3 How St. Peter would regard it, see 1 Pet. v. 1-3. I am sorry to find Dr. Schaff, in his useful compilation, History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. p 166, dropping, into the old ruts of fable, after sufficiently proving just before, what I have maintained. He speaks of "the insignificance of the first Popes,"-meaning the early Bishops of Rome, men who minded their own business, but could not have been "insignificant" had they even imagined themselves "Popes."
1 The four of the MSS. of the first book extant prior to the recent discovery of seven out of the remaining nine books of The Refutation, concur in ascribing it to Origen. These inscriptions run thus: 1. "Refutation by Orison of all Heresies;" 2. "Of Origen's Philosophumena... these are the contents;" 3. "Being estimable (Dissertations) by Origen, a man of the greatest wisdom." The recently discovered MS. itself in the margin has the words, "Origen, and Origen's opinion." The title, as agreed upon by modern commentators, is: 1. "Book I. of Origen's Refutation of all Heresies" (Wolf and Gronovius); 2. "A Refutation of all Heresies; " 3. "Origen's Philosophumena, or the Refutation of all Heresies." The last is Stiller's in his Oxford edition, 1851. The title might have been, "Philosophumena, and the Refutation (therefrom) of all Heresies." There were obviously two divisions of the work: (1) A resume of the tenets of the philosophers (books i., ii., iii., iv.), preparatory to (2) the refutation of heresies, on the ground of their derivative character from Greek and Egyptian speculation. Bunsen would denominate the work "St. Hippolytus' (Bishop and Martyr) Refutation of all Heresies; what remains of the ten books."
2 Most of what follows in book i. is a compilation from ancient sources. The ablest resume followed by Cicero in the De Nat. Deor., of the tenets of the ancient philosophers, is to be found in Aristotle's Metaphysics. The English reader is referred to the Metaphysics, book i. pp. 13-46 (Bohn's Classical Library), also to the translator's analysis prefixed to this work, pp, 17-25 See also Diogenes' Lives of the Philosophers, and Tenneman's Manual of Philosophy (translated in Bohn's Library); Plutarch, De Placitis Philosophorum; Lewes' Biographical History of (Ancient) Philolophy; and Rev. Dr. F. D. Maurice's History of (Ancient) Metaphysical and Moral Philosophy. The same subject is discussed in Ritter's History of Philosophy (translated by Morrison).
3 This word is variously given thus: Academian, Academeian, Academaic, Academe, Cademian, and Cadimian. The two last would seem to indicate the character rather than the philosophy of Pyrrho. To favour this view, the text should be altered into kai adhmoj, i.e., apodhmoj = from home, not domestic.
12 This passage is quoted by those who impugn the authorship of Origen on the ground of his never having been a bishop of the Church. It is not, however, quite certain that the words refer to the episcopal office exclusively.
14 It might be, "any opinion that may be subservient to the subject taken in hand." This is Cruice's rendering in his Latin version. A different reading is, "we must not be silent as regards reasons that hold good," or, "as regards rational distinctions," or, "refrain from utterances through the instrument of reasoning." The last is Roeper's.
20 The chief writers on the early heresies are: Irenaeus, of the second century; Hippolytus, his pupil, of the third; Philastrius, Epiphanius, and St. Augustine, of the fourth century. The learncd need scarcely be reminded of the comprehensive digest furnished by Ittigius in the preface to his dissertation on the heresies of the apostolic and post-apostolic ages. A book more within the reach of the general reader is Dr. Burton's Inquiry into the Heresies of the Apostolic Age.
21 [These were: Periander of Corinth, B.C. 585; Pittacus of Mitylene, B.C. 570; Thales of Miletus, B.C. 548: Solon of Athens, B.C.540; Chilo of Sparta, B.C. 597; Bias of Priene; Cleobulus of Lindus, B.C. 564 ]