, who threatened him with the cross: "Threaten that to your courtiers; it is of no consequence to Theodorus whether he rot in the earth or in the air."

40 Lucan, Pharsalia, vii. 819, of those whom Caesar forbade to be buried after the battle of Pharsalia.

41 Gen. xxv. 10, xxxv. 29, etc.

42 Gen. xlvii. 29, l. 24.

43 Tob. xii. 12.

44 Matt. xxvi. 10-13.

45 John xix. 38.

46 Dan. iii.

47 Jonah.

48 "Second to none," as he is called by Herodotus, who first of all tells his well-known story (Clio. 23, 24).

49 Augustine here uses the words of Cicero ("vigilando peremerunt"), who refers to Regulus, in Pisonem. c 19. Aulus Gellius, quoting Tubero and Tuditanus (vi. 4), adds some further particulars regarding these tortures.

50 As the Stoics generally would affirm.

51 Virgil, Aeneid, vi. 434.

52 Plutarch's Life of Cato, 72.

53 1 Cor. ii. 11.

54 Ecclus. iii. 27.

55 Rom. xi. 33.

56 Ps. xlii. 10.

57 Ps. xcvi. 4, 5.

58 Originally the spectators had to stand, and now (according to Livy, Ep.. xlviii.) the old custom was restored.

1 Ps. xciv. 4.

2 2 Tim. iii. 7.

3 Pluvia deft, causa Christiani. Similar accusations and similar replies may be seen in the celebrated passage of Tertullian's Apol. c. 40, and in the eloquent exordium of Arnobius, C. Gentes.

4 Augustine is supposed to refer to Symmachus, who similarly accused the Christians in his address to the Emperor Valentinianus in the year 384. At Augustine's request, Paulus Orosius wrote his history in confutation of Symmachus' charges.

5 Tertullian (Apol. c. 24) mentions Coelestis as specially worshipped in Africa. Augustine mentions her again in the 26th chapter of this book, and in other parts of his works.

6 Berecynthia is one of the many names of Rhea or Cybele. Livy (xxix. 11) relates that the image of Cybele was brought to Rome the day before the ides of April, which was accordingly dedicated as her feast-day. The image, it seems, had to be washed in the stream Almon, a tributary of the Tiber, before being placed in the temple of Victory; and each year, as the festival returned, the washing was repeated with much pomp at the same spot. Hence Lucan's line (i. 600), Et latam parva revocant Almone Cybelen, and the elegant verses of Ovid. Fast. iv. 337 et seq.

7 Fercula, dishes or courses.

8 See Cicero, De Nat. Deor, ii. 24.

9 Prov. vi. 26.

10 Fugalia. Vives is uncertain to what feast Augustine refers. Censorinus understands him to refer to a feast celebrating the expulsion of the kings from Rome. This feast, however (celebrated on the 24th of February), was commonly called Regifugium.

11 Persius, Sat. iii. 66-72.

12 See below, books viii.-xii.

13 "Galli," the castrated priests of Cybele, who were named after the river Gallus, in Phrygia, the water of which was supposed to intoxicate or madden those who drank it. According to Vitruvius (viii. 3), there was a similar fountain in Paphlagonia. Apuleius (Golden Ass, viii.) gives a graphic and humorous description of the dress, dancing and imposture of these priests; mentioning, among other things, that they lashed themselves with whips and cut themselves with knives till the ground was wet with blood.

14 Persius, Sat. iii 37.

15 Ter. Eun. iii. 5. 36; and cf. the similar allusion in Aristoph. Clouds, 1033-4. It may be added that the argument of this chapter was largely used by the wiser of the heathen themselves. Dionysius Hal. (ii. 20) and Seneca (De Brev Vit. c. xvi.) make the very same complaint; and it will be remembered that his adoption of this reasoning was one of the grounds on which Euripides was suspected of atheism.

16 This sentence recalls Augustine's own experience as a boy, which he bewails in his Confessions.

17 Labeo, a jurist of the time of Augustus, learned in law and antiquities, and the author of several works much prized by his own and some succeeding ages. The two articles in Smith's Dictionary on Antistius and Cornelius Labeo should be read.

18 Lectisternia, feasts in which the images of the gods were laid on pillows in the streets, and all kinds of food set before them.

19 According to Livy (vii. 2), theatrical exhibitions were introduced in the year 392 A.u.C. Before that time, he says, there had only been the games of the circus. The Romans sent to Etruria for players, who were called histriones, hister being the Tuscan word for a player. Other particulars are added by Livy.

20 See the Republic, book iii.

21 Comp. Tertullian, De Spectac. c. 22.

22 The Egyptian gods represented with dogs' heads, called by Lucan (viii. 832) semicanes deos.

23 The Fever had, according to Vives, three altars in Rome. See Cicero, De Nat. Deor. iii. 25, and Aelian, Var. Hist. xii. 11.

24 Cicero, De Republica, v. Compare the third Tusculan Quaest. c. ii.

25 In the year A.u. 299, three ambassadors were sent from Rome to Athens to copy Solon's laws, and acquire information about the institutions of Greece. On their return the Decemviri were appointed to draw up a code; and finally, after some tragic interruptions, the celebrated twelve tables were accepted as the fundamental statutes of Roman law (fons universal publici privatique juris). These were graven on brass, and hung up for public information. I.ivy, iii. 31-34.

26 Possibly he refers to Plautus' Persa, iv. 4. 11-14.

27 Sallust, Cat. Con. ix. Compare the similar saying of Tacitus regarding the chastity of the Germans: Plusque ibi bond mores valent, quam alibi bonae leges (Germ. xix.).

28 The same collocation of words is used by Cicero with reference to the well-known mode of renewing the appetite in use among the Romans.

29 Aeneid, ii. 351-2.

30 2 Cor. xi. 14.

31 Cicero, C. Verrem, vi. 8.

32 Cicero, C. Catilinam, iii. 8.

33 Alluding to the sanctuary given to all who fled to Rome in its early days.

34 Virgil, Aeneid, i. 278.

1 Compare Aug. Epist. ad Degogratias, 102, 13; and De Prae. Sanci., 19.

2 Ch. 4.

3 Virg, George. i. 502, Laomedontrae luminus perjuria Trajae.

4 Iliad, xx. 293 et seqq.

5 Aeneid. v. 810, 811.

6 Gratis et ingratis.

7 De Cat. vi.

8 Helens's husband.

9 Venus' husband.

10 Suetonius, in his Life of Julius Caesar (c. 6), relates that, in pronouncing a funeral oration in praise of his aunt Julia, Caesar claimed for the Julian gens to which his family belonged a descent from Venus, through Julus, son of Eneas.

11 Livy, 83, one of the lost books; and Appian, in Mithridat.

12 The gates of Janus were not the gates of a temple, but the gates of a passage called Janus, which was used only for military purposes; shut therefore in peace, open in war.

13 The year of the Consuls T. Manlius and C. Atilius, A.u.C. 519.

14 Sall. Conj. Cat. ii.

15 Aeneid, viii. 326-7.

16 Sall. Cat. Conj. vi.

17 Aeneid, xi. 532.

18 Ibid. x. 464.

19 Livy, x. 47.

20 Being son of Apollo.

21 Virgil, Aen. i. 286.

22 Pharsal.v. 1.

23 Aeneid, x. 821, of Lausus:

------------The fair, fair face so ghastly made,

------------He groaned, by tenderness unmanned,

--------And stretched the sympathizing hand," etc.

24 Virgil, Aeneid, vi. 813.

25 Sallust, Cat. Conj. ii.

26 Ps. x. 3.

27 Aeneid, ii. 351-2.

28 Cicero, De Rep. ii. 10.

29 Contra Cat. iii. 2.

30 Aeneid, vi. 820, etc.

31 His nephew.

32 Hist. i.

33 Lectisternia, from lectus, and sterno, I spread.

34 Proletarius, from proles, offspring.

35 the oracle ran: "Dico te, Pyrrhe, vincere posse Romanos."

36 Troy, Lavinia, Alba.

37 Under the inscription on the temple some person wrote the line, "Vecordiae opus aedem facit Concordiae."-The work of discord makes the temple of Concord.

38 Cicero, in Catilin, iii. sub. fin.

39 Lucan, Pharsal. 142-146.

40 Virgil, Aeneid, i. 417

1 In Augustine's letter to Evodius (169), which was written towards the end of the year 415, he mentions that this fourth book and the following one were begun and finished during that same year.

2 Comp. Racon's Essay on the Vicissitudes of Things.

3 Matt. v. 45.

4 2 Pet, ii. 19.

5 Nonius Marcell. borrows this anecdote from Cicero, De Repub. iii.

6 It was extinguished by Crassus in its third year.

7 Cloacina, supposed by Lactantius (De falsa relig. i. 20), Cyprian (De Idol. vanit.), and Augustine (infra, c. 23) to be the goddess of the cloaca, or sewage of Rome. Others, however, suppose it to be equivalent to Cluacina, a title given to Venus, because the Romans after the end of the Sabine war purified themselves (cluere) in the vicinity of her statue.

8 Forculum foribus, Cardeam cardini, Limentinum limini.

9 Virgil, Eclog. iii. 60.

10 Virgil, Aeneid, i. 47.

11 Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 25.

12 Virgil, Georg. ii. 325, 326.

13 Eusebius, De Proep. i. 10.

14 Virgil, Georg. iv. 221, 222.

15 The feminine Fortune.

16 Hab. ii. 4.

17 So called from the consent or harmony of the celestial movements of these gods.

18 Tusc. Quaest. i. 26.

19 Livy, ii. 36; Cicero, De Divin. 26.

20 Called by Cicero (De Oratore, i. 39) the most eloquent of lawyers, and the best skilled lawyer among eloquent men.

21 Super flua non nocent..

22 Rom. i. 25.

23 De Divin. ii. 37.

24 Cic. De Nat. Dearum, lib. ii. c. 28.

25 Superstition, from superstes. Against his etymology of Cicero, see Lact. Inst. Div. iv. 28.

26 Balbus, from balbutiens, stammering, babbling.

27 See Cicero, De Nat.. Deor. i. 2.

28 Plutarch's Numa, c. 8.

1 Written in the year 415.

2 On the application of astrology to national prosperity, and the success of certain religions, see Lecky's Rationalism, i. 303.

3 This fact is not recorded in any of the extant works of Hippocrates or Cicero. Vives supposes it may have found place in Cicero's book, De Fato.

4 I.e. the potter.

5 Epist. 107.

6 Odyssey, xviii. 136, 137.

7 De Divinat. ii.

8 Ps. xiv. 1.

9 Book iii.

10 Ps. lxii. 11, 12.

11 Sallust, Cat. vii.

12 Augstin notes that the name cousul is derived from consulere, and thus signifies a more benign rule than that of a rex (from regere), or dominus (from dominari).

13 Aeneid, viii. 646.

14 Ibid, i. 279.

15 Ibid. vi. 847.

16 Sallust, in Cat. c. xi.

17 Sallust, in Cat. c. 54.

18 2 Cor. i. 12.

19 Gal. vi. 4.

20 Sallust, in Cat. c. 52.

21 Horace, Epist. i. l. 36, 37.

22 Hor. Carm. ii. 2.

23 Tusc. Quaest. i. 2.

24 John v. 44.

25 John xii. 43.

26 Matt. x. 33.

27 Matt. vi. 1.

28 Matt. v. 16.

29 Matt. vi. 2.

30 Jactantia.

31 Aeneid, vi. 820.

32 Matt. x. 28.

33 Matt. viii. 22.

34 Acts ii. 45.

35 Rom. viii. 18.

36 Prov. viii. 15.

37 Aeneid, vii. 266.

38 Job xxxiv. 30.

39 Of the Thrasymene Lake and Cannae.

40 Constantinople.

41 Constantious, Constantine, and Constans.

42 Panegyr, de tertio Honorii consulatu.

43 Tusc. Quaest. v. 19.

1 Ps. xl. 4.

2 Plato, in the Timaeus.

3 Ch. xi. and xxi.

4 See Virgil, Ec. iii. 9.

5 Of the four books De Acad., dedicated to Varro, only a part of the first is extant.

6 Cicero, De Quaest. Acad. i. 3.

7 In his book De Metris,, chapter on phalaecian verses.

8 Tarquin the Proud, having bought the books of the sibyl, appointed two men to preserve and interpret them (Dionys. Halic. Antiq. iv. 62. These were afterwards increased to ten, while the plebeians were contended for larger privileges; and subsequently five more were added.

9 Ch. 11.

10 Fabulare.

11 Fabulosum.

12 Civile.

13 Timerl.

14 Vereri.

15 Intercido, I cut or cleave.

16 Paranymphi.

17 Comp. Tertullian, Adv. Nat. ii. 11; Arnobius, Contra Gent. iv.; Lactantius, Inst. i. 20.

18 Mentioned also by Tertullian, Apol. 12, but not extant.

19 Numina. Another reading is nomina; and with either reading another translation is admissible; "One is announcing to a god the names (or gods) who salute him."

1 Tert. Apol. 13, Nec electio sine reprobatione; and Ad Nationes, ii. 9, Si dei bulbi seliguntur, qui non seliguntur, reprobi pronuntiantur.

2 Cicero, De Nat. Deor ii., distinguishes this Liber from Liber Bacchus, son of Jupiter and Semele.

3 Januam.

4 Vivificator.

5 Sensificator.

6 As we say, right-minded.

7 Ch. 21, 23.

8 The father Saturn, and the mother Ops, e.g., being more obscure than their son Jupiter and daughter Juno.

9 Sallust, Cat. Conj. ch. 8.

10 Vicus argentarius.

11 Virgil, Aeneid, viii. 357, 358.

12 Quadrifrons.

13 Frons.

14 Quanto iste innocentior esset, tasto frontosier appareret; being used for the shamelessness of innocence, as we use "face" for the shamelessness of impudence.

15 Cicero, Tusc. Quaest. v. 13.

16 An interesting account of the changes made in the Roman year by Numa is given in Plutarch's life of that king. Ovid also (Fasti, ii.) explains the derivation of February, telling us that it was the last month of the old year, and took its name from the lustrations performed then: Februa Romani dixere piamina patres.

17 Ennius, in Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 18.

18 John x. 9.

19 Georgic, ii. 470.

20 Summa, which also includes the meaning-last.

21 Virgil, Eclog. iii. 60, who borrows the expression from the Phoenomena of Aratus.

22 Soranus lived about B.C. 100. See Smith's Dict.

23 Tigillus.

24 Ruma.

25 Pecunia, that is, property; the original meaning of pecunia being property in cattle, then property or wealth of any kind. Comp. Augustine, De discipl. Christ. 6.

26 Sallust, Catil. c. 11.

27 Quasi medius currens.

28 Nuncius.

29 Enunciantur.

30 Caelo.

31 Caelum.

32 Sc. =Xro/noj=

33 See ch. 16.

34 Varro, De Ling. Lat. v. 68.

35 Nourisher.

36 Returner.

37 In the book De Ratione Naturali Deorum.

38 Mundum.

39 Immundum.

40 Mundus.

41 Mundum.

42 Virgil, Aeneid, viii. 319-20.

43 In the Timaeus.

44 Plutarch's Numa; Livy, xl. 29.

45 Comp. Lactantius, Instit. i. 6.

46 Egesserit.

1 Wisdom vii. 24-27.

2 Sapiens, that is, a wise man, one who had attained to wisdom.

3 Finem boni.

4 Dii majorum gentium.

5 Book i. 13.

6 Rom. i. 19, 20.

7 Col. ii. 8.

8 Rom. i. 19, 20.

9 Acts xvii. 28.

10 Rom. i. 21-23.

11 De Doctrina Christiana, ii. 43. Comp. Retract. ii. 4, 2.

12 Liberating Jewish slaves, and sending gifts to the temple. See Josephus, Ant. xii. 2.

13 Gen i. 1,2.

14 Spiritius.

15 Ex, iii. 14.

16 Rom. i. 20.

17 Ch. 14.

18 De Deo Secratis.

19 Virgil, Aen. 7, 338.

20 Virgil, Aen. 4. 492, 493.

21 Virgil, Ec. 8. 99.

22 Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxviii. 2) and others quote the law as running: Qui fruges incantasit, qui malum carmen incantasit...neu alienam segetem pelexeris.

23 Before Claudius, the prefect of Africa, a heathen.

24 Another reading, whom they could not know, though near to themselves.

25 These quotations are from a dialogue between Hermes and Aesculapius, which is said to have been translated into Latin by Apuleius.

26 Rom. i. 21.

27 Jer. xvi. 10.

28 Zech. xiii. 2.

29 Isa. xix. 1.

30 Matt. xvi. 16.

31 Matt. viii. 29.

32 Ps. xcvi. 1.

33 Ps. cxv. 5, etc.

34 1 Cor. x. 19, 20.

35 Ps. xcvi. 1-5.

36 Jer. xvi. 20.

37 Ornamenta memoriarum.

38 Comp. The Confessions, vi. 2.

1 See Plutarch, on the Cessation of Oracles.

2 The De Deo Socratis.

3 De Fin. iii. 20; Tusc. Disp. iii. 4.

4 The distinction between bona and commoda is thus given by Seneca (Ep. 87, ad fin.): Commodum est quod plus ususest quam rnolestioe; bonum sinecrum debet esse et ab omni parte innoxium.

5 Book xix. ch. 1.

6 See Diog. Laert. ii. 71.

7 Virgil, Aen. iv. 449.

8 Seneca, De Clem. ii. 4 and 5.

9 Pro. Lig. c. 12.

10 De Oratore, i 11, 47.

11 De Deo Soc.

12 De Deo. Soc..

13 De Deo Soc..

14 Cat. Conj. i.

15 Plotinus died in 270 A.D.. For his relation to Plato, see Augustine's Contra Acad. iii. 41.

16 Ennead. iv. 3. 12.

17 Apuleius, not Plotinus.

18 De Deo Socratis

19 Apuleius, ibid.

20 Virgil, Georg. i. 5.

21 Augustine apparently quotes from memory from two passages of the Enneades, 1. vi. 8, and ii. 3.

22 Or, humanity.

23 Comp. De Trin. 13. 22.

24 1 Tim. ii. 5.

25 daimwn=dah/mwn, knowing; so Plato, Cratylus, 398. B.

26 1 Cor. viii. 1.

27 Mark i. 24.

28 Matt. iv. 3-11.

29 Timaeus.

30 Ps. l. 1.

31 Ps. cxxxvi. 2.

32 Ps. xcv. 3.

33 Ps. xcvi. 5, 6.

34 Ps. lxxxii. 6.

35 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6.

1 Rom. i. 21.

2 Eph. vi. 5.

3 Namely, o=oulei/a: comp. Quaest in Exod. 94; Quaest. in, Gen. 21; Contra Faustum, 15. 9, etc.

4 Agricolae, coloni, incoae.

5 Virgil, Aen., i. 12.

6 2 Chron. xxx. 9; Eccl. xi. 13; Judith vii, 20.

7 Ps. lxxxii. 6.

8 John i. 6-9.

9 Ibid., 16.

10 Augustine here remarks, in a clause that cannot be given in English, that the word religio is derived from religere.-So Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 28.

11 Matt. xxii. 37-40.

12 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

13 Ex. xxii. 20.

14 Ps. xvi. 2.

15 Ps. li. 16, 17.

16 Ps. l. 12, 13.

17 Ps. l. 14, 15.

18 Micah, vi. 6-8.

19 Heb. xiii. 16.

20 Hos. vi. 6.

21 Matt. xxii. 40.

22 On the service rendered to the Church by this definition, see Waterland's Works, v. 124.

23 Literally, a sacred action.

24 Ecclus. xxx. 24.

25 Rom. vi. 13.

26 Rom. xii. 1.

27 Rom. xii. 2.

28 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

29 Rom. xii. 3-6.

30 Ps. lxxxvii. 3.

31 Ex. xxii. 20.

32 Gen. xviii. 18.

33 Gen. xv. 17. In his Retractations, ii. 43, Augustine says that he should not have spoken of this as miraculous, because it was an appearance seen in sleep.

34 Gen. xviii.

35 Goetia.

36 2 Cor. xi. 14.

37 Virgil, Georg. iv. 411.

38 Ex. xxxiii. 13.

39 Plotin. Ennead. III. ii. 13.

40 Matt, vi. 28-30.

41 Acts vii. 53.

42 Ennead. 1. vi. 7.

43 Meaning, officious meddlers.

44 Pharsal. vi. 503.

45 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

46 Aen., vii. 310.

47 Aen., iii. 438, 439.

48 Teletis.

49 The Platonists of the Alexandrian and Athenian schools, from Plotinus to Proclus, are at one in recognizing in God three principles or hypostases: 1st, the One or the Good, which is the Father; 2nd, the Intelligence or Word, which is the Son; 3rd, the Soul, which is the universal principle of life. But as to the nature and order of these hypostases, the Alexandrians are no longer at one with the school of Athens. On the very subtle differences between the Trinity of Plotinus and that of Porphyry, consult M. Jules Simon, ii. 110, and M. Vacherot, ii. 37.-Saisset.

50 See below, c. 28.

51 Ennead. v. 1.

52 John i. 14.

53 John vi. 60-64.

54 John viii. 25; or "the beginning," following a different reading from ours.

55 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

56 Ps. lxxxiv. 2.

57 Matt. xxiii. 26.

58 Rom. viii. 24, 25.

59 See above, c. 9.

60 Virgil, Eclog. iv. 13, 14.

61 Isa. xxix. 14.

62 1 Cor. i. 19-25.

63 According to another reading, "You might have seen it to be," etc.

64 John i. 1-5.

65 John i. 14.

66 Comp. Euseb. Praep. Evan. xiii. 16.

67 Ennead.. iii. 4, 2.

68 Aeneid, vi. 750, 751.

69 Inductio.

70 Namely, under Diocletian and Maximian.

71 Gen. xxii. 18.

72 Gal. iii. 19.

73 Ps. lxvii. 1,2.

74 John xiv. 6.

75 Isa. ii. 2, 3.

76 Luke xxiv. 44-47.

1 Written in the year 416 or 417.

2 Ps. lxxxvii. 3.

3 Ps. xlviii. 1.

4 Ps. xlvi. 4.

5 Homine assumto, non Deo consumto.

6 Quo itur deus, qua itur homo.

7 A clause is here inserted to give the etymology of proesentia from proe sensibus.

8 Another derivation, sententia from sensus, the inward perception of the mind.

9 Gen. i. 1.

10 Prov. viii. 27.

11 Matt. xviii. 10.

12 A common question among the Epicureans; urged by Velleius in Cic. De. Nat. Deor. i. 9, adopted by the Manichasas and spoken to by Augustine in the Conf. xi. 10, 12, also in De Gen. contra Man. i. 3.

13 The Neo-Platonists.

14 Number begins at one, but runs on infinitely.

15 Gal. iv. 26.

16 1 Thess. v. 5.

17 Comp. de Gen. ad Lit. i. and iv.

18 Ver. 35.

19 Ps. cxlviii. 1-5.

20 Job xxxviii. 7.

21 Vives here notes that the Greek theologians and Jerome held, with Plato, that spiritual creatures were made first, and used by God in the creation of things material. The Latin theologians and Basil held that God made all things at once.

22 John i. 9.

23 Mali enim nula natura est: sed amissio boni, mall nomen accepit.

24 Plutarch (De Plac. Phil. i. 3, and iv. 3) tells us that this opinion was held by Anaximenes of Miletus, the followers of Anaxagoras, and many of the Stoics. Diogenes the Cynic, as well, as Diogenes of Appollonia seems to have adopted the same opinion. See Zeller's Stoics, pp. 121 and 199.

25 Ubi lux non est, tenebroe sunt, non quia aliquid sunt tenebrae, sed ipsa; icis absentia tenbroe dicuntur.-Aug. De. Gen. contra Man. 7.

26 Wisdom, vii. 22.

27 The strongly Platonic tinge of this language is perhaps best preserved in a bare literal translation.

28 Vives remarks that the ancients defined blessedness as an absolutely perfect state in all good, peculiar to God. Perhaps Augustine had a reminiscence of the remarkable discussion in the Tusc. Disp. lib. v., and the definition, Neque ulla alia huic verbo, quum beatum dicimus, subjecta natio est, nisi, secretis malis omnibus, cumulata bonorum complexio.

29 With this chapter compare the books De Dono Persever, and De Correp. et Gratia

30 Matt. xxv. 46.

31 John viii. 44.

32 1 John iii. 8.

33 Cf. Gen. ad Lit. xl. 27 et seqq.

34 Ps. xvii. 6.

35 1 John iii. 8.

36 The Manichaeans.

37 Isa. xiv. 12.

38 Ezek. xxviii. 13.

39 Job xl. 14 (LXX.).

40 Ps. civ. 26.

41 Job. xl. 14 (LXX.).

42 It must be kept in view that "vice" has, in this passage, the meaning of sinful blemish.

43 Ps. civ. 26.

44 Quintilian uses it commonly in the sense of antithesis.

45 2 Cor. vi. 7-10

46 Ecclus. xxxiii. 15.

47 Gen. i. 14-18.

48 The reference is to the Timaeus, p. 37 C, where he says, "When the parent Creator perceived this created image of the eternal Gods in life and motion, He was delighted, and in His joy considered how He might make it still liker its model."

49 Jas. 1. 27.

50 The passage referred to is in the Timaeus p. 29 D: "Let us say what was the cause of the Creator's forming this universe. He was good: and in the good no envy is ever generated about anything whatever. Therefore, being free from envy, He desired that all things should, as much as possible, resemble Himself."

51 The Manichaeans, to wit.

52 Gen. i. 31.

53 Proprietas [The Greeks call it idiw/thj or idion, i. e. the propriety or characteristic individuality of each divine person, namely the fatherhood, paternitas, a/gennhsia, of the first person; the sonship, filiatio, generatio gennhsia, of the second person; the procession, processio, e'kpo/reusij, of the third person.-P. S.]

54 This is one of the passages cited by Sir William Hamilton, along with the Cogito, ergo sum of Descartes, in confirmation of his proof, that in so far as we are conscious of certain modes of existence, in so far we possess an absolute certainty that we exist. See note A in Hamilton's Reid, p. 744.

55 Compare the Confessions, xiii. 9.

56 Ch. 7.

57 Vitium: perhaps "fault," most nearly embraces all the uses of this word.

58 Or aliquot parts.

59 Comp. Aug. Gen. ad Lit. iv. 2, and De Trinitate, iv. 7.

60 For passages illustrating early opinions regarding numbers, see Smith's Dict. art. Number.

61 Wisd. xi. 20.

62 Prov. xxiv. 16.

63 Ps. cxix. 164.

64 Ps. xxxiv. 1.

65 John xvi. 13.

66 In Isa. xi. 2, as he shows in his eighth sermon, where this subject is further pursued; otherwise, one might have supposed he referred to Rev. iii. 1.

67 l Cor. xiii. 10.

68 Augustine refers to John viii. 25; see p. 195. He might rather have referred to Rev. iii. 14.

69 Ps. civ. 24.

70 Matt. xxii. 30.

71 Matt. xviii. 10.

72 2 Peter ii. 4.

73 Eph. v. 8.

74 Ps. cxlviii. 2.

75 Matt. iv. 9.

76 Jas. iv. 6.

77 1 Thess. v. 5.

78 Augustine himself published this idea in his Conf. xiii. 32 but afterwards retracted it, as "said without sufficient consideration" (Retract. II. vi. 2). Epiphanius and Jerome ascribe it to Origen.

79 Gen. i. 6.

80 Namely, the Audians and Sampsaeans, insignificant heretical sects mentioned by Theodoret and Epiphanius.

1 Matt. x. 28.

2 Essentia.

3 Ex. iii. 14.

4 Quintilian calls it dura.

5 With this may be compared the argument of Socrates in the Gorgias, in which it is shown that to escape punishment is worse than to suffer it, and that the greatest of evils is to do wrong and not be chastised.

6 Eccles. x. 13.

7 Specie.

8 Ps. xix. 12.

9 C. 13.

10 Rom. v 5.

11 Ps. lxxiii. 28.

12 De Deo Socrates.

13 Augustine no doubt refers to the interesting account given by Critias, near the beginning of the Timoeus, of the conversation of Solon with the Egyptian priests.

14 Augustine here follows the chronology of Eusebius, who reckons 5611 years from the Creation to the taking of Rome by the Goths; adopting the Septuagint version of the Patriarchal ages.

15 See above, viii. 5.

16 It is not apparent to what Augustine refers. The Arcadians, according to Macrobius (Saturn. i. 7), divided their year into three months, and the Egyptians divided theirs into three seasons: each of these seasons having four months, it is possible that Augustine may have referred to this. See Wilkinson's excursus on the Egyptian year, in Rawlinson's Herod. Book ii.

17 The former opinion was held by Democritus and his disciple Epicurus; the latter by Heraclitus, who supposed that "God amused Himself" by thus renewing worlds.

18 The Alexandrian Neo-Platonists endeavored in this way to escape from the obvious meaning of the Timoeus.

19 Antoninus says (ii. 14): "All things from eternity are of like forms, and come round in a circle." Cf. also ix. 28, and the references to more ancient philosophical writers in Gataker's notes in these passages.

20 Eccles. i. 9, 10. So Origen, de Prin. iii. 5, and ii. 3.

21 Rom vi 9.

22 1Thess. iv. 16.

23 Ps. xii. 7.

24 Cf. de Trin. v. 17.

25 Wisdom ix. 13-15.

26 Gen. i. 1.

27 Gen. i. 14.

28 Rom. xii. 3.

29 Titus i. 2, 3. Augustine here follows the version of Jerome, and not the Vulgate. Comp. Contra Priscill. 6, and de Gen. c. Man. iv. 4.

30 2 Cor. x. 12. Here, and in Enar. in Ps. xxxiv. and also in Cont. Faust. xxii. 47, Augustine follows the Greek, and not the Vulgate.

31 I. e. indefinite, or an indefinite succession of things.

32 Again in the Timoeus.

33 Wisdom xi. 20

34 Isa. xl. 26.

35 Matt. x. 30.

36 Ps. cxlvii. 5.

37 De soeculis saecutorium.

38 Ps. cxlviii. 4.

39 Cicero has the same (de Amicitia, 16): Quonam modo quisquam amicus esse poterit, cuise se putabit inimicum esse posse? He also quotes Scipio to the effect that no sentiment is more unfriendly to friendship than this, that we should love as if some day we were to hate.

40 C. 30

41 Coquaeus remarks that this is levelled against the Pelagians.

42

Ast homini," etc. Juvenal, Sat. xv. 160-5.-See also the very striking lines which precede these.

43 See this further discussed in Gen. ad Lit. vii. 35, and in Delitzsch's Bibl. Psychology.

44 Jer. xxiii. 24.

45 Wisdom viii. 1.

46 1 Cor. iii 7.

47 1 Cor. xv. 38.

48 Jer. i. 5.

49 Compare de Trin. iii. 13-16.

50 See Book xi. 5.

51 The deity, desirous of making the universe in all respects resemble the most beautiful and entirely perfect of intelligible objects, formed it into one visible animal, containing within itself all the other animals with which it is naturally allied.-Timaeus, c. xi.

52 Ps. xlvi. 8.

1 This book is referred to in another work of Augustine's (contra Advers, Legis et Prophet. i. 18), which was written about the year 420.

2 On this question compare the 24th and 25th epistles of Jerome, de obitu Leoe, and de obitu Blesilloe filiae. Coquaeus.

3 Ps. xlix. 12.

4 On which see further in de Peccat. Mer. i 67, et seq.

5 De Babitismo Parvulorum is the second half of the title of the book, de Peccatorum Meritis et Remissione.

6 1 Cor. xv. 56.

7 Rom. vii. 12, 13.

8 Literally, unregenerate.

9 John iii. 5.

10 Matt. x. 32.

11 Matt. xvi. 25.

12 Ps. cxvi. 15.

13 Much of this paradoxical statement about death is taken from Seneca. See, among other places, his epistle on the premeditation of future dangers, the passage beginning, Quotidie morimur, quotide enim demitur aliqua pars vitae.

14 Ecclus. xi. 28.

15 Ps. vi. 5.

16 Gen. ii.17.

17 Gal. v. 17.

18 Gen. ii. 17.

19 Gen. iii. 9.

20 Gen. iii. 19.

21 Wisdom ix. 15.

22 A translation of part of the Timaes, given in a little book of Cicero's, De Universo.

23 Plato, in the Timaeus, represents the Demiurgus as constructing the kosmos or universe to be a complete representation of the idea of animal. He planted in its centre a soul, spreading outwards so as to pervade the whole body of the kosmos; and then he introduced into it those various species of animals which were contained in the idea of animal. Among these animals stand first the celestial, the gods embodied in the stars, and of these the oldest is the earth, set in the centre of all, close packed round the great axis which traverses the centre of the kosmos.-See the Timaeus and Grote's Plato, iii. 250 et seq.

24 On these numbers see Grote's Plato, iii. 254.

25 Virgil, Aen, vi. 750, 751.

26 Book x. 30.

27 A catena of passages, showing that this is the catholic Christian faith, will be found in Bull's State of Man before the Fall (Works, vol. ii.).

28 2 Cor. xv. 42.

29 Prov. iii. 18.

30 1 Cor. x. 4.

31 Cant. iv. 13.

32 Ps. xlii. 6.

33 Ps. lix. 9.

34 Those who wish to pursue this subject will find a pretty full collection of opinions in the learned commentary on Genesis by the Jesuit Pererius. Philo was, of course, the leading culprit, but Ambrose and other Church fathers went nearly as far. Augustine condemns the Seleucians for this among other heresies, that they denied a visible Paradise.-De Haeres. 59

35 Tobit xii. 19.

36 Gen. ii.17.

37 Rom. viii. 10, 11

38 Gen. iii. 19.

39 In uno commune factum est omnibus.

40 Rom. viii. 28, 29.

41 1 Cor. xv. 42-45.

42 Gen. ii. 7.

43 1 Cor. xv 47-49.

44 Gal. iii. 27.

45 Rom. viii. 24.

46 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22.

47 Gen. ii. 7.

48 John xx. 22.

49 Gen. ii. 6.

50 2 Cor. iv. 16.

51 1 Cor. ii. 11.

52 Eccles. iii. 21.

53 Ps. cxlviii. 8.

54 Matt. xxviii. 19.

55 John iv. 24.

56 "Breath," Eng. ver.

57 Gen. i. 24.

58 Ecclus. xxiv. 3.

59 Rev. iii. 16.

60 1 Cor. xv. 44-49.

1 1 Cor. xv. 46.

2 1 Cor. xv. 39.

3 Rom. iii. 20.

4 Gal. iii. 11.

5 John i. 14.

6 The Apollinarians.

7 John xx. 13.

8 Gal. v. 19-21.

9 Wisd, ix. 15.

10 2 Cor. iv. 16.

11 2 Cor. v. 1-4.

12 Aeneid, vi. 730-32.

13 Ib. 733, 734.

14 On the punishment of the devil, see the De Agane Christi, 3-5, and De Nat. Boni, 33.

15 Rom. iii. 7.

16 John xiv. 6.

17 1 Cor. iii. 3.

18 1 Cor. ii. 11-14.

19 1 Cor. iii. 1.

20 Rom. iii. 20.

21 Gen. xlvi. 27.

22 See Augustine, De Haercs. 46.

23 Tusc. Quest iv. 6.

24 Aeneid, vi. 719-21.

25 Tit. i. 8, according to Greek and Vulgate.

26 John xxi. 15-17. On these synonyms see the commentaries in loc.

27 Ps. xi. 5.

28 1 John ii. 15.

29 2 Tim. iii. 2.

30 Phil. i. 23.

31 Ps. cxix. 20.

32 Wisd. vi. 20.

33 Ps. xxxii. 11.

34 Ps. iv. 7.

35 Ps. xvi. 11.

36 Phil. ii. 12.

37 Rom. xi. 20.

38 2 Cor. xi. 3.

39 Aeneid, vi. 733.

40 Isa. lvii. 21.

41 Matt. vii. 12.

42 Ecclus. vii. 13.

43 Luke ii 14.

44 Cat. i. 2.

45 Ter, Andr. ii. 1, 6.

46 Aeneid, vi, 733.

47 Aeneid, v. 278.

48 2 Cor. vii. 8-11.

49 Tusc. Disp. iii. 32.

50 C. 4, 5.

51 Rom. viii. 23.

52 1 Cor. xv. 54.

53 Matt. xxiv. 12.

54 Matt. x. 22.

55 1John i. 8.

56 2 Cor. ix. 7.

57 Gal. vi. l.

58 Ps. xxvi. 2.

59 Matt. xxvi. 75.

60 Jas. i. 2.

61 1 Cor, iv. 9.

62 Phil. iii. 14.

63 Rom. xii. 15.

64 2 Cor. vii. 5.

65 Phil. i. 23.

66 Rom. i. 11-13.

67 2 Cor. xi. 1-3.

68 Rom. ix. 2.

69 Rom. x. 3.

70 2 Cor. xii. 21.

71 Mark iii. 5.

72 John xi. 15.

73 John xi. 35.

74 Luke xxii. 15.

75 Matt. xxvi. 38.

76 Rom. i. 31.

77 Ps. lxix. 20.

78 Crantor, an Academic philosopher quoted by Cicero, Tusc quaest. iii. 6.

79 1 John i. 8.

80 1 John iv. 18.

81 Rom. viii. 15.

82 Ps. xix. 9.

83 Ps. ix. 18.

84 Matt. v. 28.

85 Gen. i. 28.

86 Gen. vi. 6, and 1 Sam. xv. 11.

87 Eccles. vii. 29.

88 1 John viii. 36.

89 1 Tim. ii. 14.

90 Rom. v. 12.

91 Gen. iii. 12.

92 Ecclus. x. 13.

93 Matt. vii. 18.

94 Defecit.

95 Ps. lxxiii. 18.

96 Gen. iii. 5.

97 Prov. xviii. 12.

98 That is to say, it was an obvious and indisputable transgression.

99 Ps. lxxxiii. 16.

100 Gen. iii. 12, 13.

101 Phil ii. 8.

102 Ps. cxliv. 4.

103 Cicero, Tusc. Quaest. iii. 6 and iv. 9. So Aristotle.

104 1 Thess. iv. 4.

105 Gen. ii. 25.

106 An error which arose from the words. The eyes of them both were opened, Gen. iii. 7.-See De Genesi ad lit. ii. 40.

107 Gen. iii. 6.

108 This doctrine and phraseology of Augustine being important in connection with his whole theory of the fall, we give some parallel passages to show that the words are not used at random: De Genesi ad lit. xi. 41; De Corrept. et Gratia, xi. 31; and especially Cont. Julian. iv. 82.

109 Gen. iii. 7.

110 See Plato's Republic, book iv.

111 The one word being the Latin form, the other the Greek, of the same adjective.

112 By Diogenes Laertius, vi. 69, and Cicero, De Offic. i. 41.

113 Gen. i. 28.

114 Ps. cxxxviii. 3.

115 Gen. i. 27, 28.

116 Matt. xix. 4, 5.

117 Eph. v. 25.

118 Luke xx. 34.

119 See Virgil, Georg. iii. 136.

120 Rom. i. 26.

121 The position of Calama is described by Augustine as between Constantine and Hippo, but nearer Hippo.-Contra I.it. Petil. ii. 228, A full description of it is given in Poujoulat's Histoire de S. Augustine, i. 340, who says it was one of the most important towns of Numidia, eighteen leagues south of Hippo, and represented by the modern Ghelma. It is to its bishop, Possidius, we owe the contemporary Life of Augustine.

122 Andr. ii. 1, 5.

123 1 Tim. i. 5.

124 Compare Basil's Homily on Paradise, and John Damascene, De Fide Orthad. ii. 11.

125 Ps. cxi. 2.

126 Ps. iii. 3.

127 Ps. xviii. 1.

128 Rom. i. 21-25.

129 1 Cor. xv. 28.

1 Gen. ix. 25.

2 Rom. ix. 21.

3 Gen. iv. 17.

4 Comp. De Trim. xv. c. 15.

5 Gal. iv. 21-31.

6 Rom. ix. 22, 23.

7 Wisdom viii. 1.

8 Lucan, Phar. i. 95.

9 Gal. v. 17.

10 Gal. vi. 2.

11 1 Thess. v. 14, 15.

12 Gal. vi. 1.

13 Eph. iv. 26.

14 Matt. xviii. 15.

15 1 Tim. v. 20.

16 Heb. xii. 14.

17 Matt. xviii. 35.

18 Rom. vi. 12, 13.

19 Gen. iv. 6, 7.

20 Literally, "division."

21 1 John iii. 12.

22 We alter the pronoun to suit Augustine's interpretation.

23 Gal. v. 17.

24 Rom. vii. 17.

25 Rom. vi. 13.

26 Gen. iii. 16.

27 Eph. v. 28, 29.

28 C. Faustum. Man. xii. c. 9.

29 Gen. iv. 17

30 Gen. iv. 25.

31 Lamech, according to the LXX.

32 Ex. xii. 37.

33 Virgil, Aen., xii 899, 900. Compare the Iliad, v. 302, and Juvenal, xv. 65 et seqq. "Terra malos homines nunc educat atque pusillos."

34 Plin. Hist. Nat.. vii. 16.

35 See the account given by Herodotus (i. 67) of the discovery of the bones of Orestes, which, as the story goes, gave a stature of seven cubits.

36 Pliny, Hist. Nat. vii. 49, merely reports what he had read in Hellanicus about the Epirotes of Etolia.

37 Our own Mss., of which Augustine here speaks, were the Latin versions of the Septuagint used by the Church before Jerome's was received; the "Hebrew Mss." were the versions made from the Hebrew text. Compare De Doct. Christ. ii. 15 et seqq.

38 Jerome (De Qunaest. Heb. in Gen.) says it was a question famous in all the churches-Vives.

39 "Quos in auctoritatem celebriorum Ecclesia suscepit."

40 See below, book xviii. c. 42-44.

41 C. 8.

42 On this subject see Wilkinson's note to the second book (appendix) of Rawlinson's Herodotus, where all available reference are given.

43 One hundred and eighty-seven is the number given in the Hebrew, and one hundred and sixty-seven in the Septuagint; but notwithstanding the confusion, the argument of Augustine is easily followed.

44 Gen. vii. 10, 11, (in our version the seventeenth day).

45 Gen. viii. 4, 5.

46 Ps. xc. 10.

47 Gen. iv, 1.

48 Gen. iv. 25.

49 Gen.v.6.

50 Gen.v.8.

51 Matt. i.

52 His own children being the children of his sister, and therefore his nephews.

53 This was allowed by the Egyptians and Athenians, never by the Romans.

54 Both in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, though not uniformly, nor in Latin commonly.

55 Gen. v. 2.

56 Luke xx. 35, 36.

57 Gen. iv. 18-22.

58 Gen. iv. 26.

59 Rom. viii. 24, 25.

60 Rom. x. 13.

61 Jer. xvii. 5.

62 Aeneid, i. 288.

63 Aeneid, iii. 97.

64 Luke xx. 34.

65 Rom. ix. 5.

66 Eusebius, Jerome, Bede, and others, who follow the Septuagint, reckon only 2242 years, which Vives explains by supposing Augustine to have made a copyist's error.

67 Transgreditur.

68 Ps. li. 3.

69 Gen. v. 1.

70 Ps. xlix. 11.

71 Ps. lxxiii. 20.

72 Ps. lii. 8.

73 Ps. xl.4.

74 Or, according to another reading, "Which I briefly said in these verses in praise of a taper."

75 Cant. ii. 4.

76 See De Doct. Christ. i. 28.

77 Ps. civ. 4.

78 On these kinds of devils, see the note of Vives in loc, or Lecky's Hist. of Rationalism, i. 26, who quotes from Maury's Histoire de la Magie, that the Dusii were Celtic spirits, and are the origin of our "Deuce."

79 2 Pet. ii. 4.

80 Mark i. 2.

81 Mal. ii. 7.

82 Gen. vi. 1-4. Lactantius (Inst. ii. 15), Sulpicius Severus (Hist. i. 2), and others suppose from this passage that angels had commerce with the daughters of men. See further references in the commentary of Pererius in loc.

83 Aquila lived in the time of Hadrian, to whom he is said to have been related. He was excommunicated from the Church for the practice of astrology; and is best known by his translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, which he executed with great care and accuracy, though he has been charged with falsifying passages to support the Jews in their opposition to Christianity.

84 Ps. lxxxii. 6.

85 Baruch iii. 26-28.

86 Lit.: The Lord thought and reconsidered.

87 Gen. vi. 5-7.

88 1 Tim. ii. 5.

89 In his second homily on Genesis.

90 Acts vii. 22.

91 Gen. vi. 19, 20.

1 Has pointed.

2 Gen. ix. 26, 27.

3 See Contra Faust. xii. c. 22 sqq.

4 Song of Solomon i. 3.

5 1 Cor. xi. 19.

6 Prov. x. 5. (LXX.)

7 Matt. vii. 20.

8 Phil. i. 18.

9 Isa. v. 7.

10 Matt. xx 22.

11 Matt. xxvi. 39.

12 2 Cor xiii. 4.

13 1 Cor. i. 25.

14 Augustine here follows the Greek version, which introduces the name Elisa among the sons of Japheth, though not found in the Hebrew. It is not found in the Complutensian Greek bans ration, nor in the Mss. used by Jerome.

15 Gen. x. 21.

16 Gen. xi. 1-9.

17 Ex. x.

18 Ps. xcv. 6.

19 Job xv. 13.

20 1 Cor. iii. 9.

21 Gen. i. 26.

22 Gen. xi. 6.

23 Virgil, Aen., iv. 592.

24 Here Augustine remarks on the addition of the particle ne to the word non, which he has made to bring out the sense.

25 Gen. i. 24.

26 Pliny, Hist. Nat. vii. 2; Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. ix. 4.

27 From pugh/, a cubit.

28 Gen. x. 25.

29 Ps. xiv. 3, 4; liii. 3, 4.

30 Gen. x. 25.

31 Josh. xxiv. 2.

32 Gen. xi. 27-29.

33 Gen. xi. 31.

34 Gen. xxiv. 10.

35 Judith v. 5-9.

36 Gen. xi. 32.

37 Gen. xii. 1.

38 Gen. xii. 4.

39 Gen. xi. 1.

40 Gen. xii. 1.

41 Acts, vii. 2, 3.

42 Acts vii. 4.

43 Gen. xii. 1.

44 Various reading, "of our Lord Jesus Christ."

45 Gen. xii. 1-3.

46 Acts vii.2.

47 Gen. xii. 7.

48 Gen. xiii. 8, 9.

49 Gen. xiii. 14-17.

50 Various reading, "the express promise."

51 Ps. cx. 4.

52 Rom. iv. 3; Gen. xv. 6.

53 Gen. xv. 7.

54 Gen. xv. 9-21.

55 Luke i. 34.

56 Luke i. 35.

57 Various reading, "who are to remain."

58 Matt. xxiv. 21.

59 Gen. xi. 32.

60 Gal. iii. 17.

61 1 Cor. vii. 4.

62 Gen. xvi. 6.

63 Gen. xv. 4.

64 Gen. xvii. 1-22. The passage is given in full by Augustine.

65 Gen. xvii. 14.

66 Rom. v. 12, 19.

67 Gen. ii 17.

68 Ecclus. xv. 17.

69 Rom. iv. 15.

70 Ps. cxix. 119. Augustine and the Vulgate follow the LXX.

71 Gen. xvii. 5, 6, 16.

72 Heb. xi. 11.

73 Heb. xi. 12.

74 Gen. xviii. 2, 3.

75 Gen. xix. 2.

76 Gen. xix. 16-19.

77 Gen. xix. 21.

78 Heb. xiii. 2.

79 Gen. xviii. 18.

80 Gen. xx. 12.

81 Gen, xxi. 6.

82 Gal. iv. 24-26.

83 Gen. xxi. 12, 13.

84 Rom. ix. 7, 8.

85 Heb. xi. 17-19.

86 Rom. viii. 32.

87 Gen. xxii 10-12.

88 Gen. xxii 14.

89 Gen. xxii. 15-18.

90 Gen. xvii. 17.

91 Gen. xxiv. 2, 3.

92 Gen. xvi. 3.

93 Gen. xxv. 1.

94 Gen. xxv. 5, 6.

95 Rom. ix. 7, 8.

96 Gen. xxv. 23.

97 Rom. ix. 10-13.

98 Gen. xxvi. 1-5.

99 Gen. xxvi. 24.

100 Gen. xxv. 27.

101 Gen. xxvii. 27-29.

102 Gen. xxvii. 33.

103 Gen. xxviii. 1-4.

104 Gen. xxi. 12.

105 Beer-sheba.

106 Gen. xxviii. 10-19.

107 John i. 47, 51.

108 Gen. xxxii. 28: Israel = a prince of God; ver. 30; Peniel = the face of God.

109 Ps. xviii. 45.

110 Augustine here follows the Septuagint, which at Gen. xlvi. 20 adds these names to those of Manasseh and Ephraim, and at ver, 27 gives the whole number as seventy-five.

111 Gen. l. 22, 23.

112 Gen. l. 23.

113 Gen. xlvi. 8.

114 Gen. xlix. 8-12.

115 John x. 18.

116 John ii. 19.

117 John xix. 30.

118 Gen. xlix. 12.

119 1 Pet. ii. 2; 1 Cor. iii. 2.

120 Gen. xxv. 23.

121 Gen. xlviii. 19.

122 Infans, from in, not, and fari, to speak.

1 Sallust, Bell. Cat. c. 8.

2 Gen. xii. 1, 2.

3 Gen. xii. 3.

4 Gal. iv. 22-31.

5 Heb. viii. 8-10.

6 1 Sam. ii. 1-10.

7 Ps. xlviii. 2.

8 2 Tim. ii. 9; Eph. vi. 20.

9 Luke ii. 25-30.

10 Rom. iii 26?

11 Gal. vi. 3.

12 Rom. x. 3.

13 Ps, xciv. 11; 1 Cor. iii. 20.

14 Ps. vi. 2.

15 Rom. iii. 2.

16 Rev. i. 4.

17 Prov. ix. 1.

18 By whom we see her made fruitful.

19 Col. iii. 1-3.

20 Rom. viii. 32.

21 Ps. xvi. 10; Acts ii. 27, 31.

22 2 Cor. viii. 9.

23 Jas. iv.6; 1 Pet. v. 5.

24 For the poor man is the same as the beggar.

25 Phil. iii. 7, 8.

26 Matt. xix. 27, 28.

27 1 Cor. iv. 7.

28 1 John iv. 7.

29 2 Cor. v. 10.

30 Ps. lxxiv. 12.

31 Acts x. 42.

32 Eph. iv. 9, 10.

33 Matt. xxiv. 13.

34 1 Cor. xii. 12.

35 1 Sam. ii. 27-36.

36 Ps. xvii. 8.

37 Isa. x. 21.

38 Rom. xi. 5.

39 Isa. xxxviii. 22; Rom. ix. 28.

40 Ps. xii. 6.

41 Ps. lxxxiv. 10.

42 1Tim. ii. 5.

43 1 Pet. ii. 9.

44 1 Cor. x. 17.

45 Rom. xii. 1.

46 John vi. 51.

47 Heb. vii. 11, 27.

48 Matt. xxiv. 15.

49 1 Sam. xxiv. 5, 6.

50 1 Sam. xiii. 13, 14.

51 Heb. ix. 15.

52 Luke xix. 10.

53 Eph. i. 4.

54 1 Sam. xv. 23.

55 1 Sam. xv. 26-29.

56 Rom. i. 3.

57 1 Tim. ii. 5.

58 Ps. cx 1.

59 Gen. xxi. 10.

60 Gal. iv. 25.

61 2 Cor. iii. 15, 16.

62 1 Sam. vii. 9-12.

63 2 Sam. vii. 8-16.

64 Rom. i. 3.

65 Ps. lxxii. 8.

66 1 Cor. iii. 17.

67 Ps. lxxxix. 3, 4.

68 Ps. lxxxix. 19-29.

69 Phil. ii. 7.

70 Matt. i. 1, 18; Luke i. 27.

71 2 Sam. vii. 14, 15.

72 Ps. cv. 15.

73 Ps. lxxxix. 30-33.

74 Acts ix. 4.

75 Ps. lxxxix. 34, 35.

76 Ps. lxxxix. 36, 37.

77 Ps. lxxxix. 38.

78 Ps. lxxxix. 38.

79 Ps. lxxxix. 39-45.

80 Ps. lxxxix. 46.

81 Ps. xiii. 1.

82 Ps. lxxxix. 46, 47.

83 Ps. lxxxix. 47.

84 Ps. cxliv. 4.

85 Ps. lxxxix. 48.

86 Rom. vi. 9.

87 John x. 18.

88 Ps. lxxxix. 49-51.

89 Rom. iii. 28, 29.

90 Acts xiii. 46.

91 Matt. vii. 7, 8.

92 Another reading, "consummation."

93 See above, chap. viii.

94 2 Sam. vii. 19.

95 2 Sam. vii. 8.

96 2 Sam. vii. 2.

97 Ps. cxxvii. 1.

98 2 Sam. vii. 10, 11.

99 2 Sam. vii. 10-11.

100 Judg. iii. 30.

101 Israel-a prince of God; Peniel-the face of God (Gen. xxxii. 28-30).

102 Ps. cx. 1, quoted in Matt. xxii. 44.

103 1 Kings xiii. 2; fulfilled 2 Kings xxiii. 15-17.

104 Ps. xlv. 1-9.

105 Ps. xlv. 9-17.

106 Ps. xlv. 7.

107 Ps. xlviii. 2.

108 Ps. xviii. 43.

109 Rom. x. 5.

110 Ps. lxxxvii. 5.

111 Ps xlv. 16.

112 Ps. cx. 1.

113 Ps. cx. 2.

114 Ps. cx. 4.

115 Ps. cx. 4.

116 Ps. xxii. 16, 17.

117 Ps. xxii. 18, 19.

118 Ps. iii. 5.

119 Ps. xli. 5-8.

120 Ps. xli. 9.

121 Ps. xli. 10.

122 2 Tim. iv. 1; 2 Pet. iv. 5.

123 John vi. 70.

124 1 Cor. xii. 12.

125 Matt. xxv. 35.

126 Matt. xxv. 40.

127 Acts. i. 17.

128 Ps. xvi. 9, 10.

129 Ps. lxviii. 20.

130 Matt. i. 21.

131 Ps. lxix. 21; Matt. xxvii. 34, 48.

132 Ps. lxix. 22, 23.

133 Ps. xxxii. 1.

134 Sallust, Bell. Cat. c. xi.

135 Wisd. ii. 12-21.

136 Ecclus. xxxvi. 1-5.

137 Prov. i. 11-13.

138 Matt. xxi. 38.

139 Ch. 4.

140 Prov. ix. 1-5 (ver. 1 is quoted above in ch. 4).

141 1 Cor. i. 27.

142 Prov. ix. 6.

143 Eccles. ii. 24; iii. 13; v. 18; viii. 15.

144 Ps. xl. 6.

145 Eccles. vii. 2.

146 Eccles. vii. 4.

147 Eccles. x. 16, 17.

148 Rom. v. 5.

149 Ps. lxix. 6?

150 Cant. i. 4.

151 Cant. vii. 6.

152 1 Kings xix. 10, 14, 15.

153 2 Tim. iii. 16.

154 Matt. xi. 13.

1 Not extant.

2 In the Hebrew text, Gen. xxv. 7, a hundred and seventy-five years.

3 Gen. xlix. 10.

4 Arhj and pa/goj.

5 1 Cor. xv. 46, 47.

6 The priests who officiated at the Lupercalia.

7 Aeneid, viii. 321.

8 Isa. xlviii. 20.

9 Virgil, Eclogue, viii. 70.

10 Virgil, Eclogue, v. 11.

11 Varro, De Lingua Latina, v. 43.

12 Aeneid, vi. 767.

13 The Sibylline Oracles are a collection of prophecies and religious teachings in Greek hexameter under the assumed authority and inspiration of a Sibyl, i.e., a female prophet. They are partly of heathen, partly of Jewish-Christian origin. They were used by the fathers against the heathen as genuine prophecies without critical discrimination, and they appear also in the famous Dies irae alongside with David as witnesses of the future judgment ("teste David cum Sibylla.") They were edited by Alexander, Paris, 2d. ed. 1869, and by Friedlieb (in Greek and German). Leipzig, 1852. Comp. Ewald: Ueber Entstehung, Inhalt und Werth der sibyll. Bucher, 1858, and Schürer, Geschichte der jüd Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu (Leipzig, 1885), ii. § 33, pp. 700 sqq., Engl. transl. (Hist. of the Jews in the times of Jesus. Edinburgh and New York, 1886), vol. iii. 271 sqq.-P. S.]

14 [Hence the fish was a favorite symbol of the ancient Christians. See Schaff, Church Hist. (revised ed.), vol. ii. 279 sq.-P. S.]

15 Hos. i. 1.

16 Amos i. 1.

17 Isa. i. 1. Isaiah's father was Amoz, a different name.

18 Mic. i. 1.

19 The chronicles of Eusebius and Jerome.

20 Hos. i. 10.

21 Hos. i. 11.

22 Gal. ii. 14-20.

23 Hos. iii. 4.

24 Hos. iii. 5.

25 Rom. i. 3.

26 Hos. vi. 2.

27 Col. iii. 1.

28 Amos iv. 12, 13.

29 Amos ix. 11, 12; Acts xv. 15-17.

30 Isa. lii. 13; liii. 13. Augustine quotes these passages in full.

31 Isa. liv. 1-5.

32 Mic. iv. 1-3.

33 Mic. v. 2-4.

34 Joel ii. 28, 29.

35 Obad. 17.

36 Obad. 21.

37 Col. i. 13.

38 Nah. i. 14; ii. 1.

39 Hab. ii. 2, 3.

40 Hab. iii. 2.

41 Luke xxiii. 34.

42 Hab. iii. 3.

43 Ps. lvii. 5, 11.

44 Hab. iii. 4.

45 John iii. 17.

46 Joel ii. 13.

47 Matt. v. 4.

48 Matt. x 27.

49 Ps. cxvi. 16.

50 Rom. xii. 12.

51 Heb. xi. 13, 16.

52 Rom. x. 3.

53 Ps. xl. 2, 3.

54 Jer. ix. 23, 24, as in 1 Cor. i. 31.

55 Lam. iv. 20.

56 Bar. iii. 35-37.br

57 Jer. xxiii. 5, 6.

58 Jer xvi. 19.

59 Jer. xvii 9.

60 Jer. xxxi 31; see Bk. xvii. 3.

61 Zeph. iii 8.

62 Zeph. ii. 11.

63 Zeph. iii. 9-12.

64 Isa. x, 22; Rom. ix. 27.

65 Dan. vii. 13, 14.

66 Ezek. xxxiv. 23.

67 Ezek. xxxvii. 22-24.

68 Hag. ii. 6.

69 Zech. ix. 9, 10.

70 Zech. ix. 11.

71 Ps. xl. 2.

72 Mal. i. 10, 11.

73 Mal. ii. 5-7.

74 Mal. iii. 1, 2.

75 John ii. 19.

76 Mal. iii. 13-16.

77 Mal. iii. 17; iv. 3.

78 Esdras iii. and iv.

79 Acts vii. 22.

80 Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21.

81 Jude 14.

82 Ex. xx.12.

83 Ex. xx. 13-15, the order as in Mark x. 19.

84 [Jerome was an older contemporary of Augustine, and next to him the most influential of the Latin fathers. He is the author of the Latin translation of the Scriptures, which under the name of the Vulgate is still the authorized Bible of the Roman church. He died at Bethlehem, 419, eleven years before Augustine.-P. S.]

85 Var. reading, "both in Greek and Latin."

86 Jon. iii. 4.

87 Hag. ii. 9.

88 Hag, ii. 7.

89 Matt xxii. 14.

90 Gen. xlix. 10.

91 Isa. vii. 14, as in Matt. i. 23.

92 Isa. x. 22, as in Rom. ix. 27, 28.

93 Ps. lxix. 22, 23; Rom. xi. 9, 10.

94 Ps. lxix. 10, 11.

95 Rom xi. 11.

96 I Tim. ii. 5.

97 Hag. ii. 9.

98 Hag. ii. 9.

99 1 Cor. x. 4; Ex. xvii. 6.

100 Hag ii. 7.

101 Eph. i. 4.

102 Matt. xxii. 11-14.

103 Matt. xiii. 47-50.

104 Ps. xl. 5.

105 Matt. iii. 2; iv. 17.

106 Luke vi. 13.

107 Isa. ii. 3.

108 Luke xxiv. 45-47.

109 Acts i. 7, 8.

110 Matt. x. 28.

111 Heb. ii. 4.

112 Rom. viii. 28.

113 Ps. xciv. 19.

114 Rom. xii. 12.

115 2 Tim. iii. 12.

116 2 Tim. ii. 19.

117 Rom. viii. 29.

118 Ps. xciv. 19.

119 1 John iii. 12.

120 Isa. xi. 4; 2 Thess. i. 9.

121 Acts i. 6, 7.

122 Ps. lxxii. 8.

123 Acts xvii. 30, 31.

124 Isa. ii. 3.

125 Luke xxiv. 47.

1 Matt. viii. 29.

2 Alluding to the vexed question whether virtue could be taught.

3 The prima naturae, or prw=ta kata' fu/sin of the Stoics.

4 Frequently called the Middle Academy; the New beginning with Carneades.

5 Hab. ii. 4.

6 Ps. xciv. 11, and 1 Cor. iii. 20.

7 Wisdom ix. 15.

8 Cicero, Tusc. Quaest. iii. 8.

9 Ga1. v. 17.

10 Rom. viii. 24.

11 Terent. Adelph. v. 4.

12 Eunuch, i. 1.

13 In Verrem, ii. 1. 15.

14 Matt. x. 36.

15 Ps. xxv. 17.

16 Job vii. 1.

17 Matt. xvii. 7.

18 Matt. xxiv. 12.

19 2 Cor. xi. 14.

20 Ps. cxlvii. 12-14.

21 Rom. vi. 22.

22 He refers to the giant Cacus.

23 Aeneid, viii. 195.

24 John viii. 44.

25 1 Tim. v. 8.

26 Gen. i. 26.

27 Servus, "a slave," from servare, "to preserve."

28 Dan. ix.

29 John viii. 34.

30 2 Pet. ii. 19.

31 The patriarchs.

32 1 Cor. xiii. 9.

33 Hab. ii. 4.

34 2 Cor. v. 6.

35 Ch. 6.

36 1 Tim. iii. 1.

37 Augustine's words are: e0ti/, quippe, super; skopo/j, vero, intentio est: ergo e0piskopei=n, si velimus, latine superintendere possumus dicere.

38 Ch. 21.

39 Ex. xxii. 20.

40 Gen. xxii. 18.

41 Ex. xxii. 20.

42 Ps. xcvi. 5.

43 Augustine here warns his readers against a possible misunderstanding of the Latin word for alone (soli), which might be rendered "the sun."

44 Ps. xvi. 2.

45 Ps. cxliv. 15.

46 I Tim. ii. 2; var. reading, "purity."

47 Jer. xxix. 7.

48 Matt. vi. 12.

49 Jas. ii. 17.

50 Gal. v. 6.

51 Wisdom ix. 15.

52 Job vii. 1.

53 Jas. iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5.

54 Gratia meritorum.

1 John v. 29.

2 Rom. ix. 14.

3 Rom. xi. 33.

4 Ps. cxliv. 4.

5 Eccles. i. 2. 3.

6 Eccles. ii. 13, 14.

7 Eccles. viii. 14.

8 Eccles. xii. 13, 14.

9 Rom. iii. 20-22.

10 Matt. xiii. 52.

11 Matt. xi. 22.

12 Matt. xi. 24.

13 Matt. xii. 41, 42.

14 Augustine quotes the whole passage, Matt. xiii. 37-43.

15 Matt. xix. 28.

16 Matt. xii. 27.

17 1 Cor 15:10.

18 1 Cor. vi. 3.

19 Ep. 199.

20 Matt. xxv. 34-41, given in full.

21 John v. 22-24.

22 John v. 25, 26.

23 Matt. viii. 22.

24 2 Cor. v. 14, 15.

25 Ps. Ci. 1.

26 John v. 28, 29.

27 Rev. xx. 1-6. The whole passage is quoted.

28 2 Pet. iii. 8.

29 Serm. 259.

30 Milliarii.

31 [Augustine, who had formerly himself entertained chiliastic hopes, revolutionized the prevailing ante-Nicene view of the Apocalyptic millennium by understanding it of the present reign of Christ in the Church. See Schaff, Church History, vol. ii. 619.-P. S.]

32 Mark iii. 27; "Vasa" for "goods."

33 Matt. xix. 29.

34 2 Cor. vi. 10.

35 Ps. cv. 8.

36 Col. i. 13.

37 2 Tim. ii. 19.

38 Ps. cxxiii. 2.

39 Rev. xx. 9, 10.

40 1 John ii. 19.

41 Matt. xxiv. 12.

42 Between His first and second coming.

43 Matt. xxv. 34.

44 Matt. xxviii. 20.

45 Matt. xiii. 39-41.

46 Matt. v. 19.

47 Matt. xxiii. 3.

48 Matt. v. 20.

49 Col. iii. 1, 2.

50 Phil. iii. 20.

51 Phil. ii. 21.

52 Matt. xviii. 18.

53 1 Cor. v. 12.

54 Rev. xx. 4.

55 Rev. xiv. 13.

56 Rom. xiv. 9.

57 2 Cor. vi. 14.

58 And, as Augustine remarks, are therefore called cadavera, from cadere, "to fall."

59 Col. iii. 1.

60 Rom. vi. 4.

61 Eph. v. 14.

62 Ecclus. ii. 7.

63 Rom. xiv. 4.

64 1 Cor. x. 12.

65 1 Peter ii. 9.

66 Matt. xxv. 41.

67 Ps. lxix. 9.

68 Isa. xxvi. 11.

69 2 Thess. ii. 8.

70 Ch. 24.

71 1 Cor. vii. 31, 32.

72 Col. iii. 3.

73 Matt. viii. 22.

74 Rom. viii. 10.

75 "Apud inferos," i.e. in hell, in the sense in which the word is used in the Psalms and in the Creed.

76 Matt. xxv. 46.

77 Rev. xxi. 1.

78 Rev. xv. 2.

79 Rev. xxi. 2-5.

80 Isa. xlv. 8.

81 Ps. xlii. 3.

82 Ps. vi. 6.

83 Ps. xxxviii. 9.

84 Ps. xxxix. 2.

85 2 Cor. v. 4.

86 Rom. viii. 23.

87 Rom. ix. 2.

88 Augustine therefore read nei=koj, and not with the Vulgate ni/kh. [The correct reading is to' ni=koj, later form for ni/kh, victory.-P. S.]

89 l Cor. xv. 55.

90 1 John i. 8.

91 2 Pet. iii. 3-13. The whole passage is quoted by Augustine.

92 2 Thess. ii. 1-11. Whole passage given in the Latin. In ver. 3 refuga is used instead of the Vulgate's discessio.

93 Augustine adds the words, "Sicut dicimus, Sedet in amicum, id ett, velut amicus; vel si quid aliud isto locutionis genere dici solet."

94 Suetonius' Nero, c. 57.

95 1 John ii. 18, 19.

96 1 Thess. iv. 13-16.

97 1 Cor. xv. 22.

98 1 Cor. xv. 36.

99 Gen. iii. 19.

100 1 Cor. xv. 51.

101 Isa. xxvi. 19.

102 Isa. lxvi. 12, 16.

103 Gal. iv. 26.

104 Matt. v. 8.

105 Isa. lxv. 17-19.

106 Phil. iii. 19.

107 Rom. viii. 6.

108 Gen. vi. 3.

109 Luke xii. 49.

110 Acts ii. 3.

111 Matt. x. 34.

112 Heb. iv. 12.

113 Song of Sol. ii. 5.

114 Isa. lxvi. 18.

115 Rom. iii. 23.

116 Isa. lxvi. 22-24.

117 As the Vulgate: cadavera virorum.

118 Here Augustine inserts the remark, "Who does not see that cadavera (carcases) are so called from cadendo (falling)?"

119 Matt. xxv. 30.

120 1 Cor. xv. 28.

121 1 John iii. 9.

122 Isa. lvi. 5.

123 Dan. vii. 15-28. Passage cited at length.

124 Dan xii. 1-3.

125 John v. 28.

126 Gen. xvii. 5, and xxii. 18.

127 Dan. xii. 13.

128 Ps. cii. 25-27.

129 1 Cor. vii. 31.

130 1 John ii. 17.

131 Matt. xxiv. 35.

132 2 Pet. iii. 6.

133 2 Pet. iii. 10, 11.

134 Matt. xxiv. 29.

135 Aeneid, ii. 694.

136 Ps. l. 3-5.

137 Isa. 1iii. 7.

138 Matt. xxvi. 63.

139 Ch. 21.

140 1 Thess. iv. 17.

141 Hos. vi. 6.

142 Ch. 6.

143 Matt. xxv. 34.

144 In his Proem. ad Mal.

145 See Smith's Bible Dict.

146 Mal. iii. 1-6. Whole passage quoted.

147 Isa. iv. 4.

148 1 John i. 8.

149 Job. xiv. 4.

150 Rom. i. 17.

151 Isa. lxv. 22.

152 Prov. iii. 18.

153 Wisd. i. 9.

154 Rom. ii. 15, 16.

155 Mal. iii. 17; iv. 3.

156 Mal. iv. 4.

157 John v. 46.

158 Mal. iii. 14, 15.

159 Mal. ii. 17.

160 In innocentibus.

161 Ps. lxxiii.

162 Mal. iv. 5, 6.

163 2 Kings ii. 11.

164 Mal. ii. 17; iii. 14.

165 Isa. xlviii. 12-l6.

166 Isa. liii. 7.

167 Zech. ii. 8, 9.

168 Matt. xv. 24.

169 John vii. 39.

170 Ps. xviii. 43.

171 Matt. iv. 19.

172 Luke v. 10.

173 Matt. xii. 29.

174 Zech. xii. 9, 10.

175 So the Vulgate.

176 John v. 22.

177 Isa. xlii. 1-4.

178 John i. 32.

179 Matt. xvii. 1, 2.

180 Ps. xli. 5.

1 Luke i. 33.

2 Matt. xiii. 41-43.

3 Matt. xxv. 46.

4 Luke xvi. 24.

5 Aeneid, vi. 733.

6 Ch. 3, 5, 6.

7 Aristotle does not affirm it as a fact observed by himself, but as a popular tradition (Hist. Anim. v. 19). Pliny is equally cautious (Hist. nat. xxix. 23). Dioscorides declared the thing impossible (ii. 68).-Saisset.

8 So Lucretius, ii. 1025:

Paulatim."

9 Alluded to by Moore in his Melodies:

To burn when night was near."

10 Aeneid, iv. 487-491.

11 See the same collocation of words in Cic. Nat. deor. ii. 3.

12 The etymologies given here by Augustine are, "monstra," a monstrando; "ostenta," ab ostendendo; "portenta," a portendendo, i.e. praeostendendo; "prodigia," quod porro dicant, i.e. futura praedicant.

13 Isa. lxvi. 24.

14 Mark ix. 43-48.

15 2 Cor. xi. 29.

16 Isa. li. 8.

17 Ecclus. vii. 17.

18 Rom. viii. 13.

19 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10.

20 Matt. xxv. 41.

21 Luke xvi. 24.

22 Rev. xx. 10.

23 "Talio," i.e. the rendering of like for like, the punishment being exactly similar to the injury sustained.

24 Ex. xxi. 24.

25 Luke vi. 38.

26 Remanerent. But Augustine constantly uses the imp. for the plup. subjunctive.

27 Plato's own theory was that punishment had a twofold purpose, to reform and to deter. "No one punishes an offender on account of the past offense, and simply because he has done wrong, but for the sake of the future, that the offense may not be again committed, either by the same person or by any one who has seen him punished."-See the Protagoras, 324, b, and Grote's Plato, ii. 41.

28 Aeneid, vi. 733.

29 Job vii. 1.

30 Compare Goldsmith's saying, "We begin life in tears, and every day tells us why."

31 Ecclus. xl. 1.

32 2 Tim. ii. 19.

33 Rom. viii. 14.

34 Gal. v. 17.

35 "Fari."

36 See Aug. Ep. 98, ad Bonifacium.

37 On the heresy of Origen, see Epiphanius (Epistola ad Joannem Hierosol.); Jerome (Epistola 61, ad Pammachium); and Agustin (De Haeres, 43). Origen's opinion was condemned by Anastasius (Jerome, Apologia adv. Ruffinum and Epistola 78, ad Pammachium), and after Augustine's death by Vigilius and Emperor Justinian, in the Fifth (Oecumenical Council, Nicephorus Callistus, xvii. 27, and the Acts of the Council, iv. 11).-Coquaeus.

38 Ps. lxxvii. 9.

39 Ps. xxxi. 19.

40 Rom. xi. 32.

41 John vi. 50, 51.

42 1 Cor. x. 17.

43 Matt. xxiv. 13.

44 1 Cor. iii. 11-15.

45 Jas. ii. 13.

46 Matt. xxv. 33.

47 Matt. vi. 12.

48 Matt. vi. 14, 15.

49 Matt. xxv. 41.

50 Rev. xx. 10.

51 2 Pet. ii. 4.

52 Matt. xxv. 41.

53 Matt. xxv. 46.

54 2 Tim. ii. 25, 26.

55 [This contains the germ of the doctrine of purgatory, which was afterwards more fully developed by Pope Gregory I., and adopted by the Roman church, but rejected by the Reformers, as unfounded in Scripture, though Matt. xii. 32, and 1 Cor. iii. 15, are quoted in support of it.-P. S.]

56 Matt. xii. 32.

57 Matt. xxv. 34, 41, 46.

58 Ps. lxxvii. 9.

59 Ps. lxxvii. 10.

60 Ps. cxliv. 4.

61 Matt. v. 45.

62 It is the theory which Chrysostom adopts.

63 Matt. xxv. 41, 46.

64 Rev. xx. 10.

65 Isa. lxvi. 24.

66 Ps. xxxi. 19.

67 1 John iv. 18.

68 1 Cor. i. 30, 31.

69 Rom. x. 3.

70 Ps. xxxiv. 8.

71 Ps. xvii. 15.

72 Rom. xi. 32.

73 Gal. v. 19-21.

74 John vi. 50, 51.

75 1 Cor. x. 17.

76 Gal. v. 6.

77 Rom. xiii. 10.

78 John vi. 56.

79 Jas. ii. 14.

80 1 Cor. iii. 15. [This is the chief passage quoted in favor of purgatory. See note on p. 470. The Apostle uses a figurative term for narrow escape from perdition.-P. S.]

81 1 Cor. vii. 32.

82 1 Cor. vii. 33.

83 1 Cor. iii. 13.

84 Ecclus. xxvii. 5.

85 1 Cor. iii. 14,15.

86 Matt. xxv. 41.

87 Matt. xxv. 34.

88 1 Cor. iii. 13.

89 Matt. x. 37.

90 Jas. ii. 13.

91 Matt. vi. 12.

92 Matt. iii. 8.

93 Matt. xxii. 39.

94 Ecclus. xxx. 24.

95 Ecclus. xxi. 1.

96 Matt. xxv. 45.

97 John iii. 5.

98 Matt. v. 20.

99 Matt. v. 23, 24.

100 Matt. vi. 12.

101 Matt. vi. 14.

102 Matt. vi. 15.

103 Jas. ii. 13.

104 Matt. xviii. 23.

105 Jas. ii. 13.

106 Luke xvi. 9.

107 1 Cor. vii. 25.

108 Luke xvi. 9.

109 Matt. x. 41.

110 Aen. vi. 664.

1 Bk. iii. chap. 25.

2 Phil. ii. 13.

3 John viii. 17.

4 Ps. xxxvii. 31.

5 Gal. iv. 9.

6 Gen. xxii. 18.

7 Isa. xxvi. 19.

8 Isa. lxv. 17-19.

9 Dan. xii. 1, 2.

10 Dan. vii. 18.

11 Dan. vii. 27.

12 Another reading has diffamatum, "published."

13 A somewhat fuller account of this miracle is given by Augustine in the Confessions, ix. 16. See also Serm. 286, and Ambrose, Ep. 22. A translation of this epistle in full is given in Isaac Taylor's Ancient Christianity, ii. 242, where this miracle is taken as a specimen of the so-called miracles of that age, and submitted to a detailed examination. The result arrived at will be gathered from the following sentence: "In the Nicene Church, so lax were the notions of common morality, and in so feeble a manner did the fear of God influence the conduct of leading men, that, on occasions when the Church was to be served, and her assailants to be confounded, they did not scruple to take upon themselves the contrivance and execution of the most degrading impostures."- P. 270. It is to be observed, however, that Augustine was, at least in this instance, one of the deceived. [On Augustine's views on post-apostolic miracles see Card. Newman, Essay on Miracles, Nitzsch, Augustineas Lehre vom Wunder (Berlin, 1865) and Schaff, Church History, vol. iii. 460, sqq.-P. S.]

14 Alypius was a countryman of Augustine, and one of his most attached friends. See the Confessions, passim.

15 Cleros.

16 Easter and Whitsuntide were the common seasons for administering baptism, though no rule was laid down till towards the end of the sixth century. Tertullian thinks these the most appropriate times, but says that every time is suitable. See Turtull, de Baptismo, c. 19.

17 A town near Carthage.

18 This may possibly mean a Christian.

19 Near Hippo.

20 Augustine's 325th sermon is in honor of these martyrs.

21 See Isaac Taylor's Ancient Christianity, ii. 354.

22 See Augustine's Sermons, 321.

23 Sermon 322.

24 Ps. xciv. 11.

25 C. 18.

26 Luke xxi. 18.

27 Eph. iv. 13.

28 Rom. viii. 29.

29 Luke xxi. 18.

30 Rom. viii. 29.

31 Rom xii. 2.

32 Eph. iv. 13.

33 Rom. viii. 29.

34 Gen, ii. 22.

35 Eph. iv. 12.

36 Matt. xxii. 29.

37 Matt. xxii. 30.

38 Eph. iv. 10-16.

39 1 Cor. xii. 27.

40 Col i. 24.

41 1 Cor. x. 17.

42 Another reading is, "Head over all the Church."

43 Eph. i. 22, 23.

44 Ps. cxii. 1.

45 Luke xii. 7.

46 Matt. xiii. 43.

47 Cic. Tusc. Quaest. i. 27.

48 1 Cor. iii. 1.

49 1 Cor. xv. 44.

50 Ps. xxvi. 8.

51 Ecclus. xxx. 12.

52 Gal. v. 17.

53 1 Cor. xv. 57.

54 Rom. viii. 37.

55 Matt. vi. 12.

56 Gen. i. 28.

57 John v. 17.

58 Ps. xlix. 20.

59 1 Cor. iii. 7.

60 Coaptatio, a word coined by Augustine, and used by him again in the De Trin. iv. 2.

61 Ps. civ. 1.

62 He apparently has in view the celebrated passage in the opening of the second book of Lucretius. The uses made of this passage are referred to by Lecky, Hist. of European Morals, i. 74.

63 Rom. viii. 32.

64 Vide Book xviii. c. 53.

65 Virg. Aen. vi. 751.

66 In the Republic, x.

67 Phil. iv. 7.

68 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10.

69 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

70 Matt. xviii. 10.

71 1 John iii. 2.

72 Ps. cxvi. 10.

73 1 Cor. xiii. 11, 12.

74 2 Kings v. 26.

75 Jer. xxiii. 24.

76 Job xlii. 5, 6.

77 Eph. i. 18.

78 Matt. v. 8.

79 Luke iii. 6.

80 Luke ii. 29, 30.

81 Job xix. 26. [Rev. Vers.; "from my flesh," with the margin: "without my flesh."-P. S.]

82 1 Cor. xiii 12.

83 2 Cor. iii. 18.

84 Ps. xxxiv. 5.

85 Wisd. ix. 14.

86 Rom. i. 20.

87 1 Cor. iv. 5.

88 Ps. lxxxiv. 4.

89 Numbers.

90 Lev. xxvi. 12.

91 1 Cor. xv. 28.

92 Or, the former to a state of probation, the latter to a state of reward.

93 Ps. xlvi. 10.

94 Gen, ii. 2, 3.

95 Gen. iii. 5.

96 Deut. v. 14.

97 Ezek. xx. 12.

98 Acts. i. 7.

99 [On Augustine's view of the millennium and the first resurrection, see Bk. xx. 6-10.-P. S.]

1 2 Cor. xii. 2-4.

2 Chap. 8.

3 Bk. ii. chap. 8.

4 Gal. iv. 24.

5 Book. ii. chap. 28. See p. 547.

6 This book is among the lost works of Ambrose.

1 Matt. xiii. 12..

2 Acts ix. 3.

3 Acts x.

4 1 Cor. iii. 17.

5 Acts viii. 26.

6 Ex. xviii. 13.

7 Matt. xxv. 26, 27.

8 John xiv. 6.

9 1 Cor. iv. 7.

1 See Book 1. 519.

2 Matt. xiv. 17, etc.; xx. 34.

3 Ex. xv. 25.

4 Gen. xxviii. 11.

5 Gen. xxii. 13.

6 Rom. i. 20.

7 Rom. xi. 36.

8 1 Cor. i. 25.

9 1 Cor. i. 21.

10 John i. 10.

11 John i. 14.

12 Compare Eph. i. 23 with Rom. xii. 5.

13 Rev. xix. 7; xxi. 9.

14 Compare Matt. xvi. 19 with xviii. 18.

15 1 Cor. xv. 50-53.

16 Jer. xvii. 5.

17 Matt. xxii. 37-39. Compare Lev. xix. 18; Deut. vi. 5.

18 Ps. x. 5 (LXX.).

19 Eph. v. 29.

20 Gal. v. 17.

21 Eph. v. 29.

22 Matt. xxii. 37-40.

23 Luke x. 29, foll.

24 Matt. v. 44.

25 Rom. xiii. 9, 10.

26 Ps. xxxv. 14.

27 Ps. xvi. 2 (LXX.).

28 Ex. iii. 14.

29 1 Cor. i. 13.

30 1 Cor. iii. 7.

31 Rev. xix. 10.

32 Philem. 20.

33 2 Cor. v. 16.

34 A. V. possessed.

35 Prov. viii. 22.

36 Comp. Phil. iii. 13.

37 John xiv. 6.

38 2 Cor. v. 7.

39 1 Cor. xiii. 8.

40 1 Cor. xiii. 13.

41 1 Tim. i. 5.

1 SeeBook ii. chap. x..

2 John xii. 3-7; Mark xiv. 8..

3 Matt. ix. 20.

4 Gen. xi.

5 Cant. iv. 2.

6 Comp. Matt. xxii. 37-40.

7 See Book 1. c. 22.

8 Fortitudo.

9 Consilium misericordiae.

10 Matt. v. 8.

11 1 Cor. xiii. 12; 2 Cor. v. 7.

12 Ps. cxi. 10.

13 That is, Ezra and Nehemiah.

14 Augustine in his Retractations withdrew this opinion so far as regards the book of Wisdom.

15 This application of the phrase "Old Testament" is withdrawn and apologized for in the Retractations.

16 Bovem triturantem non infrenabis.-1 Cor. ix. 9.

17 Isa. lviii. 7, "And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh" (A. V.).

18 Et domesticos seminis tui ne despexeris.

19 Et carnem tuam ne despexeris.

20 Rom xi. 14.

21 Isa. vii. 9, "If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established" (A. V.).

22 Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis.

23 Nisi credideritis, non permanebitis.

24 2 Cor. v. 7..

25 Rom. iii. 15.

26 Wisd. iv. 3.

27 Adulterinae plantationes non dabunt radices altas.

28 Vitulamina.

29 Comp. 1 Cor. viii. 1.

30 "And what the land is that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad; and what cities they be that they dwell in."-Num. xiii.19 (A.V.).

31 "But upon himself shall my holiness flourish."-Ps. cxxxii. 18 (see LXX.). "But upon himself shall his crown flourish" (A.V.).

32 "Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men" (1 Cor. 1. 25).

33 "What is foolish of God is wiser of men, and what is weak of God is stronger of men."

34 The translation here referred to is the Vetus Latina, as revised by the Church of Northern Italy in the fourth century, prior to the final recension of Jerome, commonly called the Vulgate.

35 Among these are Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Clemens Alexandrinus. Comp. Augustine, De Civ. Dei, xviii. 43, and Epp. 71 and 75.

36 John ix. 7.

37 Matt. x. 16.

38 Eph. iv. 22.

39 Matt. vii. 13.

40 Gen. viii. 11.

41 Ps. li. 7.

42 Ex. xxiv. 18; 1 Kings xix. 8; Matt. iv. 2.

43 John xxi. 11.

44 Ps. xxxiii. 2..

45 John ii. 20.

46 Rom. i. 21-23.

47 Wisd. xiii. 9.

48 Gen. xxv. 24.

49 Comp. Deut. xiii. 1-3..

50 1 Sam. xxviii., comp. Ecclus. xlvi. 20.

51 Ventriloqua femina. The woman with a familiar spirit to whom Saul resorted in his extremity is called in the Septuagint translation e0ggastri/muqoj. See 1 Sam. xxviii. 7.

52 Acts xvi. 16-18.

53 1 Cor. x. 19, 20.

54 See Tylor's Early History of Mankind, pp. 42, 43.

55 See above, chap. xi.

56 Notae..

57 Notarii..

58 John. ii. 19.

59 Luke iii. 23.

60 See above, chap. xvi.

61 Augustine himself corrected this mistake. Retractations, ii. 4.

62 Qui sophistice loquitur, odibilis est. Ecclus. xxxvii. 20.

63 1 Cor. xv. 13, 14.

64 Intelligibiles numeri.

65 Ne quid nimis-Terence, Andria, act i. scene 1.

66 Ex. iii. 21, 22; xii. 35, 36.

67 Acts vii. 22.

68 1 Cor. viii. 1.

69 1 Cor. v. 7..

70 Matt. xi. 28-30.

71 Ex. xii. 22.

72 Eph. iii. 17, 18.

73 Eph. iii. 19.

74 Ps. li. 7, 8.

75 Ossa humiliata, Vulgate.

1 Book i. chap.1.

2 John i. 1, 2.

3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was.

4 This Word was in the beginning with God.

5 And the Word was God.

6 The same was in the beginning with God.

7 Phil. i. 22-24.

8 The Vulgate reads, multo magis melius, omitting the enim.

9 2 Cor. vii. 1, 2.

10 1 Cor. vii. 34.

11 Rom. viii. 33, 34.

12 Percontatio.

13 Interrogatio.

14 The English language has no two words expressing the shades of meaning assigned by Augustine to percontatio and interrogatio respectively.

15 Rom. ix. 30.

16 John i. 47.

17 Ps. cxxxix. 16. "My substance was not hid from Thee when I was made in secret" (A. V.).

18 My bone was not hid from Thee.

19 Gal. v. 21.

20 1 Thess. iii. 7. "Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you" (A. V.).

21 1 Cor. xv. 31.

22 2 Cor. iii. 6.

23 Gal. iii. 24. The word paidagwgo/j means strictly not a schoolmaster, but a servant who takes children to school.

24 Acts iv. 34, 35.

25 Claudian.

26 Luke xv. 16.

27 Flagitium.

28 Facinus.

29 Rom. ii. 5-9.

30 Gal. v. 24.

31 Jer. i. 10.

32 John xii. 3.

33 Hos. i. 2.

34 Matt. vii. 12. Comp. Tobit iv. 15.

35 John vi. 53.

36 Rom xii. 20; ; Prov. xxv. 21, 22.

37 John xii. 25. Comp. Matt. x. 39.

38 Ecclus. xii. 4. Comp. Tobit iv. 17.

39 Ecclus. vii. 27.

40 1 Cor. vii. 1, 2, 9.

41 Eccles. iii. 5.

42 Tobit viii. 5-7.

43 Comp. 2 Sam. xvi. 22; xviii. 5; xix. 1.

44 2 Sam. xii. 19-23.

45 2 Sam. xii. 1-6.

46 2 Chron. i. 10-12; 1 Kings xi. 1-3.

47 1 Cor. x. 12.

48 Comp. Jas. iv. 6 and 1 Pet. v. 6.

49 Matt xvi. 6; Luke xii. 1.

50 I.uke xiii. 21.

51 Rev. v. 5.

52 1 Pet. v. 8.

53 Matt. x. 16.

54 2 Cor. xi. 3.

55 John vi. 51.

56 Prov. ix. 17.

57 Ps. lxxv. 8.

58 Rev. xvii. 15.

59 John vii. 38.

60 Ps. xxxv. 2.

61 Ps. v. 12.

62 Eph. vi. 16.

63 l Thess. v. 8.

64 The word piscina (literally a fish-pond) was used in post-Augustan times for any pool of water, a swimming pond, for instance, or a pond for cattle to drink from.

65 Quod minime luceat.

66 Gal. iii. 29.

67 Isa. lxi. 10 (LXX.). "As a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with jewels"(A.V.).

68 Cant. i. 5.

69 Matt. xiii. 47, 48.

70 Gal. iv. 30.

71 Isa. xlii. 16.

72 Matt. xxiv. 50, 51.

73 Eph. vi. 23.

74 1 Cor. xi. 19.

75 Rom. xii. 3.

76 Phil. i. 29.

77 2 Sam. vii. 14-16.

78 Ezek. xxxvi. 17-19.

79 1 Cor. x. 18.

80 Ezek. xxxvi. 23.

81 Ezek. xxxvi. 23-29.

82 Isa. x. 22.

83 2 Cor. iii. 2, 3.

84 Ezek. xxxviii. 26.

85 2 Tim. i. 9, 10.

86 Luke ix. 28.

87 Matt. xvii. 1; Mark ix. 2.

88 Matt. xii. 40.

89 Comp. Ps. cxix. 164 with xxxiv. 2.

90 Jer. xxv. 11.

91 Rev. vii. 4.

92 Gen. ii. 8, 9.

93 Gen. ii. 15.

94 Gen. x. 20.

95 Gen. x. 31.

96 Gen. x. 32; xi. 1.

97 Luke xvii. 29-32.

98 1 John ii. 18.

99 Comp. Rom. ii. 5.

100 Isa. xiv. 12 (LXX.). "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!" (A. V.).

101 Isa. xiv. 12 (LXX.). "How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!" (A. V.).

102 Prov. ii. 6.

1 Book i. chap.1.

2 Cicero de Oratore, iii. 31; Quinctil, Inst. Orat. i. 1, 2.

3 Cicero, de Inventione Rhetorica i. 1.

4 Wisd. vi. 24.

5 Cf. Cicero, Orator. 21: "Sed est eloquentiae, sicut reliquarum rerum, fundamentum sapientia".

6 Rom. v. 3-5.

7 Cf. Cicero, Orator. 62: "Quae nescio cur, cum Graeci ko/mata et kw=la nominent, nos non recte incisa et membra dicamus".

8 Cf. Cicero, de Claris Oratoribus, 44: "Comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum (si sic periodum appellari placet.)".

9 2 Cor. xi. 16-30.

10 The only apparent difference between membrum and caesum is, that the former is the longer of the two. It is impossible to express the difference in English.

11 2 Cor. xi. 6.

12 2 Cor. x. 10.

13 Amos. i. 1; vii. 14.

14 Amos vi. 1-6. The version given above, which is a literal translation of Jerome's Latin, as quoted by Augustine, differs from the English authorized version.

15 Cicero, Orator. 23: "Quaedam etiam negligentia est diligens".

16 "I shall not assemble their assemblies of blood," Ps. xvi. 4. (Vulgate.) "Their drink-offerings of blood will I not offer." (A. V.)

17 Cicero, Orator. 21: "Est igitur eloquens qui ita dicet, ut probei, ut delectet, ut flectat." Not quoted accurately by Augustine.

18 "Probare, necessitatis est; delectare, suavitatis; flectere, victoriae."

19 "And the priests bear rule by their means." (A. V.)

20 Jer. v. 30, 31 (LXX.).

21 Jer. xxiii. 29.

22 Ps. xxxv. 18.

23 Cyprian, ad Donat. Ep. i..

24 Matt. x. 19, 20.

25 Matt. vi 8.

26 1 Tim. iv. 11.

27 1 Tim. v. 1.

28 2 Tim. i. 13.

29 2 Tim ii. 15.

30 2 Tim iv. 2.

31 Tit. i. 9.

32 Tit. ii. 1, 2.

33 Tit ii. 15, iii. 1.

34 1 Cor. iii. 7.

35 Ps. cxliii. 10.

36 2 Tim. iii. 14.

37 Cicero, Orator. 29: "Is isitur erit etoquens, qui poterit parva summisse, modica temperate, magna granditer dicere."

38 Luke xvi. 10.

39 1 Cor. vi. 1-9.

40 Matt. x. 42.

41 Gal. iv. 21-26.

42 Gal. iii. 15-18.

43 Gal. iii. 19-22.

44 1 Tim. v. 1, 2.

45 Rom xii. 1.

46 Rom. xii. 6-16.

47 Rom. xiii. 7.

48 Rom. xiii. 12-14.

49 Instead of "ne feceritis in concupiscentiis," which is the translation as quoted by Augustine.

50 In his preface to Job.

51 An allusion to Virgil's Aeneid, vii. 508: "Quod cuique repertum Rimanti, telum ira fecit."

52 2 Cor. vi. 2-10.

53 Rom. viii. 28-39.

54 Gal. iv. 10-20.

55 John xv. 1.

56 Gen. ix. 20-24.

57 Gen. xiv. 18, 19.

58 Ps. cx. 4.

59 Ad. Caecilium, Ep. 63, 1, 2.

60 Judge. vi. 14-21.

61 1 Cor. x. 4.

62 Num. xi. 4.

63 Luke xii. 49.

64 De Spiritu Sancto, lib. i. Prol.

65 De habitu Virginum, chap. vii.

66 1 Cor. xv. 49.

67 De habitu Virginum, chap. xviii.

68 De Virginibus, lib. ii. chap. i.

69 1 Cor. v. 7, 8.

70 Matt. v. 36.

71 Cyprian, de habitu Virginum, chap. xii.

72 Ambrose, de Virginibus, lib. ii.

73 Chaps. xv. and xvii..

74 Ps. xciii. 5.

75 Ecclus. xxxvii. 19.

76 Phil. i. 18.

77 Matt. xxiii. 3.

78 Matt. xxiii. 2.

79 1 Tim. iv. 12.

80 2 Cor. viii. 21.

81 1 Cor. ii. 17.

82 2 Tim. ii. 14.

83 Tit. i. 9.

84 1 Tim. i. 5 and Rom. xiii. 10.

85 Jer. xxiii. 30.

86 Tit. i. 16.

87 Matt. xxiii. 3.

88 Matt. xii. 34.

89 Esth. iv. 16 (LXX.).

90 Wisd. vii. 16.

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